Enzyme Catalysis

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<p>Punima Puri</p> <p>ENZYME CATALYSISPUNIMA PURI Lecturer Dept of Biotech Delhi technological university Delhi</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>ENZYME</p> <p>WHY AN ENZYME CAN ACCELERATE A REACTION?</p> <p>It can lower the energy barrier (activation energy) separating the substrate and the reaction product. For example, the covalent bond energy between two atoms ranges from 50 to 200 kcal/mol, which is far greater than the thermal energy (0.6 kcal/mol) at room temperature.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>The covalent bond is unlikely to break in the absence of external interactions.Punima Puri</p> <p>Enzymes can provide a proper environment to lower the energy barrier.</p> <p>The exact mechanism of lowering the energy barrier depends on individual systems.Punima Puri</p> <p>RNase A is a very interesting example. can cleave an RNA molecule through hydrolysis reaction, but has no effect on DNA. DNA and RNA differ by only one oxygen atom, which happens to play a critical role in the catalytic mechanism of RNase A.</p> <p>GENERAL ACIDSCOOH CH 2 OH NH 3 SH</p> <p>CH2</p> <p>OH</p> <p>CH2 HN NH</p> <p>GENERAL ACIDSCOOH CH 2 OH NH 3 SH</p> <p>CH2</p> <p>OH</p> <p>CH2 HN NH</p> <p>RIBONUCLEASE AN 2 H N N</p> <p>AdenosineN O</p> <p>O O P O</p> <p>N O C 2 H</p> <p>O</p> <p>O H N</p> <p>OUridineN</p> <p>Ribonuclease A</p> <p>O P O O O C 2 H O</p> <p>O O P O</p> <p>O H O</p> <p>MECHAMISM OF RNASE CLOSER VIEW</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>MECHANISM OF RNASE A</p> <p>Punima puri</p> <p>MECHANISM OF RNASE A</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>The catalytic mechanism of RNase A, which contains two critical residues: His-12 and His119. (a)The transition state is formed by electron transfer from His-12 to His-119, passing through 2'-OH. (b)After the transition state is formed, the electron can move from His-119 to His-12, generating the final product.DNA lacks the critical 2'-OH and thus cannot be catalyzed by RNase A.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>ENZYME CATALYSIS</p> <p>Enzyme catalysisis thecatalysisof chemical reactionsby specializedproteins known asenzymes. Catalysis ofbiochemicalreactions in thecell is vital due to the very low reaction rates of the uncatalysed reactions. The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalysis.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>The enzyme reduces the energy required to reach the highest energytransition stateof the reaction. By providing an alternative reaction route By stabilizing intermediates The reduction of activation energy (G) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>INDUCED FIT</p> <p>The favored model for the enzymesubstrateinteraction is the induced fit model.Punima Puri</p> <p>This model proposes that the initial interaction between E and S is relatively weak These weak interactions rapidly induce conformational changesin the enzyme that strengthen binding.</p> <p>INDUCED FIT MODEL</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>MECHANISMS OF TRANSITION STATE STABILIZATION</p> <p>These conformational changes also bring catalytic residues in the active site close to the chemical bonds in the substrate that will be altered in the reaction. After binding takes place, one or more mechanisms of catalysis lowers the energy of the reaction's transition state, by providing an alternative chemical pathway for the reaction. There are six possible mechanisms of "over the barrier" catalysis as well as a "through the barrier" mechanism:</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>The advantages of the induced fit mechanism arise due to the stabilising effect of strong enzyme binding. There are two different mechanisms of substrate binding:Punima Puri</p> <p>uniform binding which has strong substrate binding, differential binding which has strong transition state binding. The stabilizing effect of uniform binding increases both substrate and transition state binding affinity</p> <p>Differential binding increases only transition state binding affinity.Punima Puri</p> <p>Both are used by enzymes and have been evolutionarily chosen to minimize the G of the reaction. Enzymes which are saturated, that is, have a high affinity substrate binding, require differential binding to reduce the G, whereas small substrate unbound enzymes may use either differential or uniform binding</p> <p>Most proteins use the differential binding mechanism to reduce the G, so most proteins have high affinity of the enzyme to the transition state. Differential binding is carried out by the induced fit mechanism the substrate first binds weakly, then the enzyme changes conformation increasing the affinity to the transition state and stabilizing it, so reducing the activation energy to reach it.Punima Puri</p> <p>induced fit concept cannot be used to rationalize catalysis.Punima Puri</p> <p>That is, the chemical catalysis is defined as the reduction of G(when the system is already in the ES) relative to Gin the uncatalyzed reaction in water (without the enzyme).</p> <p>CATALYSIS BY BOND STRAIN</p> <p>This is the principal effect of induced fit binding, where the affinity of the enzyme to the transition state is greater than to the substrate itself. This induces structural rearrangements which strain substrate bonds into a position closer to the conformation of the transition state So lowering the energy difference between the substrate and transition state and helping catalyze the reaction.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>The strain effect is, in fact, a ground state destabilization effect, rather than transition state stabilization effect. Furthermore, enzymes are very flexible and they cannot apply large strain effect. In addition to bond strain in the substrate, bond strain may also be induced within the enzyme itself to activate residues in the active site</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>For example:Punima Puri</p> <p>Substrate, bound substrate, and transition state conformations of lysozyme. The substrate, on binding, is distorted from the typical 'chair' hexose ring into the 'sofa' conformation, which is similar in shape to the transition state.</p> <p>CATALYSIS BY PROXIMITY AND ORIENTATION</p> <p>Increases the rate of the reaction as ES interactions align reactive chemical groups and hold them close together. This reduces theentropyof the reactants and thus makes reactions such as ligations or addition reactions more favorable. There is a reduction in the overall loss of entropy when two reactants become a single product.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>This effect is analogous to an effective increase in concentration of the reagents.Punima Puri</p> <p>The binding of the reagents to the enzyme gives the reactionintramolecularcharacter, which gives a massive rate increase</p> <p>ACETATE K CAN BE CALCULATED AS</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>CATALYSIS INVOLVING PROTON DONORS (ACIDS) AND ACCEPTORS (BASES)Amino acids present in the active site act acid and base. Other mechanisms also contribute significantly to the completion of catalytic events initiated by a strain mechanism, for example, the use of glutamate as a general acid catalyst (proton donor).</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>COVALENT CATALYSIS</p> <p>Covalent catalysis involves the substrate forming a transient covalent bond with residues in the active site or with a cofactor. This adds an additional covalent intermediate to the reaction, and helps to reduce the energy of later transition states of the reaction. The covalent bond must, at a later stage in the reaction, be broken to regenerate the enzyme.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>This mechanism is found in enzymes such as proteaseslikechymotrypsin trypsin where an acyl-enzyme intermediate is formed. </p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>Schiff baseformation using the freeaminefrom alysineresidue is another mechanism, as seen in the enzymealdolaseduringglycolysis</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>CHYMOTRYPSIN</p> <p>The deprotonated His 57 acts as a general base to abstract a proton from Ser 195, enhancing its nucleophilicty as it attacks the electrophilic C of the amide or ester link, creating the oxyanion tetrahedral intermediate. Asp 102 acts electrostatically to stabilize the positive charge on the His. The oxyanion collapses back to form a double bond between the O and the original carbonyl C, with the amine product as the leaving group. The protonated His 57 acts as a general acid donating a proton to the amine leaving group, regenerating the unprotonated His 57. The mechanism repeats itself only now with water as the nucleophile, which attacks the acyl-enzyme intermediate, to form the tetrahedral intermediate. The intermediate collapses again, releasing the E-SerO- as the leaving group which gets reprotonated by His 57, regenerating both His 57 and Ser 195 in the normal protonation state. The enzyme is now ready for another catalytic round of activity.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>All the catalytic mechanisms we encountered previously are at play in chymotrypsin catalysis. These include nucleophilic catalysis (with the Ser 195 forming a covalent intermediate with the substrates), general acid/base catalysis with His 57, loosely, electrostatic catalysis with Asp 102 stabilizing not the transition state or intermediate, but the protonated form of His 57. His, as a general acid and base catalyst, not only stabilizes developing charges in the transition state, but also provides a path for proton transfer, without which reactions would have difficulty in proceeding.</p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>Some enzymes utilize non-amino acidcofactorssuch as</p> <p>pyridoxal phosphate(PLP) thiamine pyrophosphate(TPP) </p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>to form covalent intermediates with reactant molecules. Such covalent intermediates function to reduce the energy of later transition states,</p> <p>similar to how covalent intermediates formed with active site amino acid residues allow stabilization but the capabilities of cofactors allow enzymes to carryout reactions that amino acid side residues alone could not. </p> <p>Punima Puri</p> <p>Enzymes utilizing such cofactors include the PLPdependent enzymeaspartate transaminase TPP-dependent enzymepyruvate dehydrogenase</p>


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