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  • Prepared for: California Energy Commission Prepared by: Center for Environmental Research and Technology

    E n e r g y R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t D i v i s i o n I N T E R I M / F I N A L P R O J E C T R E P O R T

    EVALUATION & IMPROVEMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM NG POWER PLANTS

    SEPTE MBE R 2015 CE C-500-10-038

  • PREPARED BY: Primary Author(s): Wayne Miller David Cocker Bill Welch Center for Environmental Research and Technology 1084 Columbia Ave Riverside, CA 92501 Phone: 951-781-5791 | Fax: 951-781-5790 http://www.cert.ucr.edu/ Contract Number: 500-10-038 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Guido Franco Contract Manager Rachel Grant Office Manager Energy Commission Research Office Laurie ten Hope Deputy Director ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director

    DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as the result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors and subcontractors make no warranty, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this report.

  • i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We would like to acknowledge Marla Mueller, the initial CEC project manager, and the assistance of UCI, UCR staff and students, particularly Nicholas Gysel, and the advisory board for their assistance in completion of this project.

  • ii

    PREFACE

    The California Energy Commission Energy Research and Development Division supports public interest energy research and development that will help improve the quality of life in California by bringing environmentally safe, affordable, and reliable energy services and products to the marketplace.

    The Energy Research and Development Division conducts public interest research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects to benefit California.

    The Energy Research and Development Division strives to conduct the most promising public interest energy research by partnering with RD&D entities, including individuals, businesses, utilities, and public or private research institutions.

    Energy Research and Development Division funding efforts are focused on the following RD&D program areas:

    • Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency

    • Energy Innovations Small Grants

    • Energy-Related Environmental Research

    • Energy Systems Integration

    • Environmentally Preferred Advanced Generation

    • Industrial/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency

    • Renewable Energy Technologies

    • Transportation

    Evaluaton & Improvement of Particulate Matter from NG Power Plant is the final report for the PIER project (contract number 500-10-038) conducted by Center for Environmental Research and Technology. The information from this project contributes to Energy Research and Development Division’s Energy-Related Environmental Research Program.

    For more information about the Energy Research and Development Division, please visit the Energy Commission’s website at www.energy.ca.gov/research/ or contact the Energy Commission at 916-327-1551.

    http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/

  • iii

    ABSTRACT

    Extensive testing of three natural gas fired turbines using both existing protocol methods and the dilution methods yielded widely varying results. As documented in the report, PM emissions were well below measurable levels that these protocols were developed for. Further, the method of dilution (temperature, dilution ratio, residence time, and relative humidity) had significant (albeit varied test unit to test unit) impacts on measured particulate matter. While PM mass concentrations measured varied by several order of magnitude, in all cases the PM mass concentrations in the effluent after dilution were below the ambient NAAQS PM standard and were often well below that of the surrounding air ambient concentrations.

    Development of an inexpensive electronic monitor or simplified test method requires determination of what the most appropriate dilution conditions to simulate the particle formation near a turbine. This requires additional measurements beyond the scope of this program such as PM mass concentration of the evolving plume near the exit of a turbine. This may be accomplished in future research programs through an ambient field campaign that allows for measurements at the near stack (perhaps weather balloon, drone, or small aircraft).

    Keywords: Particulate Matter Mass and Number, Power plant emissions, Natural Gas Testing and Characterization

    Please use the following citation for this report:

    Miller, Wayne; Cocker, David; Welch, Bill. (California Energy Commission). 2015. Evaluation & Improvement of Particulate Matter from NG Power Plant. California Energy Commission. Publication number: CEC-500-10-038.

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................... i

    PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................... ii

    ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................................. iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................... iv

    LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................ viii

    LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................................... ix

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 1

    Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 1

    Project Purpose ................................................................................................................................... 1

    Project Results ..................................................................................................................................... 2

    Project Benefits ................................................................................................................................... 4

    CHAPTER 1: Literature Review and Data Summary ........................................................................ 5

    1.1 Data Summary ............................................................................................................................ 5

    1.2 Literature Review of PM from Stationary Gas Turbines ...................................................... 5

    1.1.1 Particle Formation .............................................................................................................. 9

    1.1.2 Test Methods/Instrumentation and Literature Results............................................... 12

    1.1.3 Stationary Source Dilution PM Measurements ............................................................ 19

    1.1.4 PM Sensitivity to Dilution Parameters .......................................................................... 23

    1.1.5 CEC Site Comparison Study on PM ..................................................................................... 25

    1.1.6 Comparison Study on Dilution and Traditional Stationary Source Measurements ...... 27

    1.1.7 PM Variability from Inventoried Sites ................................................................................. 27

    1.1.9 Site to Site Sources of PM Variability ................................................................................... 28

    1.1.10 Emission Factor Development from another CEC Project- Glenn England ................. 30

    CHAPTER 2: Development of Test Plans & Quality Assurance Project Plans ........................... 36

    2.1 Pilot Test .......................................................................................................................................... 36

    2.2 Design of PM Dilution Sampling System ................................................................................... 39

  • v

    2.3 Test Plan Unit 1: Testing of Critical Dilution Parameters Using Capstone Micro-turbine 41

    2.4 Test Plan for Unit 2: Testing of Solar Titan™ 130 Turbine with SCR ............................... 42

    2.4.1 General description for a Solar turbine operation .............................................................. 42

    2.1.2 General description for Solar Titan 130 Mechanical Drive Package ................................ 43

    2.1.3 Test Plan for Unit 2 ...............

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