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This paper reviews the literature on Enterprise Architecture, taking into account the various definitions and attributes to this field of study

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  • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    This paper reviews the literature on Enterprise Architecture, taking into

    account the various definitions and attributes to this field of study.

    Gorazo

    BSC ITMB/ 14/02/2014

  • 1

    Table of Contents 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 2

    2 What is Enterprise Architecture (EA) .............................................................................................. 3

    2.1 Role of Enterprise Architecture .............................................................................................. 5

    2.2 Challenges facing Enterprise Architecture .............................................................................. 6

    3 Stakeholder perceptions of EA........................................................................................................ 7

    4 Impact of Emerging Standards ........................................................................................................ 9

    4.1 The Zachman Framework ....................................................................................................... 9

    4.1.1 Impact of the Zachman Framework .............................................................................. 10

    5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 11

    6 Reference ...................................................................................................................................... 12

    7 Working log book, assignment 2 EA ............................................................................................. 14

    Table of Figures

    Figure 1: Common fundamental areas covered by EA Frameworks. .................. 3

    Figure 2: Viewpoints of EA. .............................................................................. 4

    Figure 3: Macro view of the EA environment. .................................................... 5

    Figure 4: Key Stakeholders of EA and their organisational level. ........................ 7

    Figure 5: 1992 Zachman Framework .......................................................... 9

    Figure 6: Impact of the Zachman Framework on the enterprise. ..................... 10

  • 2

    1 Introduction The generic mission of every organisation is to exist tomorrow and be relevant to their customer

    base. The only means of making sure that they survive difficult times is by focusing on creating long

    term value and being ready to change to take advantage of opportunities should any arise (Collins &

    De Meo, 2011). According to (Zachman, 1997), as part of the competences required by organizations

    to create value now and in the future, they must align the operations of the enterprise including the

    information systems, processes, and business functions with its strategic direction and business

    goals. This method of aligning information technology and business within the organization is

    referred to as Enterprise Architecture.

    Langenberg & Wegmann (2004) defines Enterprise Architecture as blueprint that documents all the

    information systems within the enterprise, their relationships, and how they interact to fulfil the

    enterprises mission. EA is aligning information technology with business hierarchically (Wegmann &

    Balabko et al., 2005). Enterprise Architecture entails the use of frameworks that support enterprise

    analysis from the level of business to the level of Information technology. Zachman in 1987

    introduced the Framework for Information Systems Architecture which is mostly regarded as the

    initial step towards the EA discipline (Bhagwat & Sharma, 2007).

    The name Enterprise Architecture was however not coined until later in 1996 when the

    government of America via the Clinger-Cohen Act directed federal agencies to implement a holistic

    methodology to align business goals to information technology. The term enterprise architecture has

    aroused a lot of thoughts and interests and is now commonly understood as a hierarchical approach

    to aligning business and information technology. Some very popular frameworks are The Open

    Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), The Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF),

    Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture, and The Gartner Methodology. According to

    (O'rourke et al., 2003) All of these different frameworks were initiated with the intention of solving

    two problems:

    The Complexity of Systems Huge sums of money were being spent by organisations to

    build IT systems; and

    Poor alignment of Business Organisations found it continuously difficult to align the rather

    high cost of IT systems with business need.

    The consensus before the advent of enterprise architecture was that less value was been attained

    from the increasing complexity and cost of IT systems (Bernard, 2005). Currently, the cost of

    installing and managing IT systems has increased which means companies are no longer able to

    avoid these problems (Lankhorst, 2013). Enterprise Architecture is therefore now more needed than

    ever before.

    This review will explore the current state of the art in enterprise and information architecture, its

    role and challenges. The various stakeholder perceptions of Enterprise Architecture will be looked at

    and also what the possible impact of emerging standards could be.

  • 3

    2 What is Enterprise Architecture (EA) Iso-architecture.org (2014), defines Architecture as the fundamental organization of a system

    embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the

    principles guiding its design and evolution. The bigger picture here then is that architecture which is

    a blueprint, offers a macro view of how the various components of a system (be it business or other)

    fit in relation to each other. In relation to enterprise therefore, Langenberg & Wegmann (2004)s

    definition falls right on point as the blueprint that documents all the information systems within the

    enterprise, their relationships, and how they interact to fulfil the enterprises mission. EA aims at

    creating a unified and standardised hardware and software systems across an organisations

    business entities with close interdependent links to the business side of the organisation which

    usually accounts for 90% of the firms strategy and budget (Minoli, 2008). In detail, the aim as

    mentioned sets to promote standardisation, alignment, recycle of current IT assets and development

    of software across the organisation including sharing common project management methods.

    Theoretically, the effect is that Enterprise Architecture will make Information Technology more

    strategic, cheaper and even more responsive.

    EA has a purpose which is closely linked to the aim. This is to produce a map of business processes

    and IT assets and also a set of governance principles which determines how the strategy of the

    business can be communicated through IT (Fowler, 2003). Many of these maps or frameworks of

    which four have already been mentioned earlier on exist. All of the existing frameworks cover four

    simple but necessary domains as shown in figure 1:

    Figure 1: Common fundamental areas covered by EA Frameworks. Source: Writers drawing

    EA

  • 4

    An enterprise architecture team must be created to include:

    According to (Schekkerman, 2005), the enterprise architecture team must endeavour to have a

    business view point, Governance viewpoint and an Architecture View point as show in the diagram

    below:

    Figure 2: Viewpoints of EA. Source: Schekkerman (2005)

    A macro view of the EA environment is depicted in figure 3. The tabs to the left of the diagram are

    external entities that affect a firms operation including the industry it operates in, the firms

    competitors, the market, the customers, regulatory boards, opportunities available to the firm and

    investors. Driving the firm is its existing business strategy and the various already existing business

    and IT assets which all falls under the business viewpoint. The Architecture viewpoint circled to the

    right enhances the IT infrastructure to boost its ability to support a final stage IT environment that

    Chief Enterprise Architect

    Business Architect

    Information /Data Architect

    Application Architect

    Infrastructure Architect

    Security Architect

    Domain Architect

    Business Unit Achitect (who focuses on business)

    Functional Domain Architect (focuses on the business function)

    Enterprise Architect

    Solution Architect

    Virtual Architecture Team

  • 5

    facilitates, enables and supports the business strategy. To this effect, the enterprise would have

    successfully developed enterprise architecture.

    The lower part of the diagram covers the governance viewpoint which consists of industry

    mechanisms that help to create the architecture. Some of these mechanisms are the enterprise

    architecture standards, the architecture principles, governance tools and the architecture

    frameworks.

    Figure 3: Macro view of the EA environment. Source: (Minoli, 2008) with writers added impression.

    2.1 Role of Enterprise Architecture Fro

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