eternal victory - triumphal rulership in late antiquity, byzantium and the early medieval west

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Eternalvictory Triumphalrulershipinlateantiquity , Byz antium,andtheearlymedievalWest MICHAEL McCORMI CK , ~ - ~. .... _, ... "'--.,.,. .... .. .. _,,-, -_. -""'. "" ...................... ... -. ~ -,-CII MDR I DGEUNIV ERSI T YPRESS c.... ,.qt N.", Y. ,kPo"Ch, jI"Mrlbu,",Sydnry EDITI O NSDELAMAISONDESSCIENCESDE L ' H OMME PuhUwd hy,be1'1""Syndla. ofd",of C. mhridg" Th Pi"Buildi ng,Trumping''''''Sit..", C.mhridgeel'," . 0 W"" >OIhS'r", N"w York,NY,'''',,, USA 10St.lmfordRwd, O.1t.Icigh,Mdbourn1'61!0 S h.rdb.ck InN 0 J1I)36j9 .P'P",b.iclt "ON 1 7) S'003.7 h.rdb, clt (Fn. only) " " N' 7J jr O)H I P'pC HO:VICTORYCELEBRATIONSINTHE PROV I N(o." .nd ,helibr, r yAhbJ),,"d"Mon, e';,,,r.Ih,'S",-i'I',k,1l"1I,,,d;, fes.ndIhe Bibliot!OC-Cr>mcnu,y is now edited in'ANin,h-CcnturyWimc"totheC,wlingi,nMusP' g. n,(PHis.B.N.bt .l8'2)".97('987),68-" AASS An ACO ANRIV BHG BHL as BF CCI. CFHB ClL Abbre[liatioJls Aera5.",10",,,,.Antwerp.[64)- lrd edn.I',r;"R o m ~ .Dr",.d"[861-. AnalulaBol/."didll" ,Dr"'.... ls.[882-. Aero(M(iliM"'"(It'IIIn.,,;ror,,,,,.ed.E. Sehw,r1z.Derlin.[914-74. Auftritg,,,,dNitJrrgOl'gJ" ,;;mj,(hrn Jl'dl.G"rhidrrr,,,,dK"I",.Rom,;m 5pirxddr."",,,tnF"",nu"g,ed.H. Temporini.ndW.)10.",.Derlin,'.81. Ur",,,,1$.[ken ovcrdirectlybythe kingdom...iiI",d. in....,.0. ..1 Euru",,' ,T . ......I ...'of ''''R .,.ll/i",,,(01 5....'1 . .....J."(I97. ).l17- n,. hu"'OJ . ,A,..HI"......' .. 140; '. '. " .'. l R_K' yolo.lI.CFH8, 'Ilkrl",.t!l'l7)_ d . . . Coc."",h'R A..,m.....,. Con","" /. b\., 1"";';""Pori ..,_" ) . ) ......JndJk>-\!. I. A .c.m.......(London.'V76), l '.owI1' ,C"P' t. R-r- '. 160. .'9' S).pp' '''- ' . ........ du..... , ..... ,.... wi,h ,t.. SI. v;e.,.;be. .,r,t.. 8yun..... W ..... 1""""" >ttOmluUl>lamling victorycmton".Imperfectthoughitmo.tbe,thi,will providc'thebackgroundindi lp"llIabktol1l1dnstandinglate imperial;lI1dBynnt;ncvictorycekbrJtiom . Ini" ' cI'I,; C,,1'It"publ icanform.[hepr e'r ig;ous'"",('fnunyuf J r"gi , t.' tn... de I,vi< ufthelaterRoman"mpnor'scelebrationuf milit."ythctriumphal ,Itld victory Attime,of grc.t(lrsucce,".th"Republic"" Sm,lt("ftmvotedoff,cial dJ y' "f mppliution (s"ppliralionesj dl1ringwhichth" temple,wereopenedsacrificespcrform,d. Supplild/jonesof (h:mksgivillgcamcwhc;j1S(>ciated with the announcement of victmy.'o Like the triumph ceremony withwhichtheyare", closel ylinked., uppliC"ationdaysundl'r-welltcleardevelopmentinthela,cR"puhlic,ndpri,,,ip,te.' , Althoughtheirrdigiol1'contentneverdi"pp"ared,itha,been suggestedth,!'hefocu,of tbe'c!>Ctvice,ch,nged.Frombeing propiti . toryorI, erif,,,,;fucusingOnthegook,i. 147-1w;,hn.I.En"lm.p.IJ6.F.lIop';""TllcodN.ch,kh"n"he,clio do""c",,"S"mm'. BS.J6(Wlj).1-' .h,,9. '9'-' "elL.'0, 61,.,.. "ILS."1; Fiebig", _Schmid,. nu. '9). ";ttiotWimo,adq ...imlytlnruTheoxlU.P. I'!Klh."'.'1- )"tu),_ tion"'lISeept.,cum.d hoc"t. nitllU!domininomiinuiai.'1).,8-'0, 00 ,he ","",w,1 "f"'" ' ,i< fOy. ) fo)lowing in(h'mi",h" "",k,y.En,,!;n.n....o,,-k/o.pp.' 7)-j ;Wutf"""Go ....pp. J6,"";, T.S. ilurn, . n"K'"I" ip"',j .... k'y. Hi"o,". Ein.d",b,;(""'1 "'"'" >erdand of the old Roman empire. itWOlSimpossihle fortheLombards to c!-Cape the spell cau byadecayingbutsuperiormaterialcivilizJtion.If social(u,;on '" On ,I>< < ... rn, ",,,dition .. ,h.". of ,h--',nd .,- ). '"Cf.Sch"e!d60;H.F,ohl;';h.SmrliO) . PI' . ,,,,If, of.G. h ",l;. / ;./,,1;, (Jl.oj''Sn' ''yIi )) , PI', I]9jf. I'.ul 0.",,",.Hi". Lo..t..j ,.o,Ik,nm.",. _ W,;tz. MI' .,(>O.n - o, 'Cumquc "1"" tLu.''''1'"'''; 1"""1';""'. "'.1l'rhapsthem< .hort ,..,,,,,,i"n ..I th, M>S '"""min,,,J by iL I'.,.ddgud, "udy ,,(,h, M, ,,,diti,,,,kd to ,I.. "'''"''''m "ftheMS'rommun" . . . g,"' i [0' Momm"," ', '_ V"lgale formof Ex6I">I.iddown theireontribmi onltc one M. >sa ,by fur Ihe "ing. "lewry. solong the "!Ilg WaSatWar. Tla'Y wcr,'to ,'Ill,,'a, Gud lhat'!Ofet),begral1ll"dto.1I byth,'Lord.nd th. tvictory1>bestowedonhimjthe kinglby .Im;ght y God' ..' .The V is'golhk VOII vcM.s.for IIll'king give. ,n ide.ufwhatthl'1'.01''"'of.uchSl"fvi"..soundedlike.Th,' Cllcharistiep"ycrbetionlof673comesftom\.ervicemarkingtheking', triumphantteturnfromwar.preservedinwhatmightbecalled theVisigothicliturgy's'pontific-OIl',theLiber The victorycelebrations of 673wereno more li kel y. uniqueoCCur-rence than the other major ceremonywhich Julian alone describes: the king', inveniturc and unction. Thi, suggests thaI other sources' allusionstoroyal'triumphs'Orthevictoriousreturnsof kingsto the capitalmOlYinfactconcern similarSuchallusions occuraseorlyasLeovigild'ssuccessfulattackontheByzantine posscssionsof BOll.andM.lagain570andhi, son', repulscof a Franki,hinv ..ionye . ...later, OJAnother ceremonycould havecelebratedthcconcl"sionof thecivilWartriggeredbythe conversiontoCatholicismandusurpationof Lcovigild'sother ...Juli,n In,."Ihi, poinl "Ihomisu,hi e gold COlnl I,rnp.g.ndiz.'dsJ>l'ci fi ,.usin excrci:\('of poW ...' " " tories Ihe'-1"I>,.UX '" "'''fl'''' '''''' " ..il'i '.' " I.r,,,,,","'''XO'i"y .. (p. rnplon,.,.,01, pr.0i j - ll l ' d . ' ''''''K'' '''''' m M. McCormielJin'nd;con'"prin""",,n"""" """'''''IU ..ey, ' Ulnt di.,ru P""""",, iq,mm.,u. '"' 'OsseS!internalpeace(swampactm),voidthefordgnquarrel (alitnamlitem).. nd.before.. rrivingatthecrowninggl oryof .tcmallife, he can be celebrated both asa rector among his citizens andavictor amonghi. cncmi... I2O Theacutenessofhigh_leveldiidcnccWa'reflectedwith exceptionalcandor by theliturgy', puyers. Thus the votive Mal! fortheking' ... weentreatyou.gr..... tF"her,thatyoueVerguu dwithyour invincible aidOurgl oriou.PrinceKingN.whomyouhaveC1U1",-1'; 1>1._'; I .j. I ---.,""'..). ,,6 RhelO';(oj vi(lory themostoutsundingexample.TheearlyGothsh3d Romanpatronlge and theiruwnrulerlx'Causetheyhad overthe conversionh.dper_ mittedhimtotheentirej!nlJthroughthetrophyof faith.'"Thesuccessof theking3ndthenewf.iththt Frmb isintocollectivevictoryof theGoths,''" EvenaGothicdefeatismadeintopruof of theentirepeople's Thebe,t ofthe cornel fromthe highlycompressedr;;sumt of theHi,tory foundinI,idore'sAcomp3riwnofthelong versio,,", of VisigothicvictoryoverRomewithitscon-denurionintheRecapitulationshowsasurprisingrMult:the i, long theorigill;11.ThebtterSicqueurb!CUnct.rumgentiumuictrixGothici.trillmph;'uicto .ubcubuitei"lucsubiug,taqlle",,"i "it . I ,7 Whiletheabbrevi.tiungoe" Quibu.(\C,Gothi.]t.ntoextititm.gllitudobellorum. tgloriocuinori.cuirtu.utRom.;P"uictrixomnillmpopulorum ".ptiuitat;,iugoGmhici.tr;mnphi'cuncUrumilJj,utI>I Tothedeeplyrooted, ,,dwidelydiffused ofthe empire'seternalvictor y.theyoungGothickingdom a new differentideologicalnspome.Itderivedfrom andmirroredtheoldideology,butitW:lSinfusedwi,hnew The new content circum!unce! of anculy whichhadrisenfromthe double ,pring uf:l lateRomanprovincialelite.ndGnm:lnicupperda ..deeply shapedbyitsexperienceof imperi alcivi liz3tion. '" Hi",." .l1.uJ';g"'"Alon w1'1''->- 10.'"I'ii..j>,2"' .1 _ 1 L '"Ilid. , J' . Rod';gU7:UOt,'i".. i .. f,",O(,,,,,",00.I ,11 ,K,n",h,MCH,SRM.> (, !!I). ) on, ,6:V.n""i", "'",un"u., COl,.,.". 6. J. > ,6, 06.'1-'07+ On 'p;orop.l'ppropr;",011ofnon-epio;r.;"iooy.Ub"vi",pot,"",.) .>.eO.W.A",d,>I,dD.K''''''h. MCIi.SRM.'".Ven.m;",r".w., >lillq""Or.",ili "w"h,I>1J""",, " ORiooult"' in 6jo--"K,U1nks, poWl'r found symbolic c' "pro,ion inIh, king',2nd [he ofkintlS,theMuchfidd.' Cl'r,'monialinformedtflc,"Vent,in of thelugns ,ig".led to Ihe popol2cethebirth of h, ;r.2ndhi.oapt"mW2S' 50lcmn Specif,c r;UI.lsweredevi sed(or,henewking'sclcv2tionwhiledyn25fic lnutiagc. were cc1'"b. "q...".n,1,k,,,"",,' r;"'g",y,?'? L,,,,,,,, , lf l.'?-)'. ._,' - 5.)7' )-In '' .'I,, .. )0. ." . , - ' JCf l :..,..,,,,, uf A,..,. s,,_ ;/.J. 10.1",,", toO, ""I ,. J.""If,",hm. h'w"' ,,( '".""'M "t" held by ".'" I