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HANDS-ONWRITINGStudent s Handbook
By: Ma. Teresa/Dindin Bansolay
Pines English Academy Volga Street, Riverside Subd., Anunas, Angeles City
PREFACEFor many ESL students the beginning of learning how to write well is to unlearn much of what they've been taught. Most students arrive at language academies with a grab-bag of rules that they try their best to hold on to. They've never really thought about these rules, or wondered if they make sense. But students believe that following these rules will help produce "good writing," and that "bad writing" is defined as breaking the rules. With this problem commonly encountered, this class is designed to meet the needs of students for a more formal, guided, and well structured writing! For students who have taken Interactive Writing we believe they are very much ready to take a higher form of writing that involves more hands-on activities which are lengthy, refined, and more precise. As for this class, we encourage students to be more critical and objective, the good characteristics of language used in dynamic writing will evoke students responses in writing activities. While essay types useful to develop and to concretely show students progress will make them more creative, more entertaining, and most of all more critical in depicting ideas. All in all, this class leads students to formal form of English writings, and it serves as a tool in cases some will take proficiency tests such as TOEIC and TOEFL, where in both Business and Practical English are used.
The class is divided into three main parts; during the first week students are going to learn the 3 major structures of an essay. Introduction, body, and conclusion are discusses followed by examples and then by a writing application. On the second week the students are going to learn the tools in maintaining unity and coherence. Important lessons such as the use of transitions, proofreading symbols, and the like are discussed. On the third and fourth weeks, the students are going to focus on the content of their work outputs, different types of essay will be the main focus of the class. All throughout the term students are expected to finish every writing task given them, a time limit is also set to encourage students to work well within a time pressured activity. The rationale behind this is to instill to the students diligence in writing. At all times the use of correct grammar, organization, coherence, clarity, and efficiency in writing is highly observed. Therefore teachers are going to check each of the students work, and there after explain to the students the mistakes formed, and thereby guide the student to make less error on the next writing activity. Students may find this class, exhausting and so teachers are expected to explain the purpose of the class during the first day.
Table of ContentsUNIT Unit I Unit II Unit III Unit IV Unit V Unit VI Unit VII Unit VIII Unit IX Unit X Unit XI Unit XII CONTENT Elements of a Good Paragraph Introduction Paragraphs Conclusion Proofreading Transition Markers Gathering Data for a Meaningful Essay Choosing the Best Topics Descriptive Essay Process Essay Definition Essay Application Essay
UNIT I. Elements of a Good ParagraphA paragraph is effective for the following reasons: 1. The paragraph shows unity. All the sentences effectively relate back to the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. All of the sentences have something to do with dogs not liking cats.
Topic Sentence: Statement of main idea of the paragraph Supporting Details: Provide details to further explain the topic sentence Minor details: more details2. The paragraph shows coherence. There is a flow of thoughts and ideas among the sentences in this paragraph. There are good transitions employed in the paragraph. The writer also presents her sub-topics in an orderly fashion that the reader can follow easily. There must be only one main idea in each paragraph. Ideas must be well-categorized accordingly Present details in an organized way. Do not mix up ideas in the paragraph.
YOUR ORIGINAL IDEA
YOUR SUPPORTING DETAILS
3. The paragraph is developed. The writer gives herself enough space to develop the topic. He or she gives us at least two reasons to accept her argument and incorporates some examples in order to give those reasons more validity.
UNIT II. IntroductionNow sit down and write the essay. The introduction should grab the reader's attention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis. (Note: The title and first paragraph are probably the most important elements in your essay.. In the first paragraph you either hook the reader's interest or lose it. In the real world, readers make up their minds about whether or not to read your essay by glancing at the title.
Get the reader's attention The first goal in your introduction is to grab the reader's attention. Wake him or her up and generate some interest about the topic. To grab the reader's attention, you might present . . .y y y y y y y
an interesting fact a surprising piece of information an exciting quotation an intriguing paradox an explanation of an odd term a short narrative/anecdote (not fiction) a provocative question
Do not begin so broad and general that the first several sentences could fit nearly any essay. For example:y y
Too General: Crime has been an issue throughout time. More Specific: The question of the severity of punishments for juveniles is an issue that has garnered attention due to the increasing number of juvenile shootings in the last several years.
Too General: Man has always wondered about the meaning of information. More Specific: The Age of Information brought about through the digital revolution of computers has posed significant questions about the value and worth of this information: Does having instant access to every newspaper and journal blog in the world make us more intelligent, value-based people?
Hands-on: Write an example Introduction for the topic Why go to university? Write 2 or 3 sentences for the introduction.
UNIT III. ParagraphsEach individual paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports your thesis. Begin paragraphs with topic sentences, support assertions with evidence, and expound your ideas in the clearest, most sensible way you can. Speak to your reader as if he or she were sitting in front of you. In other words, instead of writing the essay, try talking the essay.
Choose a singular focus
Each paragraph should have a clear, singular focus to it. If there is an overriding error students make in writing essays, it is shifting topics within the same paragraph, rather than continuing to develop the same idea they began with.
Begin with a topic sentence
Nothing will help you keep a tighter focus on your paragraphs than topic sentences. A topic sentence is generally the first sentence of the paragraph, and it describes the claim or point of the paragraph, thus orienting the reader to the purpose of the paragraph.
Try to apply these techniques to develop the idea of your paragraph y illustrate your idea with examples y give an authoritative quotation y anticipate and respond to counterarguments y back your ideas with more evidence y offer another perspective to the idea y brainstorm more insights about the idea y elaborate on causes/effects, definitions, comparison/contrasts
Hands-on: Write an example paragraph for the given topic, Why go to university?
UNIT IV. ConclusionGracefully exit your essay by making a quick wrap-up sentence, and then end on some memorable thought, perhaps a quotation, or an interesting twist of logic, or some call to action.
Recap your main idea
If your essay was long and complex, sometimes difficult to follow, in the conclusion you'll want to recap your ideas in a clear, summarizing manner. II. Leave a memorable impression
You've got to make a graceful exit from your essay by leaving a memorable impression on the reader. To leave this memorable impression, try . . .y y y y y y
giving a thought-provoking quotation describing a powerful image talking about consequences or implications stating what action needs to be done ending on an interesting twist of thought explaining why the topic is important III. Keep it short
Keep your conclusion short, probably ten lines or less, and avoid fluff. You're just trying to make a clever exit, and presumably all the really important points have been made previously in your essay. ____________________________________________________________________________________
Example of Real Conclusions Today, as the phonographs which follow prove, the mystique of the cat is still very much alive in the Egyptian environment. For after all, should not the cat be important in the Muslim world, as apparently God inspired man to write its name-qi, t, t in Arabic letters-in such a shape that it looks like a cat? --Lorraine Chittock, Cairo Cats
Hands-on: Write a Conclusion about the essay Why go to university?
UNIT V. Proofreading A. Common Proofreading Symbols Symbol Meaning insert a comma apostrophe or single quotation mark insert something use double quotation marks use a period here delete transpose elements close up this space a space needed here Example
begin new paragraph no paragraph
B. Common Proofreading Abbreviations Ab a faulty abbreviation She had earned a Phd along with her M.D. The piano as well as the guitar need tuning. The