Enterprise Architecture Literature Review

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This paper reviews the literature on Enterprise Architecture, taking into account the various definitions and attributes to this field of study

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<ul><li><p>ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE </p><p>LITERATURE REVIEW </p><p>This paper reviews the literature on Enterprise Architecture, taking into </p><p>account the various definitions and attributes to this field of study. </p><p>Gorazo </p><p>BSC ITMB/ 14/02/2014 </p></li><li><p>1 </p><p>Table of Contents 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 2 </p><p>2 What is Enterprise Architecture (EA) .............................................................................................. 3 </p><p>2.1 Role of Enterprise Architecture .............................................................................................. 5 </p><p>2.2 Challenges facing Enterprise Architecture .............................................................................. 6 </p><p>3 Stakeholder perceptions of EA........................................................................................................ 7 </p><p>4 Impact of Emerging Standards ........................................................................................................ 9 </p><p>4.1 The Zachman Framework ....................................................................................................... 9 </p><p>4.1.1 Impact of the Zachman Framework .............................................................................. 10 </p><p>5 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 11 </p><p>6 Reference ...................................................................................................................................... 12 </p><p>7 Working log book, assignment 2 EA ............................................................................................. 14 </p><p>Table of Figures </p><p>Figure 1: Common fundamental areas covered by EA Frameworks. .................. 3 </p><p>Figure 2: Viewpoints of EA. .............................................................................. 4 </p><p>Figure 3: Macro view of the EA environment. .................................................... 5 </p><p>Figure 4: Key Stakeholders of EA and their organisational level. ........................ 7 </p><p>Figure 5: 1992 Zachman Framework .......................................................... 9 </p><p>Figure 6: Impact of the Zachman Framework on the enterprise. ..................... 10 </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>1 Introduction The generic mission of every organisation is to exist tomorrow and be relevant to their customer </p><p>base. The only means of making sure that they survive difficult times is by focusing on creating long </p><p>term value and being ready to change to take advantage of opportunities should any arise (Collins &amp; </p><p>De Meo, 2011). According to (Zachman, 1997), as part of the competences required by organizations </p><p>to create value now and in the future, they must align the operations of the enterprise including the </p><p>information systems, processes, and business functions with its strategic direction and business </p><p>goals. This method of aligning information technology and business within the organization is </p><p>referred to as Enterprise Architecture. </p><p>Langenberg &amp; Wegmann (2004) defines Enterprise Architecture as blueprint that documents all the </p><p>information systems within the enterprise, their relationships, and how they interact to fulfil the </p><p>enterprises mission. EA is aligning information technology with business hierarchically (Wegmann &amp; </p><p>Balabko et al., 2005). Enterprise Architecture entails the use of frameworks that support enterprise </p><p>analysis from the level of business to the level of Information technology. Zachman in 1987 </p><p>introduced the Framework for Information Systems Architecture which is mostly regarded as the </p><p>initial step towards the EA discipline (Bhagwat &amp; Sharma, 2007). </p><p>The name Enterprise Architecture was however not coined until later in 1996 when the </p><p>government of America via the Clinger-Cohen Act directed federal agencies to implement a holistic </p><p>methodology to align business goals to information technology. The term enterprise architecture has </p><p>aroused a lot of thoughts and interests and is now commonly understood as a hierarchical approach </p><p>to aligning business and information technology. Some very popular frameworks are The Open </p><p>Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), The Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF), </p><p>Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture, and The Gartner Methodology. According to </p><p>(O'rourke et al., 2003) All of these different frameworks were initiated with the intention of solving </p><p>two problems: </p><p> The Complexity of Systems Huge sums of money were being spent by organisations to </p><p>build IT systems; and </p><p> Poor alignment of Business Organisations found it continuously difficult to align the rather </p><p>high cost of IT systems with business need. </p><p>The consensus before the advent of enterprise architecture was that less value was been attained </p><p>from the increasing complexity and cost of IT systems (Bernard, 2005). Currently, the cost of </p><p>installing and managing IT systems has increased which means companies are no longer able to </p><p>avoid these problems (Lankhorst, 2013). Enterprise Architecture is therefore now more needed than </p><p>ever before. </p><p>This review will explore the current state of the art in enterprise and information architecture, its </p><p>role and challenges. The various stakeholder perceptions of Enterprise Architecture will be looked at </p><p>and also what the possible impact of emerging standards could be. </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>2 What is Enterprise Architecture (EA) Iso-architecture.org (2014), defines Architecture as the fundamental organization of a system </p><p>embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the </p><p>principles guiding its design and evolution. The bigger picture here then is that architecture which is </p><p>a blueprint, offers a macro view of how the various components of a system (be it business or other) </p><p>fit in relation to each other. In relation to enterprise therefore, Langenberg &amp; Wegmann (2004)s </p><p>definition falls right on point as the blueprint that documents all the information systems within the </p><p>enterprise, their relationships, and how they interact to fulfil the enterprises mission. EA aims at </p><p>creating a unified and standardised hardware and software systems across an organisations </p><p>business entities with close interdependent links to the business side of the organisation which </p><p>usually accounts for 90% of the firms strategy and budget (Minoli, 2008). In detail, the aim as </p><p>mentioned sets to promote standardisation, alignment, recycle of current IT assets and development </p><p>of software across the organisation including sharing common project management methods. </p><p>Theoretically, the effect is that Enterprise Architecture will make Information Technology more </p><p>strategic, cheaper and even more responsive. </p><p>EA has a purpose which is closely linked to the aim. This is to produce a map of business processes </p><p>and IT assets and also a set of governance principles which determines how the strategy of the </p><p>business can be communicated through IT (Fowler, 2003). Many of these maps or frameworks of </p><p>which four have already been mentioned earlier on exist. All of the existing frameworks cover four </p><p>simple but necessary domains as shown in figure 1: </p><p>Figure 1: Common fundamental areas covered by EA Frameworks. Source: Writers drawing </p><p>EA </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>An enterprise architecture team must be created to include: </p><p>According to (Schekkerman, 2005), the enterprise architecture team must endeavour to have a </p><p>business view point, Governance viewpoint and an Architecture View point as show in the diagram </p><p>below: </p><p>Figure 2: Viewpoints of EA. Source: Schekkerman (2005) </p><p>A macro view of the EA environment is depicted in figure 3. The tabs to the left of the diagram are </p><p>external entities that affect a firms operation including the industry it operates in, the firms </p><p>competitors, the market, the customers, regulatory boards, opportunities available to the firm and </p><p>investors. Driving the firm is its existing business strategy and the various already existing business </p><p>and IT assets which all falls under the business viewpoint. The Architecture viewpoint circled to the </p><p>right enhances the IT infrastructure to boost its ability to support a final stage IT environment that </p><p>Chief Enterprise Architect </p><p>Business Architect </p><p>Information /Data Architect </p><p>Application Architect </p><p>Infrastructure Architect </p><p>Security Architect </p><p>Domain Architect </p><p>Business Unit Achitect (who focuses on business) </p><p>Functional Domain Architect (focuses on the business function) </p><p>Enterprise Architect </p><p>Solution Architect </p><p>Virtual Architecture Team </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>facilitates, enables and supports the business strategy. To this effect, the enterprise would have </p><p>successfully developed enterprise architecture. </p><p>The lower part of the diagram covers the governance viewpoint which consists of industry </p><p>mechanisms that help to create the architecture. Some of these mechanisms are the enterprise </p><p>architecture standards, the architecture principles, governance tools and the architecture </p><p>frameworks. </p><p>Figure 3: Macro view of the EA environment. Source: (Minoli, 2008) with writers added impression. </p><p>2.1 Role of Enterprise Architecture From what began as a small pilot scheme within enterprises, EA has now become a much more </p><p>appreciated and fully sponsored initiative (Strano &amp; Rehmani, 2007). The growing intend to increase </p><p>agility, standardize IT environment and reduce cost has resulted in the rise of EA activities which </p><p>mean finding Enterprise Architects to do that job. In America, the need for Enterprise Architects </p><p>grew rapidly when the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 was made federal law to exert more pressure on </p><p>the Chief of Information (CIO) to improve the management and acquisition of information resources </p><p>(Bernard, 2001). Some key roles of EA include: </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>2.2 Challenges facing Enterprise Architecture EA covers the entirety of an organisation not just the technology side which means that </p><p>being technically savvy is inadequate (Bente et al., 2012). An enterprise architect must </p><p>possess soft skills like; good people skills and very good communication skills, also an EA </p><p>must have a good understanding of the business and be able to make good and strong </p><p>decisions. Enterprise architects mostly have no organisational powers and if they do its </p><p>mostly very little which mean that they face various organisational barriers some of which </p><p>are: </p><p> Commitment of key stakeholders: Influencing management and personnel to buy </p><p>into an EAs proposal could be increasingly difficult making it almost impossible to </p><p>accomplish the desired goal. </p><p> Resources: Being able to win the commitment or interest of key stakeholders is one </p><p>step and receiving essential resources like personnel and funds to support project is </p><p>another. </p><p> Influencing existing projects: It is more difficult for an EA to influence a project or </p><p>scheme which is in motion. In a project which is in progress, the teams associated </p><p>are usually reluctant to accept the enterprise architects input. In some cases, to </p><p>avoid potential impacts to cost and timelines, the team will sidestep the efforts of </p><p>the EA to change the architecture (Spewak &amp; Hill, 1993). </p><p>Developing a technology vision </p><p>and strategy </p><p>By revising the status quo to detect gaps and develop an actionable plan to achieve the desired enterprise goal </p><p>"Review the target (future) state of how IT shall handle enterprises business processes, information, technology and applications to achieve the business objectives in phases to enable business to execute their mission " Pai (2013). </p><p>Methodology lifecycle </p><p>An EA team should develop and publish methodology lifecycle application that defines business applications, and design, develop, deploy, support and upgrades underlying technology and applications (Pai, 2013). </p><p>Define lifecycle (e.g., recommended rapid application development methods) processes and corporate tasks (e.g., reuse, project management, testing and metrics). </p><p>Information &amp; Data Architecture </p><p>It is very important to develop an Enterprise Data Model, especially for the common objects such as Customers, Products, Orders, etc. It is the responsibility of the Enterprise Architecture team to partner closely with the business to develop this model as well as data warehouse, shared data services model and roadmap (Pai, 2013). </p><p>Integration Architecture </p><p>"Define the key systems, modules, components and relationships between major components of the IT infrastructure " Pai (2013). </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>3 Stakeholder perceptions of EA </p><p>Figure 4: Key Stakeholders of EA and their organisational level. Source: Writers own Drawing </p><p>The functions of EA covers 3 functions, according to (Van Der Raadt et al., 2010) which are the </p><p>Decision making on EA, the Delivery of EA and the Conformance of EA. For the purpose of this </p><p>literature review, the stakeholder groups of EA have been put under four organisational levels as </p><p>shown in figure 4 above and these groups formulate their perception of EA based on these 3 </p><p>functions. </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>Based on these functions, the stakeholders of enterprise architecture perceive EA to hold certain </p><p>essential capabilities: </p><p> Has Vision: that the Enterprise Architect has long term synchronising view and realistic </p><p>outlook about the firm and how its business and IT strategy would be realised </p><p> Has Functional Knowledge: that the architect is very knowledgeable in software and </p><p>hardware components and how they function within an organisation to sustain its business. </p><p> Market Trends: that the EA is knowledgeable and aware of current state of the art </p><p>innovations and technology within the industry regarding tools, packages and solutions. </p><p> Governance processes: that the EA understands the governance structure and formal </p><p>decision making processes including reacting to deviations in architecture and exceptions. </p><p> Communication: that the EA has an ability to formalise communication within the functions </p><p>of architecture and how to make architectural issues clear to key stakeholders. </p><p> Collaborative: that the EA collaborates well with other departments so as to outline clear </p><p>directions for stakeholders. This also means that the EA is willing and able to liaise with </p><p>stakeholders to better understand their problems so as to propose the best solution. </p><p> Technological knowledge: that the EA has a detailed and broad knowledge of current </p><p>technologies used internally and also about future strategic technologies to be used. </p><p> Proactive: that the EA acts decisively when it comes to helping stakeholders to apply policies </p><p>etc. </p><p>Conformance of EA </p><p>"Responsible for implementing organizational changes through solutions described in the target architectures, complying with the EA policies, and provides feedback on the applicability of the </p><p>EA products" Raadt (2011). </p><p>Delivery of EA </p><p>"Responsible for creating and maintaining these products, and provides advice to guide EA decision making.EA delivery also vali...</p></li></ul>

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