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  • 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Jeffrey D. RoarkTechnical Executive, EPRI

    EPRIIntegrated Grid

    FrameworkTask Force on Energy Supply

    NCSL SummitAugust 2, 2015

  • 2 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    The Landscape Most new generation connecting at grid edge

    The edge is the distribution system

    Distribution has least amount of utility visibility/control

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Combined Heat & Power

    Demand Response

    Home Energy Management

    Rooftop Solar

    Electric Vehicles

    Large-Scale Solar

    Energy Storage

  • 3 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Challenges for Utilities Accommodate disruptive innovations Improve efficiency Incorporate demand response Increase resiliency The list goes on

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Combined Heat & Power

    Demand Response

    Home Energy Management

    Rooftop Solar

    Electric Vehicles

    Large-Scale Solar

    Energy Storage

  • 4 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    This Dynamic Power System Requires an End-to-End Integrated Approach

    AnIntegrated

    Grid

  • 5 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    EPRIs Integrated Grid Initiative

    30020027333002004878

    At EPRI.com, search for the complete number: 300200xxxx

  • 6 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Integrated Grid MethodologyThe Integrated Grids benefit-cost framework

    contains both bulk system and distribution system elements.

    Bulk System Resource Adequacy

    Flexibility

    Operational Practices & Simulation

    Transmission Performance

    Transmission Expansion

    Distribution System

    Hosting Energy

    Capacity Reliability

    Scenario Definition

    DER Adoption

    Market Conditions

    System Assumptions

    Customer or Owner

    Cost/Benefits

    Societal Costs/Benefits

    Benefit/Cost

    System Cost

    Changes

    Transmission System

    Performance Studies

    DER Scenarios

    Resource Adequacy

    Existing SystemModel(s)

    Load Forecasts

    Variability Profiles

    Existing Generation

    Existing Network Model

    Resource Epxansion

    LOLE/Reserve Margin & Capacity

    Credit

    New Resources/Expansion

    Plan

    Thermal / Voltage Impacts

    Operational Simulations

    Resource Dispatches

    Transmission System

    Upgrades

    Technology options

    Transmission Expansion

    Losses

    Reliability ImpactsReserve & Operational

    Changes

    LOLE/Reserve Margin & Capacity

    Credit

    New Reserve & Operational

    Modes

    Integrated GridBulk System

    Analysis Framework

    Costs of new resources

    Production Costs & Marginal

    Costs

    Costs of mitigation/upgrades

    Cost of Losses

    Cost of Base Case

    Cost of Scenario

    System Flexibility

    Assessment

    Flexibility Metrics

    Line Type LegendData InputFinal ResultFeed-Forward ResultFeed Back Result

    Frequency Impacts

    Hosting Capacity PV & Demand

    Profiles (See Fig. 5.3)

    PQ & Protection Impacts

  • 7 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Features of the Benefit-Cost Framework

    Comprehensive: Can includeany quantifiable impacts from distribution to bulk system, with or without externalities

    Flexible: Designed to address a variety of economic questions from a variety of perspectives Can adopt a utility-planning perspective for guiding decisions, or a broader societal perspective for policy implications

  • 8 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    EPRIs Benefit-Cost Framework

    SocietalImpacts

    CustomerImpacts

    BulkSystemImpacts

    DistributionSystemImpacts

    NetCapitalCostChanges NetFuel/O&MChanges(AvoidedlessIncurred)

    NetCapitalCostChanges NetO&MCostChanges(AvoidedlessIncurred) Changein

    UtilityCost(TheUtilityCost

    Function)

    Reduced/IncreasedEmissions GeneralEconomicEffects

    MonetizationProtocols

    DirectCustomerBenefits

    NetSocietalBenefits

    ReliabilityImprovement ResiliencyImprovement CustomerEquipmentCost

    MonetizationProtocols

    SocietalBenefits

  • 9 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Steps to Apply Cost-Benefit Framework

    Formulate Question

    Define Scenarios and Assumptions

    Evaluate ScenariosUsing Benefit - Cost

    Framework

    Compare Scenariosand Identify Best

    OptionThe economic and technical questions for the framework are not pre-configured.

  • 10 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    EPRIs Integrated Grid Initiative

    30020027333002004878

    3002006692

    At EPRI.com, search for the complete number: 300200xxxx

  • 11 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Capacity and Energy in the Integrated Grid

    Are we becoming capacity-inefficient and capacity-scarce while becoming energy-efficient and energy-abundant?

    The Capacity and Energy report describes: How individual resources may contribute differently

    to the systems capacity to deliver energy

    How changing supply and load characteristics make it necessary to distinctly address both energy and capacity on wholesale and retail levels

    The cost of capacity, based on an assessment of cost structures of several U.S. utilities

    Emerging trends in wholesale markets and retail rate structures to value capacity and energy as distinct elements of those structures

    Key research to enable DER to provide both capacity and energy

  • 12 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    A Week in the Life of a Solar-Powered Home

    Receiving power from the grid

    Sending power to the grid

  • 13 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Utilities have high levels of fixed cost to support capacity to supply/ accept energy to/from customers.

    Analysis of 10 unique utilities cost structures based on FERC Form 1 and EIA data.

    Fixed and Variable Cost Composition of Residential Average Bill

  • 14 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Applications Integrated Grid

    Benefit/Cost Framework

  • 15 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Distribution System is Immense in Scale

    Distribution diagrams courtesy of Salt River Project

    Typical Distribution Utility

    Number

    Distribution Service Territory 1

    Distribution Planning Area 1s - 10s

    Distribution Substations 10s - 100s

    Distribution Feeders 100s -1000s

    Distribution Transformers 1000s - 1,000,000s

    Distribution Customers 100,000s - 1,000,000s

    Feeders are the overhead and underground lines that connect to homes and businesses to a substation.

  • 16 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Hosting Capacity: DER Size and Location

    Distribution Systems Respond Uniquely to DER

    What matters most? DER technology and Impacts DER size and location Feeder construction and operation

    All Impacts Below

    Threshold

    ImpactDepends

    (on size & location)

    All Impacts Above

    Threshold

    Voltage

    Protection coordination

    Thermal capacity

    DER Technology and Impacts

    DER Size and Location

    Feeder Construction & Operation

    (MW)

  • 17 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Substation

    Hosting Capacity:

    Sample Results from Integrated Grid Projects

    System Hosting Capacity(~ 300 distribution feeders)

    Substation-level Hosting Capacity

    Feeder-levelHosting Capacity

    Initial analysis results from in Integrated Grid study, results preliminary

  • 18 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Hosting capacity analysis is only the first step

    Accommodation at Penetrations Beyond Hosting Capacity Voltage Limits

    Protection Issues

    Thermal Capacity Analysis Deferral of upgrades

    Loss of life

    Energy Analysis Distribution losses

    Energy consumption

    Cost/Benefit Analysis

    IntegratedApproach

    Voltage

    ProtectionCapacity

    Energy Reliability

    Watts

    Impedance

    LoadOnly

    LoadandPV

    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    Month

    EnergyLosses

    Energy

    Time

    unservedenergy

    energyexceedingnormal

    Curren

    t

    Impedance

    relaydesensitization

    volta

    ge

    time

    limit

    unacceptableovervoltage

  • 19 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Key Insights Each feeder has unique technical impact from various levels of PV.

    Utility planning practices impact the potential to defer transformer and/or conductor capacity.

    PV reduces line losses, but consumption increases when voltage increases. There is usually a net reduction of losses.

    Smart Inverters (a component of PV systems) can obviate the need for some upgrades, but upgrades are often needed at high penetrations.

    At high penetrations, upgrades may be necessary to maintain protection coordination and voltage control.

  • 20 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Qu

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