English Language Learners ELLs

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English Language Learners ELLs. By Nancy Tavarez Correa. List 3 things you know about ELLs and 3 things you want to know. Essential Terminology. Bilingual Education ESL : English as a Second Language ELS: English Language Services LESA : Limited English Speaking Ability (1968) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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English Language Learners ELLsByNancy Tavarez CorreaList 3 things you know about ELLs and 3 things you want to know.Essential TerminologyBilingual Education ESL : English as a Second LanguageELS: English Language ServicesLESA : Limited English Speaking Ability (1968)LEP : Limited English ProficiencyELLs : English Language LearnersL1 : Native LanguageL2 : Target Language, EnglishBICS : Basic Interpersonal Communication SkillsCALP : Cognitive Academic Language ProficiencyWIDA : World-Class Instructional Design and AssessmentWhy people migrate to the USA?Better economical opportunitiesCompleted a higher education in their country but were unable to find a job in their fieldCompleted only the elementary or secondary education and were unable to find a job that provided the basic needsEscaping War Religious FreedomMigration Pattern and Bilingualism in USA1664: At least 18 languages were openly accepted, consisting of German, Dutch, French, Swedish, Irish, and Welsh among others1694: German language schooling1830: progressive large wave of immigrants resulted in native language instruction in certain areas1847: Ohio Law authorized instruction in German and English, Louisiana followed with French-English, about a dozen states had similar laws1889: major attacks to bilingualism, but the Germans fought back1900: Italian, Jews and Slavs began to outnumber Germans, Irish and Scandinavian1906: First federal language law- English speaking requirement for naturalization1915: 24% of the schools in American taught in German-English1924: Decline of bilingualism due to WWII and the anti-German feelingFederal Laws and MandatesTitle VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) or Bilingual Education Act of 1968 Lau Vs. Nichols (1974), Lau Remedies (1975)Major Amendments to the Bilingual Education Act1974: defined bilingual program1978: extended to include all aspects of English literacy1980 : Native language instruction for content area1984 :Allowed 4% of funding special alternative programs1988 : Increased funding of alternative programs to 25%2002 : Expiration of Title VII and the birth of NCLB Federal Laws and MandatesThe NCLB, Title III :Judges school performance based on percentage of ELLs that are reclassified as fluentMandates annual secure language assessmentsWithhold funds for failure to show academic progress in English Funds are distributed by state through a formula grants based on ELLs enrollmentOBEMLA changed to OELALEAALEPSNew Jersey Laws and MandatesNew Jersey Bilingual Education Administration Code: N.J.S.A. 18A:35 Bilingual Education: 20 or more students in the district - must provide native language instruction based on the students language proficiencyAt Least 2 ESL periods: more than 10 students in the districtEnglish Language Services: less than 10 students in the districtStaff serving as ESL or Bilingual Teacher must have the respective certification: Bilingual/Bicultural Teacher or/and ESL teacherState Language proficiency assessment : ACCESS for ELLsExempt from taking the Language Arts portion of NJASK, GEPA if they have been in the country for less than 1 yearWho is considered an ELL?Born is USAMigrated to USAA student whose first language is other than English and is in the process of acquiringfull proficiencyHas grade level proficiency inthe native language or is in the elementary grades? YesNoStudent is likely to transition without major difficultiesStudent is likely to struggle with the second languageTheories & ResearchStephen KrashensComprehensible Input Form vs. FunctionLearning vs. AcquisitionJim Cummins Common Underlying ProficiencyInterdependence of First and Second LanguageComprehensible InputThomas & CollierBilingual Education in urban settingStages of Acculturation/AssimilationAcculturation Vs. AssimilationStage 1: EuphoriaExcitement, new experiencesStage 2: Culture ShockHostility, anxiety, panicStage 3: AnomieRecognize positive and negative, identity crisisStage 4: AdoptionAble to navigate the new culture, high level of comfort Activity 1 :Jose has been in this country for about two years. He is a new student at your school. What do you need to know about him? What type of services should he receive?What strategies would you use to reach him?Language AcquisitionBICSSocial language, cultural awarenessTakes approximately 3-4 yearsCALPAcademic languageTakes approximately 5-7 years Activity 2: BICS vs. CALP Explain the following messageif f(x) is defined and continuous on the interval [a,b] and differentiable on (a,b), then there is at least one number c in the interval (a,b) so that the first derivative of f(c) equals the quotient of the difference between f(b) and f(a) over b-a.In other words, there exists a point in the interval (a,b) which has a horizontal tangent. Meaning that there exists a point such that the tangent line is parallel to the line passing through (a,f(a)) and (b,f(b)). Language Proficiency (WIDA & ACCESS) Level 1: Enteringpictorial or graphic representation of the language of the content areas; words, phrases, or chunks of language when presented with one-step commands, directions, WH-questions, or statements with visual and graphic support Level 2: Beginninggeneral language related to the content areas; phrases or short sentences; oral or written language with phonological, syntactic, or semantic errors that often impede the meaning of the communication when presented with one to multiple-step commands, directions, questions, or a series of statements with visual and graphic support Language Proficiency (WIDA & ACCESS) Level 3: Developinggeneral and some specific language of the content areas; expanded sentences in oral interaction or written paragraphs; oral or written language with phonological, syntactic, or semantic errors that may impede the communication but retain much of its meaningLevel 4: Expandingspecific and some technical language of the content areas; a variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in oral discourse or multiple, related paragraphs; oral or written language with minimal phonological, syntactic, or semantic errors that do not impede the overall meaning of the communication when presented with oral or written connected discourse with occasional visual and graphic support Language Proficiency (WIDA & ACCESS) Level 5: Bridging Uses the technical language of the content areas; a variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in extended oral or written discourse, including stories, essays, or reports; oral or written language approaching comparability to that of English proficient peers when presented with grade level material Teaching StrategiesKnow the Language Proficiency Level of your students as this will determine your instruction and assessment. For example:Level 1 & 2 ELLs, their comprehension needs to be assessed through oral activities with the class, partner or team work, presentations and illustrations. Level 3 & 4: their writing should be accepted as correct even when many grammatical errors may be present and may disturb the meaning. Level 2-4, creative spelling should be encouraged throughout the lesson. Do not try to correct each grammatical errors as they are part of the natural process of Language acquisition. The materials used throughout the lesson should vary with the Language proficiency level.Teaching StrategiesTotal Physical Response ( TPR)Allow students to respond by actions rather than wordsParticularly useful during the silent period (Language Proficiency L1)Visuals and ManipulativeHands-on artifacts, realiaScaffoldingModel the skills and language, allow students to use your example and modify as neededTeaching StrategiesCooperative learning : groupsPeer tutoring, small group activitiesPlan opportunities for peer interactionMaximize the time for oral interactionError vs. Mistake error correctionDo not correct all the errors as they are part of the language acquisition processTeaching StrategiesUse authentic and functional language/lessonsNegotiate meaning, ask for clarification, argue persuasivelyComprehensible Input:Support communication with gesture and body language, paraphrase content, give additional examples, elaborate on students background knowledge, avoid jargons, run on sentences, be watchful of figurative language and idiomsWord Walls/Word Listword list reference book, writing processDifferentiated Instruction : Language ProficiencyLanguage proficiency and age appropriatenessTeaching StrategiesTeach and practice study skillsStructure note-taking, outlining, use of reference materialTeach and model reading and writing strategiesUse a variety of graphic organizersActivity 3 :Alexis has been in this country for seven years. His ACCESS score placed him at level 3 of language proficiency development. He transferred to your school in the middle of the year.What do you need to know about him?What are the challenges you will face?What strategies would you use to reach this student?

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