Ethnic Cleansing, Genocide, and the Long Term Effects of Ethnic Violence.

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  • Slide 1
  • Ethnic Cleansing, Genocide, and the Long Term Effects of Ethnic Violence
  • Slide 2
  • What is Ethnic Cleansing? What is Genocide?
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  • Definitions
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  • Definitions Continued The term ethnic cleansing has been called irresponsible by some. To cleanse something means to make it clean or pure. Ethnic Cleansing hides the reference of the removal, violence against, and often murder of people based on ethnicity, political affiliation, or religion.
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  • History There have been many acts of genocide throughout history: The Spanish Inquisition. The mass killing and forced relocation of American Natives by European Settlers. Nazi genocide of the Jews. Rwandan genocide of Tutsi by Hutu majority Bosnian-Serb genocide of Bosnian Muslim and Croatian civilians. Countless other mass killings of ethnic, political, or religious groups across the world.
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  • Reasons for Ethnic Conflict Removal of politically unreliable groups. Philosophy of ethnic or racial superiority. Removal of certain religious groups. Since 1960, of ethnic conflicts have a religious component (Stefan, 2010).
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  • Atrocities of Genocide
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  • Genocide involves murder, serious physical and mental harm, imposing measures against a group that prevent birth, and forcibly transferring children of a group to another group. Historical acts of genocide or ethnic cleansing have involved rape, poisoning, burning, crucifying, forced sterilization, and removal of children from parents.
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  • Effects of Genocide on Victim and Perpetrator
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  • Psychological Effects on Victims of Genocide Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is the most common effect that genocide has on victims Also common are a chronic sense of anxiety, depression, guilt, cognitive disturbances, and personality problems. Some researchers have noted a positive phenomena amongst survivors, including resilience, meaning-making, coping, and post-traumatic growth, which includes altruism (Bilewicz and Vollhardt, 2013). Some variation in symptoms was shown to happen to people with different country of origin, physical health, sex, and age.
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  • Psychological Effects of Perpetrators of Genocide Descendents of genocide perpetrators have exonerated their ancestors misdeeds by blaming the time period and victim group as unstable (Bilewicz and Vollhardt, 2013). Not all perpetrator groups have exonerated their ancestors. Children and Grandchildren of Nazi Perpetrators have engaged in dialogue with the descendents of Holocaust victim descendents. Emotions such as collective guilt, shame, remorse, or regret were found in several studies in response to reminders of crimes committed by descendents of perpetrators (Bilewicz and Vollhardt, 2013).
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  • Community Recovery From the Effects Genocide
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  • Community, or Collective Recovery Genocide is a group process, making community recovery an essential component to healing. Collective Recovery is different from clinical treatment with groups of people. Collective Recovery promotes resilience and reengagement with community (Pearlmen, 2013). While effective at reaching large numbers of people, Collective Recovery models might now be sufficient for all who are affected by genocide. For these people, individualized interventions and therapy are appropriate.
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  • References Anne Pearlman, L. (2013). Restoring Self in Community: Collective Approaches to Psychological Traum after Genocide. Journal Of Social Issues, 69(1), 111-124. doi:10.1111/josi.12006 Barel, E., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Sagi-Schwartz, A., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2010). Surviving the Holocaust: A meta-analysis of the long-term sequelae of a genocide. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 677-698. doi:10.1037/a0020339 Cordell, Karl; Wolff, Stefan (2010). Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict. Retrieved from http:// Hayden, R. (2007). 'Ethnic cleansing' and 'genocide'. European Journal Of Public Health, 17(6), 546-547. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckm080 No place like home; Ethnic cleansing in Myanmar. (2012, November 3). The Economist, 405(8809), 14(US). Retrieved from %7CA307037903&v=2.1&u=wwu_wilson&it=r&p=CPI&sw=w&asid=fa207527393309c1ab94e18bf206f4ac Pegorier, Clotilde (2013). Ethnic Cleansing : A Legal Qualification. Retrieved from Peltonen, Hannes (2013). International Responsibility and Grave Humanitarian Crises : Collective Provision for Human Security. Retrieved from Vollhardt, J., & Bilewicz, M. (2013). After the Genocide: Psychological Perspectives on Victim, Bystander, and Perpetrator Groups. Journal Of Social Issues, 69(1), 1-15. doi:10.1111/josi.12000


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