equipments for erection and compaction

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2. EQUIPMENTS FOR COMPACTION Compaction is the process where by material particlesare constrained to pack more closely together through a reduction of air void content generally by mechanicalmeans 3. Types of compactors static smooth wheeled rollers sheep foot or pad foot rollers pneumatic tyred rollers vibratory rollers Tamper and vibrating plates 4. Static smooth wheeled rollers Rollers used with or without ballast Not effective on uniformly graded sand, gravel or siltand on over moist cohesive soil. Rely on weight alone to compact the material over which they pass The unit of 80 to 10 tonnes imparting pressure of 20 to 40 kg per linear cm are generally used. Lighter rollers of weight up to 1 ton are also available. 5. Sheepfoot or padfoot rollers Self driven or tractor driven Suitable on cohesive soils specially when watercontent is on the higher side. Higher degree of compaction at faster rate. 6. Sheepfoot roller 7. Pneumatic-tyred rollers Used for both in earthwork and bituminous road construction. Produce more even compaction across the rolling width than wide steel wheel smooth rollers Eliminate surface cracking and material crushing on bituminous wear courses Produce an almost sealed finish Weigthts ranging 6-30 tonnes with 500-4000 kg per tyre Tyre pressure 2-8 kg/ 8. Rubber pneumatic tyred roller 9. Vibratory rollers Eccentric weights within the rolls produce vibration Particles of material brought closer together as airvoids eliminated Very effective on free draining type soil and granular base course Not effective on uniformly graded sand, gravel or silt. Effective pressure around twice the static weight of the roller. 10. Tamper and vibrating plates Used to tamp footing, trench bottom, position posts,lay paving slabs or in any small areas. Operational weights fall approximately 80kg fortamper 300 for vibrating plates. Deliver 800-4500 blow per min. 2.5-12.5 H.P powered engine 11. Static compaction equipment towed static smooth compactors static sheep foot or pad foot compactors static three wheel self propelled compactors static tandem compactors three axle static compactors 12. Spike rollersflat head tamping roller, 13. Vibratory compaction equipments a)Tandem vibratory compactorsb)Towed vibratory compactorsc)Towed sheep foot and tamping foot vibratory compactorsd)Self propelled vibratory compactorse)Hand guided vibratory compactors 14. Tandem vibratory compactors Dual dive or single axle dive Available in two type: Sngle drum vibrating Both drum vibrating double drum vibrator have 80% increased output than to single drum vibrator 15. Towed vibratory compactor Used for compaction of cohesive soils fine and coarsegrained mixed soil, and rocky materials. Heavy towed vibratory compactors are used for thecompaction of extremely thick layers(in dam or embankment construction) 16. Towed sheepfoot or tamping foot vibratory compactors Used for compaction of highly cohesive soil Kneading and crushing effect improves the compactionperformance. Depending on the shape of foot: sheepfoot vibrator or tamping foot vibrator Sheepfoot rolls: cylindrical shape foot, small contact area Tamping foot rolls: larger contact area 17. Self propelled vibratory compactors Large varieties available 8-12 tons dead weight Some of job condition : Large vibratory steel roll in the front and two rubbertyres in the rear. The rubber tyres may either be smooth one for bituminous work or having thread for earth compaction work. Front roll (drum ) may be smooth, padded, sheep foot or rubber coated. Vibratory steel roll in the front and two static steel rolls in the rear for multipurpose work. 18. Handguided vibratory compactor These may be either, Single drum: vibrate with operator guiding behind Duplex drum: one or both drum vibrating Less than 1m width Excellent gradability and cross-country mobility Used for : trenches, slopes, parking lots, small repair jobs,sport centres, inside building and other confined spaces, and preparing foot and bicycle paths 19. Erecting equipments Operation of lifting a weight from one location andmoving it to another location which is at a reasonable distance and then dumping it. 20. cranes Mobile craneMobile crane 21. Cranes can classified into following classes 1.2. 3. 4.5. 6.Derrick cranes Mobile cranes Hydraulic cranes Overhead cranes Traveller cranes Tower cranes 22. Derrick cranes Consist of : a mast, a boom, bull wheel on which it rotates Supporting membrane Used : construction projects, plant erection, loading andunloading of cargoes, ship building etc. Boom can revolve through 360 Bullwheel attach mast and rotate Operated by diesel engine or by electric motor 23. Some time mounted on rail wagon for quick transportand are known as whirler Capacities 40tones with 25m boom length and 15mwork radius 24. Mobile cranes Either crawler mounted or wheel mounted Crawler mounted:-ability to operate unmade ground -low ground bearing pressure -move slowly - used in tough terrain -economically used where ground conditions are poor and operate in a limited area 25. Wheel mounted crane:-high mobility -can travel upto 70-75km per hr -designed for long distance travel -operate on firm ground Mobile cranes have four motions: hoisting, dericking, slewing and traveling. 26. Hydraulic cranes Operation are hydraulically powered includingextension Retraction of out-riggers, extension and shortening of boom Power generated by rotary oil pumps Quick change of boom length and easy and quick change of angle Beside operation of hoisting slewing and derricking can be performed simultaneously 27. Overhead ( gantry) crane Used for handling loads over a long rectangular area Supported on tram wheel and can move on gantry rails These are widely used in erection Consist of two main part bridge and crab Crab consist of hoisting gear mounted on a frame Frame mounted on another set of wheels and capablw ofmoving across the main girder 28. Traveller (or goliath) cranes Crabs moving on girders supported on legs Legs moves on tracks laid on floor Useful as docksite crane 29. Tower crane Mounted on steel tower Used in various construction projects Its constructed for work and then dismantled Truss structure Ladders are provided inside the whole height Operation cabin is provided Saddle moves horizontally and controlled from the hookblock