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  • -., . - . - raf

    0000059856 Energy saver power factor controller for indudion motor / Mohd Hilmy AWullah Zawawi.

    ENERGY SAVER POWER FACTOR

    CONTROLLER FOR INDUCTION MOTOR

    MOHD HILMY BIN ABDULLAH ZAWAWI

    APRIL 2008

    . : ..,,. . .

  • "I hereby declared that I have read through this report and found that it has comply the

    partial fulfillment for awarding the degree of Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Power

    Electronic and Drive)"

    Signature . .. . ALIAS B i b gtt4W5 Supervisor's name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Date : 3e/$[?.8.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • ENERGY SAVER POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER

    FOR INDUCTION MOTOR

    MOHD HILMY BIN ABDULLAH ZAWAWI

    This Report is Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of Requirement For The Degree o f

    Bachelor In Electrical Engineering (Power Electronic And Drive)

    Faulti Kejuruteraan Elecktrik

    Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

    APRIL 2008

  • "I hereby declared that this report is a result of my own work except for excerpts that

    have been cited clearly in the references"

    Signature . . . . . . .

    Name

    Date

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    In submitting this report, I would like to thanks Encik Alias Bin Khamis, my

    Projek Sarjana Muda supervisor, for his guidance and participation in conducting my

    project. His knowledge and insight were invaluable in identifying problem solving

    solutions regarding to my project. I also would like to thanks all the lectures and my

    friends who have been involving in sharing their knowledge and providing their

    comments which I have took as important measure for me in completing this project.

  • ABSTRACT

    The purpose of this project is to implement the energy saver power factor

    controller for alternating current (AC) induction motor. Energy savings for induction

    motor can be realized with adjustable speed operation. As the speed varies with load, the

    power consumption characteristic of the motor will also varies.

    The control of power consumption to save energy usage is done by using the

    Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) or its other name, Variable Speed Drive. VFD is a

    controller that varies the speed of an induction motors. It consists of a rectifier,

    intermediate direct current (DC) circuit, an inverter, and a controller.

    The operating speed of an induction motor which is connected to a VFD is

    varied by changing the frequency of the motor's supply voltage. Output frequency and

    voltage is controlled electronically by controlling the voltage pulse width to the motor.

    These techniques require switching the inverter power devices ON and OFF many times

    to generate proper RMS voltage level. This action allows continuous process speed

    control. The power factor of variable frequency drive is discussed.

  • Tujuan projek ini adalah untuk mengaplikasikan penjimat tenaga pengawal

    faktor kuasa untuk motor aruhan arus ulang alik. Penjimatan tenaga untuk motor jenis

    ini boleh dilaksanakan dengan kaedah kawalan kelajuan motor. Apabila kelajuan

    berubah mengikut beban motor, kadar penggunaan tenaga motor juga akan berubah.

    Kawalan penggunaan kuasa elektrik untuk menjimatkan tenaga dapat dilakukan

    dengan menggunakan 'Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)' atau dengan nama lainnya

    'Variable Speed Drive'. VFD adalah pengawal yang mengubah kelajuan motor aruhan

    mengikut keadaan. Ia terdiri daripada pengubah AC-DC, pengubah DC-AC, dan

    pengawal.

    Kelajuan operasi motor aruhan yang menggunakan VFD diubah dengan

    mengubah frekuensi voltan masukan motor. Frekuansi dan voltan keluaran VFD dikawal

    secara elektronik dengan mengawal kelebaran denyutan voltan masukan. Teknik ini

    memerlukan operasi BUKA dan TUTUP berulang kali suis elekronik yang terdapat pada

    VFD untuk menghasilkan tahap voltan keluaran yang sesuai. Proses ini membolehkan

    kawalan kelajuan motor aruhan secara berterusan. Faktor kuasa motor dengan

    menggunakan VFD akan dibincangkan dalam laporan ini.

  • CONTENTS

    CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    ABSTRACT

    CONTENTS

    LIST OF FIGURES

    LIST OF TABLES

    LIST OF APPENDIX

    1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Problem Statement

    1.2 Project Objectives

    1.3 Project Scopes

    1.4 Project Planning

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    -2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Introduction to Power Factor

    2.3 Induction Motor

    2.4 Energy Saving for Induction Motor

    2.5 Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)

    2.5.1 Applications of VFD

    2.6 Other Energy Saving Power Factor Correction Method

    2.6.1 Installing Capacitor banks to improved System power factor

    2.6.2 Selecting Suitable Motor

    1

    . . i1

    iv

    vi i

    xi

    xii

  • 2.6.3 Minimize operation of idling or lightly loaded 18 motor

    2.7 Summary 18

    3 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Induction Motor Construction

    3.3 Basic Operation of Induction Motor

    3.4 Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit

    3.5 Components of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)

    3.5.1 Rectifier

    3.5.2 DC Bus (Filter)

    3.5.3 Inverter

    3.5.4 Drive Controller

    3.5.5 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Signal

    3.6 Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Control Methods

    3.6.1 Volts/Hertz Control

    3.6.2 Vector Control

    3.7 Summary

    4 METHODOLOGY

    4.1 Project Development

    4.2 Simulation Part Process

    4.3 Software

    4.3.1 MATLab

    4.3.2 Orcad PSpice 9.1

    4.4 Simulation

    4.4.1 Induction Motor Torque Speed Characteristic Curve

    4.4.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

    4.4.3 Three Phase Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

    4.4.4 Simulation of induction motor with VFD

    4.4.5 Simulation of induction motor operation without

  • using VFD 4.4.6 Single Phase Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier 5 8

    4.5 Hardware Development 60

    4.5.1 Hardware Testing 63

    4.6 Experiments 63

    4.7 Summary 64

    5 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    5.1 Induction Motor Torque Speed Characteristic

    5.1.1 Variable Voltage Fixed Frequency Control Analysis

    5.1.2 Fixed Voltage Variable Frequency Control Analysis

    5.1.3 Variable Voltage Variable Frequency Control Analysis

    5.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

    5.3 Three Phase Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

    5.4 Simulation of induction motor with VFD

    5.5 Simulation of induction motor operation without 76

    5.6 Single Phase Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier 78

    5.7 Hardware Testing

    5.8 Experiment

    5.8.1 Power Factor As a hnction of Mechanical Load 82 Torque Experiment

    5.8.2 ABB ACS550-01 Low Voltage AC Drive 83

    5.9 Summary 8 5

    6 CONCLUSION 86

    6.1 Recommendation 8 7

    REFERENCE 8 8

    APPENDIXA : VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE A1 AND POWER FACTOR

    APPENDIX B : DSP APPROACH B1

  • LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Title Page

    Power triangle 6

    Power factor improvement power triangle 15

    Induction motor construction 19

    Induction motor stator construction 20

    Induction motor rotor construction 2 1

    Equivalent circuit of induction motor 23

    Equivalent circuit of induction motor referred to stator 24

    Variable Frequency Drive Circuit 26

    Three-phase Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier 27

    Source voltage and resultant DC waveform 28

    Inverter circuit 30

    Basic PWM generation method 32

    PWM Signal 33

    Three phase PWM generation, Phase voltage (Van and Vbn), and 34

    Line voltage (Vab)

    Block diagram of Vector Controlled VFD 37

    Project methodology flowchart 3 9

    Simulation part flowchart 4 1

    MATLAB window 43

    m-file window 44

    Simulink project window 44

    Orcad Capture CIS project window 4 5

    Basic PWM signal generation block diagram 5 1

  • Simulation Parameters

    Three phase PWM generation block diagram

    Sine wave generator configuration

    Simulink Block Diagram of VFD driving Induction Motor

    (a) Asynchronous Machine Parameter

    (b) Universal Bridge Parameter configurations

    Simulink Discrete 3-phase PWM Generator block

    Simulation Configuration Parameters

    Simulink block diagram of induction motor simulation

    AC Voltage source configuration

    PSpice model of Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier with filter

    capacitor

    PSpice model of Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier without filter

    capacitor

    (a) SG3525A PWM generator circuit

    (b) PCB layout for SG3525 PWM generator circuit

    DC-to-AC inverter circuit

    PCB layout for AC-to-DC converter and DC-to-AC inverter

    circuit

    (a) Ferric Chloride acid (right) and PCB developer - thiner

    (b) Etching process

    Constructed hardware board

    (a) SG3525A PWM Generator

    (b) AC-to-DC converter and DC-to-AC inverter board

    Hardware testing setup

    ABB ACS550-01 Low Voltage AC Drive

    Nameplate of induction motor used in the experiment

    (a) Voltage versus frequency for VVFF.

    (b) Variable voltage fixed frequency torque-speed curve

    (a) Voltage versus frequency for VFVF

    (b) Fixed voltage variable frequency torque-speed curve

  • (a) Voltage versus frequency for VVVF

    (b) VVVF torque-speed characteristics

    PWM simulation output waveforms

    (a) Sine input and high frequency carri

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