encouraging critical reading
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DESCRIPTIONLecture on Critical Reading from the article of Rosane Correia of Brazil
- 1.Encouraging Critical Reading in the EFL Classroom By: Rosane Correia Brazil
2. What is critical reading?
- to read critically involves becoming actively engaged in what we read by first developing a clear understanding of the authors ideas, then questioning and evaluating the arguments and evidence provided to support those arguments, and finally by forming our own opinions.
- One must actively recognize and analyze evidence upon the page.
3. Critical reader vs. Non-critical reader
- Critical reader
- Any single text provides but one portrayal of the facts
- Recognize not only what a text says but also howthat text portrays the subject matter.
- Non-critical reader
- Text provide facts
- Readers gain knowledge by memorizing the statements within a text.
4. Most Frequent types of Reading comprehension exercises:
- Multiple Choice
- True-false statements
- Vocabulary work
5. Merits on these tasks:
- Easy for teachers to check whetherunderstand the text.
- Easy to mark.
6. Reasons not to use this reading activity
- Encourage passive reading behavior.
- 2.Do not encourage students to read between the lines or question the veracity and source of the information.
- 3.These tasks generally refer to parts of the text, not to the text as a whole .
7. 4.Tasks neither challenging nor fun, especially young learners.
- Aim of this article:
- To present an alternative possibilities for reading activities through sample reading lesson.
- Help students to become a more active and more critical readers.
8. Two Kinds of Reading Activities (Davies,1995)
- Passive Reading
- Active Reading
9. Passive Reading Tasks:
- Offer limited potential for learning.
- InvolvesSilent Reading to respond to:
- Multiple choice
- Superficial comprehension questions
- Gap filling exercises
- True-false statements
- Dictionary work
10. What is active reading task?
- It requires students to go beyond a superficial reading of the text to read between the lines
- to work in pairs Involve students or groups.
- Tasks considered active may include creating diagrams and filling in tables.
11. Grabe (1997,6) stated
- Making use of diagrams and tables when reading texts, students better understand the coherence and logic of the information being presented, and as a consequence, will be able to locate the main ideas and distinguish them from less important information.
12. Other Kinds of Active reading (Davies,1995)
- * Book reviews
- * Summary writing
- * Notetaking
- Active reading enables students to interact with the text and each other
- Teacher plays the role of facilitator rather than inquisitor.
- Active reading tasks encourage readers to voice their own opinions about the text and discuss those opinions.
- Students contextualize reading.
- Allow the readers to see the text as part of a broader social context that includes the writer and the readers .(Tomitch,2000)
15. IMROVING CRITICAL READING: A CASE STUDY
- HUCKIN ( 1997 )
age interest relevant profitable 16. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS: *newspapers and magazines
- BROWN ( 1994)- THREE PHASES TO THE TEACHING OF READING
- pre-reading discussion - introducing the topic
- while-reading tasks - set of instructions ( purpose and guide)
- post-reading exercises - activities
- pre-reading activity - students were asked to prepare in groups two questions they thought would be answered in the text.
- TOMITCH ( 2000) ReQuest or Reciprocal Questioning
- while-reading activity - required the students to read the article for the purpose of answering the questions they had raised.
- Post -reading activity- wrote on the board three questions which had to do with the authors choice of verb tenses and words used in the text.
- The major benefit of the lesson on critical reading described here was the high level of enthusiastic student participation.
20. Questions to help Develop Critical Reading Skills
- General questions for the analysis of the text
- 1. Where and when was the text written?
- 2. Why was it written?
- 3. What is the text about?
- 4. What genre in the text?
- 5. who is the text addressed to? Who are its probable readers?
- 6. Does the author establish an interactive, friendly relationship with the readers or is she/he distant, formal and impersonal?
- 7. are there elements of promotional discourse, such as positive evaluative words?
21. Lexical Choice
- 1. What kind of vocabulary predominates in the text? (Are there formal, technical words or informal and colloquial expressions?)
- 2. Does the vocabulary appeal to emotions, or is it logical and argumentative?
- 3. Are there words that are ideologically significant?
- 4. What metaphors are used? What purposes do they serve in the text?
- 1. What verb tenses are used and why?
- 2. Which subjects are described using the passive or active voice and why?
- 3. Are the agents of the actions explicit or implicit?
23. Visual Elements
- 1. What visual resources are used beside the text ( colors, symbols, fgures)?
- 2. In what ways do the illustrations relate to the text?
- 3. What sociocultural aspects can be identified in the visual signs?
24. Gender Issues
- 1. Does the text contain signs of asymmetry in male-female relationships?
- 2. Are there traces of sexism?
- 3. Are there signs of stereotyped attitudes?
- That would be all and Thank you for listening with us!
- Gemma and Edz