eoc review scientific method  collaborate  share info  build upon other work

Download EOC Review Scientific Method  Collaborate  Share info  Build upon other work

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  • EOC Review
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  • Scientific Method Collaborate Share info Build upon other work
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  • Accuracy Accuracy is how close a measured value is to the actual (true) value. Precision Precision is how close the measured values are to each other.
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  • Direct Relationship variable increases and other variable increases
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  • Inverse Relationship variable increases and other variable decreases
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  • Linear Relationship each unit change in the x variable will bring about the same change in the y variable
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  • Non Linear
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  • Percent Error Difference between a measured value and a known value. Used to report the difference between a measured or experimental value and a true or exact value.
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  • 1000 g = 1 kg Kilo 1000 Centi 1/100 Milli 1/1000
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  • 44 ml X 1 L 1000ml
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  • Organic Compounds Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and usually oxygen Frequently contains N, S, P
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  • Organic Chemistry C forms 4 bonds H forms 1 bond O forms 2 bonds H is more plentiful than C because of the bonding EX: CH 4
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  • Building Blocks of Organic Compounds Carbohydrates: Glucose Lipids: Fatty Acids and Glycerol Proteins:Amino Acids Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides
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  • Enzymes Specialized proteins that lower the activation energy required to make a reaction proceed
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  • A protein catalyst called an enzyme Can decrease the energy of activation needed to begin a reaction Figure 5.5B Reactants E A without enzyme E A with enzyme Net change in energy Products Energy Progress of the reaction
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  • It prevents wastes, which would cause problems, from accumulating. It assures that the ecosystem will not run out of essential elements.
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  • 1. Begin with a CO 2. 2Photosynthesis 3. Food chains 4.Cell respiration
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  • All organisms are made of roughly the same organic molecules in similar proportions A measure of their dry weight is a rough measure of the energy they contain.
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  • Biomass A census of the population, multiplied by the weight of an average individual in it Gives an estimate of the weight of the population.
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  • A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans A field of corn Can support many more human vegetarians than meat-eaters Trophic level Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Human vegetarians Corn Human meat-eaters Cattle Corn Figure 37.14
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  • Biomagnification The increase of the concentration of a substance that occurs in the food chain. Substances - pesticides or heavy metals The substances become concentrated in tissues or internal organs because the substances are very slowly metabolized or excreted.
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  • Only about 10% of the energy stored at each trophic level is available to the next level
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  • Eutrophication Occurs when a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients (phosphates and nitrates). This increases amount of algae in water. As the algae die/decompose, high levels of organic matter and the decomposing organisms deplete the oxygen from the water. This causes the death of other organisms (fish).
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  • Greenhouse Gases Carbon Dioxide fossil fuels, solid waste, trees Methane production and transportation of coal, natural gas, and oil Nitrous Oxide agricultural and industrial Fluorinated gases industrial, commercial, and household uses
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  • Fossil Fuels Fuels formed from remains of plants and animals Ex: Natural gas, oil coal
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  • Ozone Layer Ozone - 0 - naturally occurring in the stratosphereOzone - 0 - naturally occurring in the stratosphere Ozone layer - Protects earth from ultra violet raysOzone layer - Protects earth from ultra violet rays CFCs destroy ozone by releasing chlorine into the atmosphereCFCs destroy ozone by releasing chlorine into the atmosphere
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  • Atmospheric CO2 is reflecting heat back down to the planets surface. Only by phasing out coal use, ending deforestation and reducing the use of other fossil fuels can the numbers be reversed.
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  • Other Causes Clear cutting of forests Increased use of fossil fuels Methane pollution
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  • Deforestation Removal of a forest/trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use Trees may be cut down to be used or sold as fuel Cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements. Results in damage to habitat and loss of biodiversity. It has adverse impacts on using of atmospheric CO2, causing a buildup.
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  • Greenhouse Effect Car in summer Greenhouse gases absorb some the energy radiated from the earth and trap it in the atmosphere. Human activities have INCREASED the amount of greenhouse gases
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  • Animal: Heterotrophs consume food Plants: Autotrophs make their own food Fungus: Heterotrophs/ Decomposers absorb food
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  • Robert Hooke Coined the name cell Looked at cork cells under microscope
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  • Organelles Nucleus: Control center ER: Transportation center Rough ER: Helps make protein Smooth ER: Breaks down toxins Golgi: Packaging and shipping Mitochondria: Power House, ATP Vacuole: Store water nutrients and waste
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  • Organelles Lysosome: Recycling center Cytoskeleton: Support and movement Ribosomes: Makes protein Cytoplasm: Bathes organelles
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  • Organelles Plant Chloroplast Cell Wall Huge vacuole Animal Centriole
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  • Photosynthesis Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen
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  • Photosynthesis Green plants and algae use the solar energy and molecules of CO 2 into sugar/starch and 0 2. CO 2 + H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
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  • Photosynthesis Recap
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  • Primary Productivity is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic CO2 through the process of photosynthesis
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  • Cellular Respiration Occurs primarily in the mitochondria Aerobic breakdown of glucose into CO 2 and H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 0 + energy
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  • Meiosis Occurs in plants and animals that reproduce sexually. Usually occurs in specialized sex organs - Ovaries, Testes
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  • Haploid Found in gametes n=? Cells formed in meiosis Diploid Found in somatic cells Fertilized egg 2n =? Cells formed in Mitosis
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  • Prophase I Chromosomes form Homologous pairs come together Crossing Over occurs
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  • Principle of Independent Assortment The inheritance of alleles for one trait does not affect the inheritance of alleles for another trait
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  • Principle of Segregation 1.Heredity characteristics are determined by distinct units
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  • Principle of Segregation 2.For each characteristic, an individual carries 2 factors, one inherited from each parent
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  • Principle of Segregation 3.The 2 factors of each pair segregate from each other and end up in gametes
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  • Frederick Griffith - studying 2 strains of bacteria 1 causes pneumonia, 1 harmless When killed pathogenic bacteria and mixed with living healthy bacteria - some converted Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey - showed that DNA was genetic material Used radio isotopes to label DNA and protein in Phage T2 and ecoli cells Sulfer - protein Phosphate - DNA
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  • The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes Genetic Engineering
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  • Nuclear Transplantation: replaces the nucleus of an egg cell or a zygote with a nucleus of an adult somatic cell Cells divides creates blastocyst Reproductive Cloning: If animal is a mammal, the blastocyst is implanted into uterus for further development Therapeutic Cloning: Produce embryonic stem cells for therapeutic treatments Cloning
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  • Combining genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule Can use different species Often uses plasmids R