environmental sciences: towards a sustainable future chapter 5 the human population: demographics

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  • Slide 1
  • Environmental Sciences: Towards a Sustainable Future Chapter 5 The Human Population: Demographics
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  • Ch. 5 Outline The world population explosion including the United States. What about your state? Different population growth rates in developed and developing nations. Consequences of exploding populations. Dynamics of population growth.
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  • As of Oct 27, 2009. World Population: 6,793,208,538 U.S. Population: 307,796,653 Where do you find the greatest population densities?
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  • Major Shifts in Sustainability natural systems displaced by human ones Paleolithic Time of early humans (40,000 to 10,000 yrs ago) hunter-gatherers, settlements were small and short-lived Neolithic Revolution (12,000 yrs ago in Middle East after colder and drier climate occurred) development of animal domestication and agriculture, more reliable efficient and abundant food source allowed for specialization of labor and permanent settlements permitting better care and protection leading to greater population growth Industrial Revolution (1800s to present) modern science and technological advancements energized by fossil fuels, first coal then oil and gas expanding economies, global commerce, larger cities, exploitation of natural resources and POLLUTION
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  • The Next Revolutiona return to GREEN Environmental Revolution (1960sNOW?) revolution implies an overthrow of business as usual to sustainable development, finding ways to limit degradation of natural resources and keep ecosystem cycles intact
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  • The Human Population Explosion 9,000 human beings added to the planet every hour
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  • World Population Growth and Percent Growth Rate
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  • Average Number of Children, Grandchildren, and Great Grandchildren In America West Germany Africa 14 5 258wow!
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  • Developing country: generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well being (low GNI, low GDP non industrialized) The World Bank considers all low- and middle- income countries as "developing". In 2008, countries with Gross National Income (GNI) per capita below US$11,905 were considered developing. Developed country: used to describe countries that have a high level of development /industrialization (high GNI or high HDI) World Bank considered high income developed countries with GNI per capita above US$11,905 in 2008. Some use other criteria such as Human Development Index (HDI), or Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary General, defined a developed country as one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment."
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  • Developing Vs. Developed Countries Who is mostly contributing to the planets growing population?
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  • Growth of Cities Within the last year, over half of the worlds population now live in cities (including shanty towns)
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  • Reasons for the Human Population Explosionbetter health conditions Causes of disease recognized Improvements in nutrition Discovery of antibiotics Improvements in medicine Increase in number of women who actually reach child-bearing age Short doubling times in some countries
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  • Changing Human Survivorship Curves: Went From A to B % Survival Age Birth Death A B
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  • Consequences of Exploding Populations More Population Causes deforestation resource depletion loss of agricultural land biodiversity disease pest resistance population migration irrigation/water shortages Wetlands degradation
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  • Basic Human Needs are already limited Drinkable Water Edible Food Safe Housing Health Care An Education A Job
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  • Developing or Developed Nations? High fertility rates High consumptive lifestyles: use 80% of worlds wealth Intense poverty Eat high on the food chain
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  • Developing or Developed Nations? Long doubling times High environmental degradation Twenty percent of the worlds population
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  • Global Conditions for a Sustainable Population Lower fertility rates Improve the lives of people Protect the environment
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  • The Meaning of Absolute Poverty Malnutrition Illiteracy Disease Squalid surroundings High infant mortality Low life expectancy 17 million children under 5 die each year
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  • Resolving the Problems of Population Growth and Land Availability Subdividing farms Opening more land for agriculture Move to cities Engage in illicit activities Move to other countries How do these solutions aggravate the problems?
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  • Population Profiles
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  • Fertility Rate > 2 Fertility Rate < 2
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  • Projected World Population: Three Different Fertility Scenarios
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  • Population Projections for the United States
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  • Population Projections: Developing Nations
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  • The Demographic Transition
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  • Demographic Transition Comparisons
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  • 4 Phases of Demographic Transition Phase I primitive stability high CBR, high CDR Phase II epidemiologic transition declining CDR Phase III significant population growth declining CBR from declining fertility rates Phase IV modern stability low CBR and CDR developed countries have completed the demographic transition developing countries are in Phase II and III
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  • Calculating Fertility Rates and Doubling Times (CBR - CDR)/10 = Rate of Increase or decrease in population as a percentage (because now the rate would be per 100 instead of per 1000) 70/ Rate of Increase = Doubling Time (in yrs)
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  • Calculating Fertility Rates and Doubling Times: Practice 0.6% 117 0.2% 350
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  • 3 Important American Environmental Organizations 1886 Audubon Society founded 1892 Sierra Club incorporated (John Muir as president) 1935 The Wilderness Society founded
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  • Dec 2007 IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Released 4 th climate change summary for policy makers scientifically showing that warming of our climate system is unequivocal and mostly caused by anthropogenic GHG concentrations Please view your American Environmental Movement Timeline document Add these 3 international events to your timeline
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  • Dec. 7-20 th 2009 COP15 UN Climate Change Conference in Denmark The Copenhagen Protocol?? What will we decide to do to mitigate or correct global heating? 1975 CITES agreement Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species restricted/regulated international trade of species


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