Energy Management1

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<p>The time value of moneyMoney received today is worth more than the same sum received in the future, i.e. it has atime value.This occurs for three reasons: potential for earning interest/cost of finance impact of inflation effect of risk.Discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques take account of this time value of money when appraising investments.CompoundingA sum invested today will earn interest. Compounding calculates the future or terminal value of a given sum invested today for a number of years.To compound a sum, the figure is increased by the amount of interest it would earn over the period.Formula for compounding:To speed up the compounding calculation, we can use a formula to calculate the future value of a sum invested now. The formula is:F = P(1 + r)nwhere F = Future value after n periodsP = Present or Initial valuer = Rate of interest per periodn = Number of periods</p> <p>4.6 TIME VALUE OF MONEY CONCEPTS4.6.1 IntroductionMost people have an intuitive sense of the time value of money. Given a choice between $100 today and $100 one year from today, almost everyone would prefer the $100 today. Why is this the case? Two primary factors lead to this time preference associated with money; interest and inflation. Interest is the ability to earn a return on money which is loaned rather than consumed. By taking the $100 today and placing it in an interest bearing bank account (i.e., loaning it to the bank), one year from today an amount greater than $100 would be available for withdrawal. Thus, taking the $100 today and loaning it to earn interest, generates a sum greater than $100 one year from today and thus is preferred. The amount in excess of $100 that would be available depends upon the interest rate being paid by the bank. The next section develops the mathematics of the relationship between interest rates and the timing of cash flows. The second factor which leads to the time preference associated with money is inflation. Inflation is a complex subject but in general can be described as a decrease in the purchasing power of money. The impact of inflation is that the basket of goods a consumer can buy today with $100 contains more than the basket the consumer could buy one year from today. This decrease in purchasing power is the result of inflation.</p> <p>Relevance:It is the fact that cash flows occur over the investments life that requires the introduction of time value of money concepts to properly evaluate investments. If multiple investments are being evaluated and if the lives of the investments are not equal, special consideration must be given to the issue of selecting an appropriate planning horizon for the analysis. A convenient way to display the revenues (savings) and costs associated with an investment is a cash flow diagram. By using a cash flow diagram, the timing of the cash flows are more apparent and the chances of properly applying time value of money concepts are increased. With practice, different cash flow patterns can be recognized and they, in turn, may suggest the most direct approach for analysis. Time value of money problems involving compound interest are common. Because of this frequent need, tables of compound interest time value of money factors can be found in most books and reference manuals that deal with economic analysis. The factor (1+i)n is known as the single sum, future worth factor or the single payment, compound amount factor. This factor is denoted (F|P,i,n) where F denotes a future amount, P denotes a present amount, i is an interest rate (expressed as a percentage amount), and n denotes a number of years. The factor (F|P,i,n) is read to find F given P at i% for n years. Tables of values of (F|P,i,n) for selected values of i and n are provided in Appendix 4A. The tables of values in Appendix 4A are organized such that the annual interest rate (i) determines the appropriate page, the time value of money factor (F|P) determines the appropriate column, and the number of years (n) determines the appropriate row.</p> <p>Time value of money factors are useful in economic analysis because they provide a mechanism to accomplish two primary functions:(1) they allow us to replace a cash flow at one point in time with an equivalent cash fl ow (in a time value of money sense) at a different point in time and (2) they allow us to convert one cash fl ow pattern to another (e.g., convert a single sum of money to an equivalent cash fl ow series or convert a cash fl ow series to an equivalent single sum).</p> <p>Wind CharacteristicsSitingThe wind characteristics given in Figure 16.21 are simple average values. The wind is almost always quite variable in both speed and direction. Gusting is a rapid up-and-down change in wind speed and/or direction. An important characteristic of the wind is the number of hours that the wind exceeds a particular speed. This information can be expressed as speed-duration curves, such as those shown in Figure 16.25 for three sites in the United States. These curves are similar to the loadduration curves used by electric utilities. Because the power density of the wind depends on the cube of the wind speed, the distribution of annual average energy density of winds of various speeds will be quite different for two sites with different average wind speeds. A comparison between sites having average velocities of 13 and 24 miles/hr (5.8 and 10.7 meters/sec) is given in Figure 16.25. The area under the curve is indicative of the total energy available per unit area per year for each case. Sites should be selected where the wind speed is as high and steady as possible. Rough terrain and the presence of trees or building should be avoided. The crest of a well-rounded hill is ideal in most cases, whereasa peak with sharp, abrupt sides might be very unsatisfactory, because of fl ow reversals near the ground. Mountain gaps that might produce a funneling effect could be most suitable.</p> <p>Wind Speed PatternsWind speed patterns can be depicted as awind speed spectrum. A high value indicates a significant change in wind speed over the corresponding time period. Although this graph is obviously site-specific, there are distinctive similarities. A typical graph is shown on the right.The peaks in the wind speed spectrum account for annual, seasonal and daily patterns as well as short-term turbulences. A striking phenomenon is the spectral gap between time periods of 10 minutes to 2 hours.These patterns are important not only for yield estimations, but also for forecasting of wind power output.</p> <p>Wind Speed Distribution: The Macrometeorological RangeLarge-scale movements of air masses account for 3 peaks on the macrometeorological side of the spectrum.1. Diurnal Patterncaused by different temperatures at day and night. This effect is more distinct at coastal sites than off-shore.2. Depressions and Anti-cyclonesusually occur with periods of about 4 days. Tthis phenomenon is more distinct in oceanic than continental regions.3. Annual Patternvaries with the degree of latitude and vanishes in close proximity to the equator.The distribution of hourly average wind speeds (i.e. excluding turbulence) can be described by a so-called Weibull distribution:</p> <p>with ashape factor kand ascaling factor A. The dimensionless shape factor reflects the influence of the topography on wind speeds and ranges between 1.2 (mountains) to 4.0 (monsoon regions). The scaling factor A is roughly 125% of the average annual wind speed. Alternatively, the following relationship between average wind speed, shape factor and scaling factor can be used:</p> <p>where (x) is the gamma-function. In practice, the wind distribution is measured first, and then the parameters are adapted and used for further calculations.</p> <p>Micro-meteorological Range: TurbulenceOne of the main characteristics of wind its high temporal variations. Wind speeds can double or triple within seconds, meaning power increased 8 or 27 times! Turbulence intensity increases with obstacles such as buildings, tress or steep mountain tops. Sites with high average wind speeds tend to suffer less from turbulence.</p> <p>Distribution of Wind Direction</p> <p>Although not of interest for the site selection, the distribution of the wind direction is important for the layout of a wind farm. This is done in three steps:1. Measure the time wind blows in each direction - sector. One sector may cover 10 - 30. In the diagram, wind blows south more than 20% of the time, whereas south-east only 5%.2. Measure the mean wind speed in each direction.3. Combine both measurements by multiplying the time with the cubic speed for each sector individually to get the distribution of energy across all directions, as the energy content per sector is Time x v.</p> <p>Wind Shear Profile</p> <p>Typically, winds increase further off the ground, a microscale phenomenon calledwind shear. How much the wind speeds increase with height depends not only on prevailing wind speeds at other heights, but also on the type of surface. Given a wind speed (v1) at one height (h1), the wind speed at another height (h2) can be calculated as follows:</p> <p>where z0is an index that describes the roughness of the surface. Values for the roughness index range from 0.01 for flat landscapes to 2.0 in town centres. Two important insights follow from this: In rough areas, especially built-up areas, the height of the turbine hub is much more important than off-shore, as wind speed change slower along the distance from the surface. For large turbines, the difference between the wind speed experienced by blade tips at top and bottom vary much more in rough areas - forces that cause additional wear and tear. </p> <p>Solar CollectorsA wide variety of devices may be used to collect solar energy. A general classification of types is given in Figure 16.3. Tracking-type collectors are usually used where relatively high temperatures (above 250F) are required. These types of collectors are discussed at the end of this section. The more common fixed, flat-plate collector will be discussed first, followed by a discussion of tube-type or mildly concentrating collectors. The flat-plate collector is a device, usually faced to the south (in the northern parts of the globe) and usually at some fixed angle of tilt from the horizontal. Its purpose is to use the solar radiation that falls upon it to raise the temperature of some fluid to a level above the ambient conditions. That heated fluid, in turn, may be used to provide hot water or space heat, to drive an engine or a refrigerating device, or perhaps to remove moisture from a substance. A typical glazed flat-plate solar collector of the liquid type is shown in Figure 16.4. The suns radiation has a short wavelength and easily passes through the glazing (or glazings), with only about 10 to 15% of the energy typically reflected and absorbed in each glazing. The sunlight that passes through is almost completely absorbed by the absorber surface and raises the absorber temperature. Heat loss out the back from the absorber plate is minimized by the use of insulation. Heat loss out the front is decreased somewhat by the glazing, since air motion is restricted. The heated</p> <p>absorber plate also radiates energy back toward the sky, but this radiation is longer-wavelength radiation and most of this radiation not reflected back to the absorber by the glazing is absorbed by the glazing. The heated glazing, in turn, converts some of the absorbed energy back to the air space between it and the absorber plate. The trapping of sunlight by the glazing and the consequent heating is known as the greenhouse effect. Energy is removed from the collector by the coolant fluid. A steady condition would be reached when the absorber temperature is such that losses to the coolant and to the surroundings equal the energy gain from the solar input. When no energy is being removed from the collectors by the coolant, the collectors are said to be at stagnation. For a well-designed solar collector, that stagnation temperature may be well above 300F. This must be considered in the design of solar collectors and solar systems, since loss of coolant pumping power might be expected to occur sometime during the system lifetime. A typical coolant flow rate for flat-plate collectors is about 0.02 gpm/ft2 of collector surface (for a 20F rise). The fraction of the incident sunlight that is collected by the solar collector for useful purposes is called the collector efficiency. This efficiency depends upon several variables, which might change for a fixed absorber plate design and fixed amount of back and side insulation.These are:1. Rate of insolation2. Number and type of glazing3. Ambient air temperature4. Average (or entering) coolant fluid temperaturePaybackThe payback period is the time a project will take to pay back the money spent on it. It is based on expected cash flows and provides a measure of liquidity.FormulaConstant annual cash flows:</p> <p>Uneven annual cash flows:Where cash flows are uneven, payback is calculated by working out the cumulative cash flow over the life of the project.Decision ruleWhen using Payback, the company must first set a target payback period. Select projects which pay back within the specified time period Choose between options on the basis of the fastest paybackExample using PaybackConstant annual cash flowsAn expenditure of $2 million is expected to generate net cash inflows of $500,000 each year for the next seven years.</p> <p>What is the payback period for the project?</p> <p>Uneven annual cash flowsA project is expected to have the following cash flows:</p> <p>What is the expected payback period?</p> <p>Payback is between the end of Year 3 and the end of Year 4. This is the point at which the cumulative cash flow changes from being negative to positive. If we assume a constant rate of cash flow throughout the year, we could estimate that payback will be three years plus ($500/800) of Year 4. This is because the cumulative cash flow is minus $500 at the start of the year and the Year 4 cash flow would be $800. Therefore payback is after 3.625 years.Advantages and disadvantage of PaybackAdvantages include: it is simple it is useful in certain situations: rapidly changing technology improving investment conditions it favours quick return: helps company growth minimises risk maximises liquidity it uses cash flows, not accounting profit.Disadvantages include: it ignores returns after the payback period it ignores the timings of the cash flows. This can be resolved using thediscounted payback period. it is subjectiveas it givesno definitive investment signal it ignores project profitability.Discount cash flow techniquesFeedbackWhen appraising capital projects, basic techniques such a ROCEandPaybackcould be used. Alternatively, companies could use discounted cash flow techniques discussed on this page, such as Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR).Cash flows and relevant costsFor all methods of investm...</p>