Engage their Brains!

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Engage their Brains!. Multisensory Activities to Promote Reading Success. Education. The only profession whose job is to change the human brain EVERY DAY . Neuroscience & Learning In the News. Brain Facts True or False?. True or False?. The average adult brain weighs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Engage their Brains!

Engage their Brains!Multisensory Activities to Promote Reading Success

*EducationThe only profession whose job is to change the human brain

EVERY DAY.Eric Jensen

An article by Ansari entitled "The Brain Goes to School: Strengthening the Education-Neuroscience Connection," will be published in the upcoming Education Canada, the magazine of the Canadian Education Association. In the article Ansari says technological advances such as fMRI have provided unprecedented insights into the working of the human brain."A teacher who understands brain structure and function will be better equipped to interpret children's behaviours, their strengths and weaknesses, from a scientific point of view, and this will in turn influence how they teach," says Ansari.

*Neuroscience & LearningIn the NewsJust a sampling of all the buzz out there right now regarding neuroscience!

Reading is the most researched academic subject.*Brain Facts True or False?

*True or False?The average adult brain weighs 10 pounds and uses 40% of the bodys oxygen.FALSE The average adult human brain weighs 3 pounds and uses 20% of the bodys oxygen.

*True or False?The brain needs 8 12 glasses of water a day for optimal functioning.TRUE The brain needs 8 12 glasses of water a day for optimal functioning. The brain consists of 78% water and it needs to keep hydrated. Dehydration is a common problem in school classrooms leading to lethargy and impaired learning. (Hannaford, 1995)The brain receives 8 gallons of blood an hour (about 198 gallons a day!)*True or False?The brain is hard wired what you were born with is what you have until you die.

FALSE The reason we can learn new habits and skills that are not innate is the brain is plastic throughout life. Neuroplasticity is a characteristic of the brain that allows it to be shaped by experience. (Merzenich, et. al.)

*Are kids today biologically different than 30 years ago?Consuming more additivesAre childrens brains really any different today than they were 30-40 years ago?Interestingly, there is some evidence that children today are less prepared for school than they were one or two generations ago. They are more aggressive, stressed, scattered and unfocused (Healy, 1990) due to overscheduling/too many activities! Crazy Busy by Dr. Ed Hallowell

So, here are some differences in how children grow up today as compared to 30 years ago: eating more processed food

*More exposure to drugs and use of medicationRestricted movement due to hours spent strapped in a car seatMore sedentary entertainment with video games and televisiontaking more medicationsrestricted in a car seat for more hours a day running from one activity to another (in 1960, by the age of 2, a child had spent about 200 hours in a car. Today, by the age of 2, kids have spent 500 hours or more strapped in a car seat!)

computers and tv are the babysitter (average time a child spends plugged in to technology in one year is.2,372 hours (3.5 months) For young children, the fast-paced images provide no time for the childs brain to process the vocabulary and often contains abstract information that does not exist in the childs environment.

lack of physical activity

*Unhealthy living conditions due to limited resources of families and single parent households (lead paint)Less early motor stimulation from swings, see-saws, etc. due to safety concerns *Kids need early motor stimulation with swinging, rolling, crawling, jumping all of these are essential for the vestibular (inner ear) and cerebellum (motor) system which is the first system to develop. Something as simple as a baby spending time on the floor crawling is a very important early motor activity that helps form the connection between both sides of the brain.

Kids raised in unhealthy living situations.

Learning language is an early test of our brains learning system

At birth, we have equal potential to learn any languageBy 6 months, we begin to build the phonemes specific to our native language based on experienceThe Brain Comes Wired for Sound!*A developing brain grows so fast, counting brain cells is like trying to count snowflakes in a blizzard (Neurologist Peter Huttenlocher, University of Chicago).

During the first month of life, the number of connections or synapses, dramatically increases from 50 trillion to 1 quadrillion. If an infant's body grew at a comparable rate, his weight would increase from 8.5 pounds at birth to 170 pounds at one month old. A child's ability to learn can increase or decrease by 25 percent or more, depending on whether he or she grows up in a stimulating environment.

Babies and children need stimulation to learn, it does not happen naturally or by chance.

Experiences which occur in an enriched and loving environment can boost the number of brain connections that children form and keep. All words spoken to babies contribute to language development of vocabulary, grammar, sentence structure and lays the groundwork for reading readiness.

Children who are most at risk for reading failure enter kindergarten without early stimulating literacy experiences. (G. Reid Lyon, 1998)

Language Experiences*Words Heard per hourAffirmatives per hourProhibitions per hourProfessional Family Child2153325Working Class Family Child1251127Low SES Family Child616511Language Experiences by GroupMeaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995).*Language Experiences by GroupMeaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995). 12 24 36 48(Age Child in Months)Estimated Cumulative Words Addressed to Child (In Millions)Working-class26 Million WordsLow SES13 Million WordsProfessional45 Million Words*90% of a young childs knowledge is

gained from hearing background

conversation. The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading GrowthHirsch, 1996 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1616151413121110 9 8 7 6 5Reading Age LevelChronological AgeLow Oral Language in KindergartenHigh Oral Language in Kindergarten5.2 years differenceThe typical middle class child is read to 1,000 to 1,700 hours before entering first grade. A child from a low-income family is read to an average of 25 hours (Rebecca Novik, Many Paths to Literacy, 2002)

By 1st grade, there is about a 15,000 word gap just in vocabulary. Louisa Moats**background knowledge

A childs ability to learn can increase, or decrease, by 25% or more depending on whether or not they grow up in a stimulating/enriched environment.

*You are born with~100 billion brain cellsThere are ~ 15,000 synaptic connections for each cellGrowth of the Brain Occurs from the Inside Out and the Bottom UpNew synapses usually appear after learning.

The first 48 hours of life are critical to brain development. Experiences of the first year of life can completely change the way a person turns out (Henry Chugani, Wayne State neurobiologist).

Connections need to be formed between the neurons. These connections, called synapses, form critical pathways that permit information to travel through the brain. A childs capacity to learn is directly related to the number of pathways that are formed and strengthened. Talking and reading to babies helps brain neurons to connect.

*Reading is Not InnateThe human brain is not born with the insight to make sound-to-letter connections

Only through practice can the learning challenges of a written system be resolved

Language is natural.Reading is NOTThere is no READING CENTER in the brain! * Reading: Mastering an Invented SystemMany Cognitive Skills NeededVisual processingPhonological processingShort term memoryProcessing rateDecodingWord identificationWord memoryText ComprehensionTextcat*Reading is an invented system. It is not a natural act for the brain. It is a system the brain must master. It is a concise, timed process.

Once the brain registers the print the cognitive skills start their performance beginning with the act of decoding. Once the letters of the text are identified and matched with their appropriate phonemes the data passes to word memory. At this point the brain is deciding does this text have meaning for me, is it in my mental dictionary is it part of my mental vocabulary. If it is, then comprehension takes place.

If the word is not in the students speaking/hearing vocabulary, then the word holds no meaning for the student. This is why language experience and acquisition of vocabulary is so important.

To be an efficient, effective reader this process needs to automatic for the majority of the text a student encounters reading is about automaticity.

For people with dyslexia, their timing for processing the pieces of a word are slightly off making it very difficult to read efficiently. (if you go to readingrockets.com, there is a PBS documentary called The Reading Brain).A few statisticsFifteen percent of the U.S. population, or one in seven Americans, has some type of learning disability.(National Institutes of Health)*Children with learning disabilities are as smart or smarter than their peers. But they may have difficulty reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways.Learning disabilities often run in families (genetically-based).

***The Learning Brain (Brain Plasticity)How are memories formed?Neurons and Synaptic ConnectionsConditions i