engleska gramtika ukratko zavod

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Page 1: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

Gtammatsumnmary

ts3ABOA 3A yU6EH]4KE

6EOTPM

Page 2: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

GRAMMAR SUMMARY S 1

THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

I Form

Positive and negativeIWeYouThey

helpdon't help

HeSheIt

helpsdoesn't help

Interrogative

Do

IWC

youthey

help.. .?

Doeshesheit

help...?

o In the present simple, we use the verb without an ending, but in the thirdperson singular the verb ends in -s or -es:I enjoy reading books. / He wants a part-time job.

o We use do/does in negatives and questions:We don't play music for money. / What does he play?

J Spell ing ruleso When the verb ends in -ch, -sh, -x, -2, -o, -s, we add -es:

e.g. watches, goes, wosheso When preceded by a consonant, y is changed to i before adding -es:

e.g. corries, flies, worries, tries

I UseThe present simple tense is used:

a. for facts and situations that we see as permanent. Michael lives in york.b. for habits and routines. My father buys a newspaper every morning.c. for general truths and laws of nature. Water boils at 100o C.d. in if-clauses. lf she invites me to her party, l'il buy her a nice present.e. instead of future tenses after: when, after, before, until, and as soon as.

We'll have dinner as soon as they arrive.

Time expressions used with the present simple tense include:o always/often / usually/sometimes/frequently / rarely /seldom / never. every (day / night / week / month / year)r in the morning (afternoon / evening)

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I Form

Positive and negative

I

HeSheIt

am / am not

is / isn'twriting

WeYouThey

are /aren't writing

I Spelling changes in the -ing form

Spell ing rules:o Some verbs in the -ing form need to double a letter:

e.g. travel - travellingo When the verb ends in -e, we take away the -e and then add -ing:

e.g. make - making

I Use

The present continuous tense is used to talk about something:a. happening at the moment or around the moment of speaking.

l'm studying biology now. /We are thinking of going on holiday.b. that we have already arranged to do in the future.

l'm meeting Marcia tonight.

Time expressions used with the present continuous tense include:. now / at the moment / at present / these days / today / tonight

Interrogative

Am

ls

I

heshei t

writing...?

AreWEyouthey

writing...?

Page 4: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

THE P PERFECT TENSEll Form

Positive and negative

X UseThe present perfect tense is used to tatk about:

a' unfinished actions that began in the past and are stit going on now.l've lived here for 5 years.b. things that have or havent happened in the recent past.I haven,t borrowed a book from the library L.."rfV."'c. your or other people,s experiences.

This is the first time he has visited serbia. / r,ve never prayed cricket.

We often use the present perfect with the following words:o with never/everHave you ever seen a ghost? / He has never ridden a motorbike.o with sincd to say when an action startedI have been ill since last week.

o with for to say how long an action has lastedHe has worked for this iorpany for ten years.o with adverbs which show that ihe period of time is not finished yet: thrsm o rn i n g/wee A m o nt h /yea r, tod ay, etc.o just (something happened a few moments ago)John hasjust gone out.

o lready (in questions and statements)You are too late. The game has already started.. y?t (in negative statements and questions)I haven,t found a job yet.

o with beforeHave you been here before?

o with the first time, the second time, etc.This is the first time l,ve seen a giiaffe.

IWeYouThey

'vghavehaveh't

written

He5heIt

'shashasn't

worked

written...?

worked...?

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I Form

Positive and negative

IYouHe

listenedSheIt

wrote

We didn't write

YouThey

didn't listen

Interrogative

Did

Iyouhesheitwe

write...?listen...?

youthey

o In the interrogative, always remember to use the auxiliary verb did.

I Spell ing rules:

The final consonant is doubled if the verb has one syllable or if the stressis on the second syllable and if it ends in consonant-vowel-consonantie.g. stop - stopped, plan - planned, omit - omitted, prefer - preferredThe final -y after a consonant is changed into -i before adding -ed:e.g.worry:worried

I Use

The past simple tense is used:a. for an action which happened at a specific time in the past.

We had a huge row last night.b. to describe a habitual action in the past.

I talked to her on the phone every day while I was on holiday.c. with when to ask questions about a definite past time.

When did you get this r ing?

Time expressions used with the past simple tense include:. yesterday / the other day / then / last week (month/yea r) / ...ago / in 2009

Page 6: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

a

a

used to + infinitiveI used to run...Did you use to run?I didn,t use fo run...

used to can be used to express habits or repeated actions in the past.We use it for a habit or action that is not true now.He used to run along the river, but now h"'i, too Oury.

J Form

Positive and negative

IHeSheIt

waswasn't

writing

WeYouThey

wereweren't listening

Interrogative

Was

Ihesheit

writing?

WereWEyouthey l istening?

I Use

The past continuous tense is used for:a. an action in progress at a stated time in the past.

He was waiting at the corner of the street at'Z oitoct<.b' a past action which. was in progress when another action interrupted it.We were going to the beach wien it started to rain.c. two or more actions happening at the same time in the past.John was waiting forTania in n-yae park whire lh;;;; shopping.

Time expressions used w*h the past continuous tense incrude:o whi le/when /as/atsot f lck rsrrrsrrrsr

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Positive and negative

IYouHe

had5heIt come.. .

WeYouThey

hadn't

I Use

The past perfect is used:o to describe a past action which happened and finished before another'

event/action in the past.The plane had taken off before we reached the airport.John remembered he had left his keys at home.

We often use the past perfect with the following words:o before / after / already/forlsince/ until /when / by / bythetime

lnterrogative

IyouhesheitWCyouthey

Had come.. .?

IYouHeSheItWeYouThey

' l l lwi l l

won'tcome.

!

Interrogative

Iyouhe'sheitWC

youthey

will come?

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GRAMMAR SUMMARY Qt

J Use

The future simple tense is used:a. for actions that we decide to do now, at the moment of speaking.

I like this dress. l'll buy it.b. to talk about things that we think or believe will happen in the future.

I believe the weather will change tomorrow.c. for promises and offers.

I promise l'll keep in touch.

We often use the future simple with the following words:. tomorrow / soon / next week (month/summer) / in a week (month)o l th ink/ lbel ieveo possibly

I Note

In English, we use several forms to express the future.o We use be going to for:

a. a decision we made earlier.l'm going to stay at home tonight.

b. something that we expect to happen.It is cloudy. lt,s going to rain

o We use the present continuous tense:a. to talk about things we have arranged to do in the future:

We're having a party on Saturday.

I Form

Positive and negative

IYouHe5he

'l l / wil l be

I t | . i l is tening.WeYouThey

won't bewill

IyouhesheitWCyouthey

be listening?

Page 9: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

a $ cneMMAR SUMMARY

J Use

The future continuous tense is used:. to express an action which will be in progress at some time in the future.

ln 2030 robots will be working in people's houses'

What will you be doing this time next year?

Time expressions used with the future continuous include:o in 2O5O lthis time next week (month/yeaO

I Form. vetb + ing

I UseWe can use the gerund:

a. as the subject or object of a sentence' Swimming is fun'

b. after prepositions. He lost weight by running a lot'

c. after certain verbs and phrases. (see'Verb Patterns'below)

I enjoy singing in the bathroom.Do you mind oPening the window?

The verbs can, m.Jst, may, sfiould and would are special kinds of auxiliary verbs -

modalverbs.Modalverbs:

o have the same form in all persons: I may, He may. form the interrogative by changing places with the subject (inversion):

I may - MaY l?

1I

Verbs followed bythe gerund

continue, enjoy, finish, keep (on), love, like, dislike, hate,

mind, miss, practise, suggest, imagine, it's not worth

choose, decide, expect, hope, manage, offer, plan,

prepare, promise, refuse, try, wantVerbs followed bythe infinitive

Page 10: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

a

a

cRAMMAR suMMAnv $ s

form the negative by adding not (n't): could not, couldn,tare always followed by another verb in the infinitive without fo:You should go.

We use must or have to to talk about obligations.You must be home by 10 otlock.I have to go. My mum is waiting for me.we use don't have to or needn't to say that something is not necessary.We don't have to hurry. /We needn't hurry.The past tense of must/have to is had to and the future is will have to.I had to go home early last night.I will have to work all night for tomorrow,s test.

o we use mustn't to show that someone is not allowed to do something.You mustn't copy during a test.

we use can /can'ttor ability - to talk about what people or things are(not) able to do.

o We can use be able to instead of can.Can you sing?'= Are you able to sing?,=,Do you know how to sing?,

o we use could and couldn't to talk about what people or things were(not) able to do in the past. we can also use was/were able to withthis meaning.

Tim could swim when he was 4. = Tim was abre to swim when he was 4.

We use con/can'tfor permission and requests. to show that you have permission.

'l can play loud music in the eveningsl=,1,m allowed to do it.,o to ask for permission.

'Can I go out tonight?'= Am I allowed to go out tonight?,. to give permission.'Yes, of course you can go out.,o to express a request - when you ask somebody to do something for

you.Can you open the window, please?

b.

a

*

*'..--..

-,,

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10 $ GRAMMAR SUMMARY

c. we use can/can'ttor possibility - to teil us if something is possible.You can learn to drive when you are 1g.You cannot play football here.

', , THE PASSIVE VOICE .,,i . .r 'We form passive verbs with the different tenses of BE + the pastpart iciple.The past participle of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the baseform of the verb: e.g. want +ed - wantedwe often use the passive when we do not know or we are not interestedin knowing who or what does something.Tea is grown in China. - We are not interested in who grows tea.Peter's car was stolen last night. - we don't know who stole the car.

The presentsimple tense am, is, are + past participle Football is played al lover

the world.

The past simpletense was, were + past participle Australia was discovered

in the l Bth century.

The presentperfect tense

has, have + been + pastpart iciple

My money has just beenstolen.

The future tense wil l + be + past part iciple The flat will be cleaned.

Modalverbs must/can/should /may+ be + past participle

Flowers should bewatered twice a week.

I Note:

We use the infinitive passive after modal verbs.This project can't be done without his help.

DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH

when we want to say what someone has said, we can use'direct speech, or'reported speechi

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ts

Direct speech:Tessa says:'l'm thirsty., (We give her exact words.)

Reported speech:Tessa says (that) she,s thirsty.

o Word changessometimes the verb form, pronouns, possessive adjectives and adverbschange in reported speech: keep --- keeps, I ___+ h€, my * his, here ___there.Peter:'l keep my books here.,Peter says that he keeps his books there.

o 'that'In reported speech we can use thaf after the reporting verb or reave itout.Michael says (fhaf) there,s a basketball match this evening.

. Reporting verbssay and teil are often used as reporting verbs, but we must be carefulwith the words that come after them:. say (that)... He says that he is leaving.. s?v + to someone (that)... He says to me that he is leaving.o tell + someone (that). . . He telts me that he is leaving.

A reported qqestion is somebody teiling us what someone erse is asking.

o we report wh-questions by using question words (e.g. what, who, which,when and how) both in direct speech and in reportej speech.

'What do you want?, (Direct question)He is asking me what I want. (Reported question)

o when there is no question word (yes/no questions), we can use if orwhether to introduce a reported question.

Are you hungry?,(Direct question)She is asking me if I am hungry. (lndirect question)She is asking me whether lam hungry.

o In reported questions,a. we often use a reporting verb ask + an object: she is asking me...

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12 I GRAMMAR SUMMARY

c.

the word order is the same as in statements, and we do not use aquestion mark (?).we do not use the auxiliary verb do (do, does, did).

Are you a student?' --) He is asking whether I am a student.Where does he play football? ---) They want to know where he plays football.Did they go out last night? ---+ She is asking if they went out last night.Have you seen my bag? ---) He wants to know if I have seen his bag.When wil lyou go home? -> He is asking when you wil lgo home.

We report positive orders with tell + object + to + infinitive.Direct speech: "Stay in bed for a few days."lndirect speech: The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.We report negative orders with tell + object + not + to + infinitive.Direct speech: "Don't forget to buy the flowers."Indirect speech: She told me not to forget to buy the flowers.We report requests with ask + object + (not) to + infinitive.Direct speech:"Will you help me with the project?"Indirect speech: She asked me to help her with the project.

b.

l f clause Main clause

lf + present simple Future (will + infinitive without to)

a

a

o

lf you finish your classes early, we will go to the cinema.

This structure is often called the'first conditionallIt is used to talk about things that are likely to happen in the future.The if-clause can come before or after the main clause.lf the weather is n,ice tomorrow, we will play basketball.We will play basketball if the weather is nice tomorrow.We put a comma when the if-clause comes first.

II

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140 GRAMMAR SUMMARY

Nouns can be countabte (books, desks, mirrors, etc.) or uncountable (sugar, flour,bread, etc.)

o The quantifiers many and a few are used with plural countable nouns.Did you see many animals at the zooT /l picked a few flowers.

o Much and a little are used with uncountable nouns.I don't drink much milk. / | need a little help.

o The comparatives /esser and fewer are used in the same way as few andlittle.

. A few and a little have a positive meaning = some.He bought a few books. / | have a little time - would you like some help?

o Few and little have a negative meaning = not manY/not much.Peter is unhappy because he has few friends.I have little milk, so I can't make a cake.

r some, any and no are used with both countable and uncountablenouns. Some and no are used with positive verbs. Any is used inquestions and with a negative verb.lcan lend you some money.Are there any trees in your garden?I have no idea.

Singular Plural

-sWith most nouns, we add -s to makethem plural

bookdog

booksdogs

-esWith nouns that end in -s, -ss, -sh,-ch, -x, we add -es

dressbrushchurchbox

dressesbrusheschurchesboxes

-f, -fe ---+ -vesFor nouns that end in -f, -fe, wechange -f, -fe to -ves

leaf wifehalf knifethief lifeloaf calf

leaves wiveshalves knivesthieves livesloaves calves

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Singular Plural

For nouns that end with a consonant+y, we change the -y to -ies

libraryfactory

l ibrariesfactories

lrregular nouns

childmanwomanpersonmousegoosetoothfoot

childrenmenwomenpeoplemice9eeseteethfeet

I FormAfter a singular noun, we add 's. Nick's roomAfter a plural noun ending in -s, we add only':my two brothers'room (= the room of my two brothers)After a plural noun not ending in -s, we add's: the children's toys

J Use

We often add the possessive's to:a. personal nouns:Tania's bagb. personal indefinite pronouns: someone's bookc. animals: the cat 's milkd. peiiods of time: a week's holiday, two months'work

I Note

Time expressions can be used as compound adjectives: number + noun olnumber + noun + adjective.e.g. a ten-man team, a three-day job, a fifty-year-old actorSuch constructions are singular in form and take a singular verb:e.g. A twenty-minute walk is good for health.

We normally use ...of.. . with things.the end of the road / the front of the house

a

o

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16 $ GRAMMARSUMMARY

...of...+ possessive 's / pronounMarcia is a friend of Nick's. (One of Nick,s friends)

we use an /en/ before words beginning with vowel sounds. we use a /o/ beforeall other words. Give me an egg. / She,s a doctor.

We use a /an:. only with singular countable nouns: a tabte / an appleo totalkaboutpeople'sjobs: Sheisa photographer.. to describe things or people: peter is a talt boy.

We use /6i:/ before words beginning with vowel sounds and /6e/ before all otherwords.

We use the:o with singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns, and uncountable

nouns.the door / the mountains / the water

o when it is clear which person or thing we are talking about.l'm going to the bank. (my bank, where I keep my money)

r to talk about people and things that we have already mentioned.I bought a dress and a skirt. The dress was very expensive, but the skirtwas cheap.

o when there is only one of something.the sun / the moon / the sky / the earth / the"wodd / the president

o when we talk about something in part icular "The books I bought yesterday were expensive.

o with musical instrdments. I can play the guitar.o with superlatives. This is the most beautiful flower in the garden.o with ordinal numbers. He was the first to come.o with plural family 4ames. The Gills are coming tomorrow.o with nationalities. The French like to drink wine.

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GRAMMARSUMMARY $ Tz

r with the names of oceans, seas, rivers, groups of mountains, cinemas,theatres and museums.the Atlantic Ocean / the Sava / the Alps / the NationalTheatre / theBrit ish Museum

o before names with of: the Houses of Parliament / the Statue of Liberty

NO ARTICLE

We don't use an article with:o plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns when we talk

about something in general.Mobile phones are useful. / | eat bread every day.

o the names of continents, countries, towns, villages, individualmountains, lakes, streets and parks.Europe / Spain / Belgrade / Mount Everest / Lake Michigan / Broadway /Hyde Park

o before the names of meals (breakfast,lunch, dinner, supper) when theyare used in a general sense. I usually have breakfast at B.

o with the names of sports and games. Cricket is his favourite sport.e in some expressions, usually after a preposition I go to school / stay in bed

/ be in hospital / at school/ at sea / at work I go to school by bus.

PRONOUNS

5ubjectpronouns

Objectpronouns

Reflexivepronouns

Possessivepronouns

Indefinitepronouns

something/anythingsomebody/anybodysomeone/anyonenothingnobodyno one/no-onenone

me myself mtne

you (sing.) you yourself yourshe him himself his

she her herself hers

it it itself its

we us ourselves oursyou (plural) you yourselves yoursthey them themselves theirs

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18 $ GRAMMARSUMMARY

I Note:Possessive adjectives: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, theirI ndefi nite adverbs: somewhere, a nywhere, nowherelndefinite pronouns:

o We usually use something somebody, someone and somewhere inpositive sentences.I have something to tell you.Somebody has broken my glasses.She lives somewhere near my grandparents.

o We usually use anything anybody, anyone and anywhere in negativesentences and in questions.I didn't know anybody on the first day at school.Did you understand anything that our teacher was saying?"I don't want to go anywhere on holiday.

o We use nothing nobody, no one and nowhere with positive verbs, butwith a negative meaning.There is nobody outside.Nothing can make her happy.

Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun.We use:a. who/whom oi that for people.

She spoke to the woman who is her new neighbour.b. which or that for things and animals.

Did you see the keys which were on the table?c. whose for possession. That is the singer whose CDs I collect.d. where for places. The hotel where we stayed was very old.

singular pluralpersonalpronoun reflexive pronoun

personalpronoun reflexive pronoun

myself we ourselvesyou yourself you yourselveshe himself they themselvesshe herselfit itself

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cRAMMARSUMMAnv $ rs

I Useo We use reflexive pronouns when the subject of the sentence is

somebody or something that is also the object of the sentence.John cut himself.

Here are some examples of how the comparative and superlative forms ofadjectives are made:

I Noteo The forms elder, the eldest are used only for members of the family:

e.g. my elder sister; my eldest brother.

Adjective Comparative Superlative

short shorter the shortest

big bigger the biggest

easy easrer the easiest

beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful

lrregular comparison

good better the best

bad worse the worst

little less the least

much, many more the most

far fartherfurther

the farthestthe furthest

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20 O GRAMMAR SUMMARY

We use as + adjective + as to say that two things or people are the samein some way.Jim is as tall as his brother.We use not as + adjective + as to talk about a difference between twothings or people.l'm not as clever as her.We can also use as + adverb + as.I can run as quickly as Mary.

Adjectives ending in -ed describe someone's feelings.I was excited while I was visiting the island.Adjectives ending in -ing describe the things or people that cause thatfeeling. The book was fascinating.

ADVERBSAn adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. An adverb can tell us when,where or how.tr Adverbs of manner say how something happens.

FormI Most adverbs of manner are made by adding -ly to an adjective:

e.g. quick -quickly beautiful - beautifully

-

Exceptions:

adjectives adverbshard hardfast fastgood well

Spelling changes:

adjectives adverbshappyeasy

happilyeasily

comfortable comfortably

tr Adverbs of place say where something happens:e.g. here, there, somewhere, everywhere, upstairs, downstairs, inside, outside, inthe park.

tr Adverbs of time say when something happens:e.g. yesterday, today, nowadays, tomorrow tonight, soon, early, then, now later,d oi ly, weekly, month ly.

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cRAMMAR suMMARv $ zr

ve.rb+object +adverbor verb+adverb

Then the fire died slowly down.She put the book carefully into her bag.

o lf there is more than one adverb, the usual order is:

manner+place+ t ime(how) (where) (when)

They will drive quickly through the Park in her father's car.She worked hard at home all day yesterday.

o Adverbs oftime and longerexpressions like now and then,from timetotime, once o week, every summer can come at the beginning or the end of asentence: Last winter we went to the mountains.

o Often, sometimes, always, usually, ever, never are placed before a main verb,but after be or an auxiliary verb:We have just finished our dinner.He is really happy.

o Adverbslike fairly, quite, pretty, rather, very can be used before adjectives oradverbs to give them stronger meanings.It's a pretty stupid idea. / l'm rather untidy. /The film was quite good.

o Quite and rather can also modify verbs.I quite agree. I rather like this.

o The comparative of most adverbs is formed with more and the superlativewith most She drives more carefully than her husband. He sings mostbeautifully.

o The comparative of short adverbs (only one syllable and also the adverbearly) is formed by adding -er, and the superlative by adding -est.I work harder than my friends.

The following adverbs are compared irregularly:well- better- bestbadly-worse-worstl i t t le- less- least

much-more-mostfar-further-furthestor farther - farthest

tE.

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22 E GRAMMAR SUMMARY

VERBS, NOUNS AND ADJECTIVESFOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS

Verb +preposition

apologize for

apply to

argue with

arrive in / at

believe in

belong to

care for / abost

consist of

depend on

die from

disagree about

dream of labout

give birth to

hear about

involve in

laugh at

listen to

look at / for

rely on

search for

speak / talk to

stick to

suffer from

wait for

Noun + preposition

an answer to

an entrance to

an invitation to

a keyto

a reply to

a solution to

an effect on

a guarantee on

a demand for

a reason for

a need for

a relationship with(someone)

an advantage /disadvantage of

a picture / photographof

an example of

an increase in

Adjective + preposition

afraid lscared / ashamed/ proud / jealous /capable of (someone /something)

angry / annoyed withsomeone for something

crowded with

desperate for

different from

famous for

/good/kind/pat ient

:r'"no'u.:.interested in

keen on (something)

married to (someone)

similar to (something)

(be) sorry for

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Lrsr oF TRREGUTAR vERBS S zg

Infinitive

be /bi:/become/br'k^m/

begin /bi'gin/bite lbart/blow /bleo/break /brelk/bring /bng/build /bild /burn /bs:n/buy lbarlcatch /kret/choose /t[u:z/come /kt'.m/cut ktyt/cost /kost/do /du:/dtaw /drc:/drink /dnrJk/eat /i:t/feed /fi:d/feel /fi:l/ \ \find /faind/fly /flai/forget /fe'get/freeze /fri.z/get /get/give /givlgo /geulgrow /greu,/have /hav/hear fttie/h,t lhit/hurt /ht:t/keep /ki:p/

PastTense

was/were /woz, ws:/became/br'kerm/

began /b1'gnn/bit /bfi/blew /blu:/broke /break/brought /brc:t/built /bilt/burnt /bs:nt/bought /bc:t/caught /kc:t/chose /'tletz/came /keim/cut lktrt/cost /kost/did ldtd/drew /dru:ldrank /drnqk/ate /et/fed /fed/felt lfelt/found /faund/flew /flu:/forgot /fe'got/froze /freuz/got lgotlgave /geivlwent /went/grew /gru:/had /hnd/heard /hz:d/hit /hit/hurt /hs:t/kept /kept/

Past Participle

been /bi:n/become lbr'ktm/begun lbi'gz'n/bitten /bftn/blown lblaan/broken /breakn/brought /brc:t/built /bilt/burnt /bs:nt/bought /bc:t/caught /kc:t/chosen /'tleuzn/come /krrm/cut ktyt/cost /kost/done /dzrn/drawn /drc:n/drunk ldrqk/eaten /'i:tn/led /fed/felt lfelt/found /faund/flown /flettn/forgotten /fe'gotn/frozen lfreuzn/got lgot/given /givn/gone /gon/grown /greun/had lha,d/heard /hs:d/hit ltlit/hurt /hs:t/kept /kept/

6nrn

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cehyr

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qprarn, syhnnnrnjecrm

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Page 24: Engleska Gramtika Ukratko Zavod

24 i rrsT oF TRREGUIAR VERBS

lnfinitive

know/neo/

leave /li:v/lend /lend/lose /llu.,z/make lmelk/meet /mi:t/pay /pei/put /put/read /id/ride lraid/rise lraiz/run /rttn/say /sei/see /si:/

sell/sel/

send /send/shoot /Ju:t/shut {rtlsing /sig/

sit /sit/speak/spi:k/

spend /spend/stand /stnnd/swim /swim/take /teiVtell ltel/think /0ir1k/throw /Qreu/understand

/nnde'staend/wear /wee/win /win/write lruit/

PastTense

knew/nju:/

left /left/lent /lent/lost /lost/made lmeid/met /met/paid /peid/put/put/

read /red/rode /reud/tose lreuz/rcn lrnn/said /sed/saw /gt:/

sold /seuld/sent /sent/shot {otlshut {rtlsang /sreg/sat /sat/spoke /speuk/spent /spent/stood /stnd/swam /swpm/took /tuk/told iteuldlthought /0c:t/threw /9rt:/understood

/zrnde'stud/wore /wc:/won /wln/wrote lreut/

Past Participle

known lnean/leftAeft/

lent /lent/lost /lost/made/meid/

met /met/paid /peid/put/put/

read lred/ridden /ridn/rlsen lrizn/run /un/

said /sed/seen /si:n/iiolil lseuld/sent /sent/shot {otlshut {rtlsung /slr1/

sat lsnt/spoken /speukn/

:.Pggl/spent/stood lstud/swum /swzrm/taken lterkn/

told /teuld/thouqht /0c:t/

thrown /Qreun/understood

hnds'stud/worn /wc:n/won /wrrn/written /ritnl

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-apehn "7

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