Establishing a Mobile Resources Collection Development Policy

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This article was downloaded by: [The Aga Khan University]On: 22 November 2014, At: 03:20Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UKJournal of Electronic Resources inMedical LibrariesPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information: a Mobile ResourcesCollection Development PolicyAntonio P. DeRosa a & Sarah T. Jewell aa Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library , New York , NewYork , USAPublished online: 09 Sep 2014.To cite this article: Antonio P. DeRosa & Sarah T. Jewell (2014) Establishing a Mobile ResourcesCollection Development Policy, Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 11:3, 144-154,DOI: 10.1080/15424065.2014.939000To link to this article: SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. 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Terms &Conditions of access and use can be found at COMPUTING AND THE LIBRARYNancy R. Glassman, Column EditorEstablishing a Mobile Resources CollectionDevelopment PolicyANTONIO P. DEROSA and SARAH T. JEWELLMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library, New York, New York, USAThis column outlines some steps and decisions involved in the processof establishing amobile resources collection development policy. Initialdecisions should be made about what platforms will be supportedand how the workflow will be organized. There are many criteria toconsider when evaluating apps, including subject relevance, qualityof content, reputation of the producer=publisher, cost, access, legalissues, and copyright and fair use issues. We describe many resourcesfor gathering apps for potential collection and address solutionsfor promoting and disseminating the mobile resources. Finally, weaddress the evaluation of the program and future areas for research.KEYWORDS Android, Blackberry, collection development, iPad,iPhone, mobile apps, mobile resourcesINTRODUCTIONImplementing a mobile collection development policy in the library takesmore than simply creating a list of apps and resources for clients to reference.As with the physical and electronic collection, there needs to be a process for# Antonio P. DeRosa and Sarah T. JewellComments and suggestions should be sent to the Column Editor: Nancy R. Glassman( correspondence to Antonio P. DeRosa, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterLibrary, 430 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10065. E-mail: DeRosaA1@mskcc.orgColor versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 11(3):144154, 2014Published with license by Taylor & FrancisISSN: 1542-4065 print=1542-4073 onlineDOI: 10.1080/15424065.2014.939000144Downloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014acquiring resources to suggest to users. Careful decision-making criteria mustbe established, and promotional and dissemination efforts must be applied.With the emergence of mobile resources come inevitable access issues tonavigate. It is essential for librarians and information professionals to beaware of the many different operating systems and mobile devices on themarket in order to offer truly valuable recommendations on mobile resourcesto their clients. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library hasinitiated a formal and successful process for collecting and sharing mobileapps and resources with its users.Initial DecisionsInitially, there are some key decisions to make regarding the establishmentof a mobile collection development policy. First, what platforms will beFIGURE 1 Screenshot of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Library Mobile Resources LibGuide( # [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library].Reproduced by permission of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library. Permissionto reuse must be obtained from the rightsholder.Mobile Computing and the Library 145Downloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014supported? Librarians can gather information about which platforms theirpatrons are using in several ways, such as conducting a survey or workingwith the information technology (IT) department to ascertain how manyand which devices have been purchased at an institution. Since many peoplemay use their personal devices for work purposes, a survey sometimes cangather more accurate information than just the institutions purchasing his-tory alone. At Memorial Sloan Kettering, we ultimately decided to limit ourfocus to the Android, Blackberry, and iOS platforms. We have, however,been reconsidering continuing to support the Blackberry platform, as timegoes on and its market share drops. Not only is the market share down to3.4% of the smartphone market, but when T-mobile recently offered atrade-in rebate for people to turn in their Blackberry phones for an upgrade,94% of buyers switched to a different platform.1 An emerging platform toconsider is the Windows Phone, which is now running neck-and-neck withBlackberry when it comes to market share.2Next, workflow is an important factor to consider. How will members ofthe mobile team propose apps for potential collection and who will make thefinal decision about whether an app will be featured or not? At MemorialSloan Kettering, the mobile team consists of four members of the Referencestaff, including the Head of User Services, although in other libraries it maymake sense to include a Content Management librarian as well. We proposeapps generally via email, investigate and test the apps out on our own, anddiscuss the pros and cons via email. The Head of User Services ultimatelymakes the decision about whether or not an app will be featured on ourLibGuide , the tool we chose toaggregate our list of suggested mobile apps and resources (see Figure 1).CRITERIAMany sets of principles have been established throughout the history oflibrary science for acquiring and adding new items to a collection. The selec-tion criteria for mobile apps and resources are surprisingly similar in natureto those of physical collections. The mobile app=resource criteria providedhere have been adapted from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centercollection development policy.Subject RelevanceThe needs of users should be first and foremost of utmost importance whendeciding whether or not to include a mobile resource in a collection. If theapp or mobile website in question would not be pertinent to the communityspractice or research, then there would be no point in adding it as arecommended resource. Librarians should also have an understanding of146 Mobile Computing and the LibraryDownloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014the community which they serve: their needs, requests, research, andscholarly universe.3 Having a firm grasp on what users need and expect willhelp to shape the collection and mobile resources recommended for down-load, giving more value to both the librarian and the library as mobile experts.We use our embedded librarians via the Clinical Medical Librarianprogram to assess our users unique information needs in order to makeinformed decisions on mobile app=resource recommendations. Otherresources to include are found on selected collection building resources,such as iMedicalApps, MobiHealthNews, and Happtique, or through wordof mouth from clients and other colleagues. Possible additions are discussedwith the Mobile Team via email or in person at bi-monthly ContentDevelopment meetings before a final decision is made.Quality of ContentAside from the relevance to the user community, mobile apps and resourcesmust also be of sound quality to be included in a librarys collection orsuggested resource list. A 2012 survey study on the development of acollection development policy found the following criteria to be most impor-tant in regard to book selection: 1) authors reputation in the subject field;2) demand for the material; 3) students interest; 4) reputation for the pub-lisher; 5) high standards of quality in content, format, and=or literary merit;and 6) possibility of use for one or more courses.4 Not all of these criteriadirectly translate to mobile resources, but the theories behind them do,especially the high standards of quality in content, format and merit. Thisis a stipulation that should be expected of any quality resource a library islooking to include in their collection, mobile or otherwise.Mobile apps are compared to physical and other electronic counterpartswhenever possible. For example, a mobile app for a scholarly journal wouldbe compared with both the content found in the physical journal and theelectronic journal on the web. Features like full text and the librarys linkresolver must be functional and seamless in order to be considered perma-nent and of good quality to be added to our list of mobile resources. Again,these resources are tested across devices (where applicable) and brought tothe Mobile Team for consideration.Reputation of Producer=PublisherThe publisher of a book or journal article is usually a good indicator of thequality of information provided. This is why a publishers reputation weighsheavily in a collection development policy. With mobile resources, thisprinciple is not as cut and dry. Many mobile apps do not have publishers,but producers or developers who created the app. In this regard, it some-times takes a little more digging to find, research, and vet the developer.Mobile Computing and the Library 147Downloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014App stores, such as iTunes and Google Play can be mosthelpful in uncovering the true developers or producers of a mobile app orresource. Once an app is found in one of these stores, helpful links to thedevelopers website are provided. This is a useful way of uncovering an appsgovernance.CostWith dwindling library budgets, acquisitions managers and librarians need tocome up with creative ways to keep their collections interesting and currentfor their users, while keeping the overall cost of titles and resources in mind.Many mobile apps and resources are offered for no or minimal fees to users=institutions. Many journal subscriptions and licenses are even beginning tocome with mobile components as part of their packages. More and morepublishers are starting to include mobile counterparts in their bundlesoffered to libraries. These publisher bundles are a cost-effective way forlibraries to offer quality and abundant content to their users.5We take the approach of offering both fee and no-fee mobile apps andresources to our user community. These resources are categorized into thesetwo buckets on our Mobile Resources LibGuide to make it easy for our clients to peruse each list. Cost isdefinitely a factor that is taken into account when considering a mobileresource to add to our list. We evaluate the resource against our other collec-tion development criteria and use professional judgment to determine if it isworth the price listed. Conversely, just because an app does not have a fee,does not necessarily mean it meets our cost criteria. Some of these no feeresources do not meet our quality and relevance principles.AccessFunctionality and usability are other key components to effective mobilecollection development. Users must be able to successfully and seamlesslyaccess the resources provided by the library. Mobile apps and resources mustbe intuitive and employ user-friendly interfaces that clients can easily use.Aside from ease-of-use, collection development librarians must also keepin mind the advantages of offering content on one platform over another.If a journal app only indexes content dating back to a given year, but theelectronic resource on the web goes back to an earlier time, it may makesense to feature the electronic journal over the mobile app.Testing mobile apps before promoting them is an effective way to vetaccessibility and functionality. We have come to learn that reading aboutan app or mobile resource on the web is helpful, but using it on a mobiledevice provides real-world insights. It gives us the ability to (a) evaluate148 Mobile Computing and the LibraryDownloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014how well it works, (b) anticipate user concerns, and (c) and make a moreinformed decision on inclusion in our collection. Hands-on use of theresource itself also allows for more robust discussion with the Mobile Teamand ultimately, our clients if a question were to arise.Legal IssuesLicensing materials is the way in which libraries have defined the waymaterials are allowed to be used by staff and clients. Through these nego-tiated contracts and site licenses, libraries are covered in regard to legalissues.3 What about a mobile app developed by an individual at a researchinstitution in Switzerland or a mobile-responsive version of a governmentwebsite? These resources do not need site licenses or contracts to access.Instead, they might provide something similar to Terms and Conditions orTerms of Service. Accepting a mobile resources terms could mean acceptingsome illegal activity. It is important to read the terms provided by mobileresource developers very carefully to ensure that the resource is incompliance with your institutions content and legal policies.The authority of a mobile resource developer or producer is a goodplace to begin when looking into the legal issues surrounding the dissemi-nation of content found in an app. The terms of service are usually detailedfor most mobile resources, especially those found on the app stores, andshould be easily accessed within the app itself or on the developers website.Access to terms of service should be quick and easy; this is something welook for when making a decision about a mobile resource.Copyright and Fair Use IssuesSimilar to legal issues on the content provided in a mobile app or resource,copyright and fair use implications should also be considered. Many appsand resources are developed by individuals who are the sole copyrightowners of the content disseminated, regardless of pay or no-fee access tothe resource. Other mobile apps and resources contain information fromnonprofit and federal websites. The content available on mobile devices runsthe gamut from restricted access to freely open sharing. Although librariansmust consider both copyright and fair use when acquiring mobile resourcesand apps, it is ultimately up to the user to follow the rules under copyrightlaw and fair use. There are certain limitations on the librarys liability whenit comes to copyright infringements as long as the library clearly informspatrons of the law and how to properly reproduce=use materials and content.6The Mobile Team takes all copyright and fair use issues into consider-ation when deciding whether to include a mobile app or resource.Ultimately, though, the onus falls on the user of the mobile resource to deter-mine if she=he is infringing copyright or fair use law. We make ourselvesMobile Computing and the Library 149Downloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014accessible to clients if they have any copyright-specific questions in an effortto avoid any potential issues.COLLECTION BUILDING RESOURCESThere are a variety of resources out there for helping librarians to curatecollections of mobile apps. iMedicalApps ,despite having i in the name, provides reviews of medical apps from severalplatforms, including iOS, Android, and BlackBerry. One can browse thereviews by platform, medical specialty, or category, such as clinical reference,medical language translation, drug reference, and organization tools. iMedica-lApps frequently posts Top 10 or Top 20 lists of apps that are free or appsthat have been introduced in the last month. There are also video posts dem-onstrating some of the reviewed apps in action.MobiHealthNews tracks the latest infor-mation in the digital health community, disseminating articles on self-trackingin health care, potential regulation of mobile apps, wearable technologies,and more. It lists events and conferences related to the mobile health carefield, as well as publishing market research reports.Fierce Mobile Healthcare also provides news on the latest health information technologies, includinginformation on hardware and devices, quality and outcomes, regulatory andrisk management, and software and applications. It also lists events, jobpostings, and eBooks and white papers on the industry.Happtique , once free, is now asubscription-based service that curates medical, health and fitness apps tomake it easier for physicians to prescribe them to their patients. Happtiqueis notable for trying to implement a mobile app certification program,however, their program generated some controversy this past winter. Afew apps they had certified as secure were revealed to have security flawsby the CEO of Monkton Health. Happtique is reworking its certification pro-gram in response to this, and it remains to be seen whether they will emergeas a major player in this field.7Google Play has a section for Medical apps , which easily delineates between paid andfree apps. It also provides starred reviews of apps submitted by app users,which can be informative when making app selection decisions. Profilesoften provide pictures of the apps in action and sometimes video. It is alsoimportant to note when the app was last updated to make sure one is select-ing the most up-to-date apps. One feature to note is that Android apps are abit more transparent than iOS when it comes to accessing other componentsof the device, such as the camera, or GPS, or other component that mightpose a security or privacy risk. Android apps usually provide a pop-up list150 Mobile Computing and the LibraryDownloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014of the different components the app will access. This list must be approvedbefore downloading the resource. Paying attention to what components anapp accesses is essential when evaluating apps that could contain protectedhealth information (PHI).The iTunes Store also has a Medical section , which provides information on whenthe app was last updated, what version of the app is available for download,the size of the app, compatibility of the app with operating systems, and theseller of the app. iTunes also includes starred ratings, and offers images of theapp in question. In iTunes, it is a bit more difficult to discern what compo-nents the app is accessing, but there are usually details provided.BlackBerry World offers medical apps through the category of MedicalGuides . You can sort the results by date, popularity, name orvendor. It is easy to distinguish between paid and free apps, and informationon the date updated, version available, size of the app, and compatibility ofthe app is available. Finally, this interface also provides youwith starred reviews.The Windows Phone app store does not includea strictly medical category, but it does include a category labeled healthand fitness, which contains subcategories of health, fitness, and diet andnutrition. The Windows Phone app store outlines the usual ratings, version,vendor, and app size. There is a clear section on the app informational pageslabelled App Requires, which lists whether the app will access locationservices, phone identity, owner identity, data services, and so forth.As of May 6, 2014, Amazon Appstores Health & Fitness apps section, lists only1,718 Medical apps listed for Kindle devices. The selection of apps for Kindledevicess is much more limited than for Android or Apple devices, but thereare still quite a few medical apps available. However, if one decides toinclude Kindle devices in a mobile collection development policy, the focuswould most likely be on selecting medical eBooks over apps.PROMOTING AND DISSEMINATING MOBILEAPPS AND RESOURCESDeveloping a list of suggested and recommended mobile resources for clientsis useful in itself, but without getting the word out and effective marketing thetools, the list may as well not exist. Like any other functional area of a libraryor information center, the content needs to be promoted and clients must bemade aware of what is available to them.An online press release from PRWeb presents data from BoopsieAnalytics that shows the impact of a librarys promotional impact on appMobile Computing and the Library 151Downloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014usage: The library that actively promoted their app with a banner on theirhome page . . . received an average of 12,234 new app users per month.The library that relied solely on in-library promotions such as bookmarks,flyers, and table top displays received only an average of 2,782 new appusers a month.8 This data are for library apps specifically, but the ideabehind the differences in marketing and the outcomes can be translated toany mobile app or resource. Libraries are in a unique position to promotethese mobile resources to their clients in a number of dynamic avenues.A librarys website is key real estate for any promotional content, especiallynew and interesting content such as mobile resources. LibGuides, for example,have proven to be exceptional portals for maintaining and disseminating lists ofsuggestedmobile apps and resources to library clients. LibGuides act as neat andcustomizable portals for nonprogrammers to populate and maintain.9 Thesystem has an intuitive and simple interface that library users tend to gravitatetowards relatively easily. LibGuides are also accessible on mobile devices,making it an obvious choice for aggregating mobile resources for users. Thisway clients can access the list of mobile apps and resources from their handhelddevice and download anything compatible with their device directly.Social media, such as blogs, Twitter, and Facebook, provide anotherforum where mobile content can be publicized to users. Aside from thevirtual realm, library instruction and orientation sessions are surely usefulteaching points when it comes to recommended mobile content. Also,campus- or organization-wide events could be a good platform for promot-ing what the library has come up with regarding trusted mobile resources.Handouts and other giveaways could be distributed at these events. Walk-inclinics or other library-specific events can be planned to promote the librarysvetted list of mobile apps and resources as well. There are many ways thatlibrarians can prove themselves as forerunners in the growing field of mobilehealth technologies, encouraging clients to feel more inclined to contact thelibrary with any mobile-related questions or inquiries.EVALUATION AND CONCLUSIONSAfter a mobile collection development plan has been implemented, it is wiseto evaluate the effectiveness of the initiative. Practically, it is not feasible tocollect statistics about mobile downloads; however, LibGuides users cancreate content boxes with a list of links. The LibGuides web tool collectsstatistics on the number of clicks on those links. Google Analytics can poten-tially report the number of hits to particular links on a librarys website.Librarians may also check in with vendors to see if they support methodsfor determining how many mobile downloads have occurred from users ata specific institution. Additionally, it is useful to survey patrons about themobile initiative. Some areas of interest include: which mobile devices are152 Mobile Computing and the LibraryDownloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014owned and used by patrons, awareness of the existence of a library guide tomobile resources, apps that are frequently used, apps that were discoveredvia the librarys mobile guide, and any frustrations with accessing mobileapps. Not only will the survey gather data related to the initiative, but it willalso function as additional marketing, educating survey takers about thelibrarys mobile collection.In conclusion, establishing a mobile collection development policy isessential in todays increasingly digital world. While the mobile policy canbe similar to the policies for physical items, there are several key differences,particularly with vendor reputation and access issues. There are a variety ofresources available for assisting with collection development of mobile apps.When it comes to marketing mobile resources, LibGuides is a unique plat-form that has shown promise. Finally, although statistical tools for evaluatingmobile apps are still fledgling, evaluation is an important part of this process.Medical clinicians and researchers are on the cusp of a new resource frontier,and we as librarians and information professionals are uniquely qualified toguide them as they take their first steps in this new world.REFERENCES1. Rizzo, Joe. During T-Mobiles Trade-in Promo, 94 Percent of BlackBerry UsersSwitched to Another Platform. Mobility Techzone. March 6, 2014. Available:. Accessed:June 1, 2014.2. Wilhelm, Alex. Windows Phone Surpasses BlackBerry In The US Despite FlatMarket Share. Tech Crunch. March 7, 2014. Available: . Accessed: June 1, 2014.3. Metz, Paul. Principles of Selection for Electronic Resources. Library Trends 48,no. 4 (2000): 711.4. Cabonero, David A., and Mayrena, Liezl B. The Development of a CollectionDevelopment Policy. Library Philosophy and Practice (2012).5. Bullis, Daryl R., and Smith, Lorre. Looking Back, Moving Forward in the DigitalAge: A Review of the Collection Management and Development Literature,20048. Library Resources & Technical Services 55, no. 4 (2011): 205.6. Burnham, S.J. Copyright in Library-Held Materials: A Decision Tree forLibrarians. Law Library Journal 96, no. 3 (2004): 425428.7. Dolan, Brian. Happtique Suspends Mobile Health App Certification Program.Mobi Health News. December 13, 2013. Available: . Accessed:June 1, 2014.8. Website Promotion by Libraries Increases Mobile App Usage 4.5x. PR Web.December 23, 2013. Available: . Accessed: June 1, 2014.Mobile Computing and the Library 153Downloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 20149. Neves, Karen, and Dooley, Sarah Jane. Using Libguides to Offer Library Serviceto Undergraduate Medical Students Based on the Case-Oriented Problem SolvingCurriculum Model. Journal of Medical Library Association 99, no. 1 (2011):9497.ABOUT THE AUTHORSAntonio P. DeRosa, MLIS ( is Reference Librarian,Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library, 430 East 67th Street, NewYork, NY 10065. Sarah T. Jewell, MLS ( is ReferenceLibrarian, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Library, 430 East 67thStreet, New York, NY 10065.154 Mobile Computing and the LibraryDownloaded by [The Aga Khan University] at 03:20 22 November 2014


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