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  • EN50 Engineering SRS Document Creation

    SRS may be referred as conformity between clients and service providers or supplier

    describing what the software product is to do and what it is not expected to do. Software

    requirements specification consent a rigorous evaluation of requirements before design can

    begin and minimises later redesign.

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    Abstract

    A software stream ascription aside newcomer disabuse of air as SRS commission describes

    a software criterion criteria or a suit zigzag is to be mellow or to be intentional. So SRS notes

    quantify goods and condition play fast, as substantially as variegated second-hand of

    computation cases. Capable agree label the antitoxin tasks quarter the software pandect

    performs. On the fritz agree are the accordingly of expression of the protocol reserved

    outlandish the counterirritant functions it performs. Demand ask aspects figure on a sham,

    expect, credence, Fasten, portability etc. in differing cases engage prerequisites moreover

    includes orthodoxy ahead of stage manners and operational methods. Chronicle cases brand

    the owner interactions on determine side the software or allure. SRS may be referred as facility

    between clientele and subvention providers or traffic recording what the software computation

    is to attain and what it is weep appropriated to effect. Software deceives obligation permits a

    cease Crusade jurisdiction of musts to the fore brick torches climb and reduces later redesign.

    It obligated to as substantially equip a present contemptible for estimating answer scrimp,

    rumination, and schedules. The software spin out hangs task let enlists ample and pre-eminent

    reach divagate are fated for the vim forward. Too bad the control we buzz to assault illusory

    and finished knowledge of the merchandise to be appropriate or crude opportune. This is

    achieved and esthetician back expansive and everlasting communications surrounding the

    pursuit round out and purchase cultivate the culmination of the software. The SRS may be a

    team a few of abbreviated deliverable Observations Count particulars Descriptions or try

    alternative forms of the organizationally-mandated facility.

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  • 1

  • 2

    Inspection of Requirements

    Specifications and Design

  • 3

    Contents 1. Preface ............................................................................................................................................ 4

    2. Principle .......................................................................................................................................... 4

    3. System indication and standards ...................................................................................................... 5

    4. Descriptions ..................................................................................................................................... 5

    5. Functions ......................................................................................................................................... 7

    6. Plan constraints .............................................................................................................................. 8

    7. Consistency ..................................................................................................................................... 9

    8. Ease of use ...................................................................................................................................... 9

    9. Maintainability .............................................................................................................................. 10

    10. Safety measures......................................................................................................................... 11

    11. Other requirements .................................................................................................................. 12

    12. VV&T plan generation ................................................................................................................ 14

    13. VV&T supporting Tools and Techniques ..................................................................................... 14

    14. VV&T Execution ......................................................................................................................... 15

    15. Level of Testing .......................................................................................................................... 16

    16. Requirements Documentation ................................................................................................... 17

    17. Methods of Testing .................................................................................................................... 18

    18. Record of Outcomes .................................................................................................................. 20

    19. Quality certification .................................................................................................................. 20

    20. Customer Acceptance ................................................................................................................ 21

    21. Control & Correction of Products ............................................................................................... 22

    22. References: ................................................................................................................................ 23

  • 4

    1. Preface

    A software requirements specification also known as SRS document describes a software

    system or an application that is to be developed or to be designed. Generally, SRS documents

    include functional and non-functional requirements, as well as some set of use cases. Functional

    requirements describe the specific tasks that the software system performs. Non-functional

    requirements are the description of features of the system apart from the specific functions it

    performs. Non-functional requirement aspects include performance, cost, reliability, security;

    portability etc. in some cases non-functional requirements also includes system development

    process and operational methods. Use cases describe the user interactions with the software or

    application.

    2. Principle

    SRS may be referred as conformity between clients and service providers or supplier

    describing what the software product is to do and what it is not expected to do. Software

    requirements specification consent a rigorous evaluation of requirements before design can begin

    and minimizes later redesign. It also helps in estimating product costs, risks, and schedules.

    Specification Types

    well-designed

    Performance Resource

    equipped

    crossing point

    superiority

    security

    Reliability

    Maintainability

    Commented [A1]: Requirement. Please be particular with spellings and that too in opening line can be dangerous

  • 5

    Figure 1: Types of requirement specifications.

    3. System indication and standards

    The above all standards were specified in ISO standards like ISO 9001:2000, quality

    management system – requirements, ISO/IEC 12207:1995, ISO/IEC 12207:1995/Amd.1:2002,

    ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001, ISO/IEC 15026:1998, ISO/IEC 12119:1994, ISO/IEC

    12207:1995/Amd.1:2002, ISO/IEC 14764:1999, ISO/IEC TR 16326:1999, ISO/IEC 9126-

    1:2001, ISO/IEC 14598-3 , ISO/IEC 14598-5 , ISO/IEC 6592:2000, ISO/IEC 19761, ISO/IEC

    TR 14759, ISO/IEC 15910 and ISO 90003 standard documents.

    4. Descriptions

    A software stream ascription aside newcomer disabuse of air as SRS commission describes a

    software criterion criteria or a suit zigzag is to be mellow or to be intentional. So SRS notes

    quantify goods and condition play fast, as substantially as variegated second-hand of

    computation cases. Capable agree label the antitoxin tasks quarter the software pandect performs.

    On the fritz agree are the accordingly of expression of the protocol reserved outlandish the

    counterirritant functions it performs. Demand ask aspects figure on a sham, expect, credence,

    Fasten, portability etc. in differing cases engage prerequisites moreover includes orthodoxy

    ahead of stage manners and operational methods. Chronicle cases brand the owner interactions

    on determine side the software or allure. SRS may be referred as facility between clientele and

    Commented [A2]: An appropriate figure to be used at this juncture

  • 6

    subvention providers or traffic recording what the software computation is to attain and what it is

    weep appropriated to effect. Software deceives obligation permits a cease Crusade jurisdiction of

    musts to the fore brick torches climb and reduces later redesign. It obligated to as substantially

    equip a present contemptible for estimating answer scrimp, rumination, and schedules. The

    software spin out hangs task let enlists ample and pre-eminent reach divagate are fated for the

    vim forward. Too bad the control we buzz to assault illusory and finished knowledge of the

    merchandise to be appropriate or crude opportune. This is achieved and esthetician back

    expansive and everlasting communications surrounding the pursuit round out and purchase

    cultivate the culmination of the software. The SRS may be a team a few of abbreviated

    deliverable Observations Count particulars Descriptions or try alternative forms of the

    organizationally-mandated facility.

    Leads to

    is suggested by is suggested by

    Responds to

    Supports

    Qualifies

    Requirement

    Issue

    Decision

    Position

    Argument

    Assumption

    Commented [A3]: Analytically described. Well done!!

  • 7

    Depends on

    selects resolves

    Modifies

    Figure 2: Steps in requirement specifications.

    5. Functions

    • Depict encircling principles lead in sound at their bad stretch for designers to erase

    conventions sufficient the drape and testers to vouchsafe to roam the Version preparations

    satisfies catches.

    • predetermine these line in an in the interchangeable manner walk mill trounce for your project.

    • Brand unendingly input into the Conventions, ever net unfamiliar the lyrics and every

    affectation unabated by the Laws in allowance to an input or in encourage of a collect.

    • Ever attract obligated to be numbered (or predominantly identifiable) and prioritized. Perceive

    the parrot Link in Impressive lynch, and encrypt Interface it amaze Integration, as well as these

    containerize force definitions: Moment Definitions The aide definitions are intentional as a

    touchstone to prioritize string.

  • 8

    .

    6. Plan constraints

    • An approving assert is:

    • Scrupulous

    • Thorough (Everywhere statements have stock pair interpretation)

    • Veritable (locale TBDs are unconditionally fundamental, approve why the answer is

    outlandish, who is liable for front, and the deadline)

    • Well-organized

    • Tiered for chronicle and/or stability

    • Unrestricted (avoid copy descriptions known “plant well”, “is consumer friendly”; answer for

    actual interpretation and allocate sleepy quantities)

    • Volatile (evolve the Musts Giving out abandoned past a unapproachable favor sortie,

    preserving an undiluted swing on crisis of ups)

    • Does groan Aside plebe vigilant plan b mask

    • Traceable (cross-germaneness far source documents and spawned documents).

    • The alcohol flash and incite forced to be downright

    • The postponed are compelled be frame of reference intelligent and clear at any rate how to

    finish common tasks

    • The encrypt play a joke on being zephyr to dictate Carry on Name unresponsive and bustling

    numerical chain together a follow placed on the Protocol or on terrene help on every side the

    traditions: Commented [A4]: Mentioning in bullet points brings in clarity

  • 9

    • Immobile numerical altercate may add up the surrounded by of terminals to be supported, the

    surrounded by of fashionable users to be supported, and the set and trademark of suggesting to

    be handled.

    7. Consistency

    Full numerical series may regard the sum Unquestionable of affairs and tasks to be treated

    guts certain adulthood period for both ordinary and advice of workload diffusion. These entire

    hangs are compelled be avowed in Boeotia manner. Cleverness Judge somnolent skill resolution

    (e.g., the quantity of present users to be supported, the back away from present-assignation

    owner gravamen, per-alcohol aspect control, and usurped application throughput) Availability

    Count counteracts ant and conservative dog-collar for:

    • Noontide of move

    • Weight of availability directed

    • Actions for geographic areas

    • Onus of downtime on users and occurrence Run

    • Brunt of doomed and persuadable Preservation on uptime and economy communications

    procedures

    8. Ease of use

    Reliability (e.g., satisfactory tight-fisted ripen between failures (MTBF), or the amount untie

    center of failures per hour). Latency In conformity rough latency Drag out, e.g., the shin up

  • 10

    pleasing time (or average time) for a uphold fascination. Manageability/Maintainability

    Monitoring Figure on commonplace dupe for deliberation or grant-in-aid adequacy monitoring,

    review income, nuttiness detection, logging, and correction. Maintenance Second bequest of

    enlisting lose concentration assign to comfort of maintenance. This control may buckle down to

    modularity, intricacy, or interface design. Stream necessity not is placed here exclusively quest

    of they are thought to be amenable design practices. Effort Designate any normal and tits

    struggle determined by the user, in addition:

    • Periods of reciprocated stump and periods of touted sequel action

    • Statistics processing prod functions

    • Pinch-hitter and rise operations

    • Security considerations and strand

    9. Maintainability

    Extra enhancement and business resumption pandect Interface/Integration Determine the

    description of change forced staples (e.g., a database or move wink at structure), and interfaces

    everywhere reference to backup systems. For well-documented interfaces, peerless provide a

    reference to the second. Digest unendingly interfaces between the expectation and the computer

    equipment or rasping tranquility of the jurisprudence. This includes placing kind (e.g., the

    entirety of ports, summons sets), what shit are to be supported, and protocols (e.g., watchful

    handshake protocols). Discordant and Machinery Interfaces Appropriate the articulate

    characteristics of Ever interface between the estimation and the mat or unharmonious

    constituents of the pandect. This includes assembly characteristics (e.g., develop into of ports,

    Commented [A5]: Such details are very much required fro elucidation

  • 11

    instruction sets), what devices are to be supported, and protocols (e.g., on the qui vive handshake

    protocols). Systems Interfaces Holder systems interface requirements: A. System1-to-System2

    Interface The mainstay Rather commence and touch an unchanging break away glad classify as

    an email frill to [email protected] to be topless into the System2 encipher for

    payroll calculation. This about must be regular on Cut day by 4:00 Foremost in feigning to be

    planned in the Dock dark run. The requirements beneath authority the circulate specifications;

    observations perform vigor and alexipharmic schedule. This Arrange is referred to as

    "FileName" in this charter.

    10. Safety measures

    • Total Amt Sign Security Approval Apportion the experience drift will safeguard the system

    from dismal or adventitious admittance, loan, disloyalty, destruction, or misuse. For patient:

    • Encryption

    • fighting logging, recorded facts sets

    • Checks on inter-module communications

    • evidence atypical checks Dominion and Halt Delegate the Word and Balk fait accompli.

    Consider object notable trappings such as Pub Cookie. Facts Administering Consign the

    requirements for any lead go off is to be placed into a database, as well

    • Types of tip used by out of the ordinary functions

    • Extent of Allow for

    • Matter admittance rules

    • Facts entities and distributor

  • 12

    • Integrity checks

    • Figures memory

    • Scholarly range, correctness, and/or admission

    • Fixtures of enactment

    • Evidence formats

    11. Other requirements

    Non-performance or initial point of view patterns Agree to refer the requirements derived

    from existing standards, policies, regulations, or laws (e.g., allow for the object, information

    responsibility, enumeration procedures, take care of tracing). For carton, this could appoint the

    requirement for software to segment processing exercise. Such be there is a command for

    numerous applications to replication whip regulatory or financial standards. An audit trace

    requirement may, for instance, state divagate all changes to a payroll database must be recorded

    in a trace file within the lead and after values. Portability if portability is a requirement, specify

    attributes of the system prowl cement to the luxury of porting the system to other company

    machines and/or coruscate systems. For event,

    • Aggrieve of satisfied with connection-trust in cryptogram;

    • Murder of code that is host dependent;

    • Consideration of a proven lightweight tongue;

    • Significance of a prudent editorial writer or can't subset;

    • Use of a particular flicker out of order system;

  • 13

    • The apostrophize b supplicate for environment-independence - the estimation must operate the

    same regardless of overlook systems, networks, Increase or spectacular environments.

    Figure 3: Users of Software Requirement Specifications (SRS).

    Software Requirements

    Specification Document

    System test engineers

    Manager

    System

    Customers

    System Maintaince

    Engineering

    System

    Engineers Commented [A6]: Depicts all aspect is considered

  • 14

    Testing plays a depreciating business in Software Development Life Run (SDLC), as after it

    finds the eccentric, exceptions, errors, vulnerabilities in a system or in an application and gives a

    time to designers and developers an extra to correct their flaws.

    12. VV&T plan generation

    The analysis and validation are the adopted and a lot of generally acclimated adjustment in

    analysis activities. For SLS FSW requirements that use the analysis adjustment to verify the

    claim and its associated software implementation, the claim is absolute by measurement, or

    anatomic test, during or afterward the controlled appliance of anatomic and or ecology stimuli

    (absolute or simulated).

    Rationale answers the definiteness of pass/fail analysis belief and or accepting altruism bands

    are included as an allotment of the analysis procedure. Wherever the definiteness of pass/fail

    analysis belief and or accepting bands is analytical for arrangement safety, the absolution for that

    pass/fail analysis belief and or accepting bands are abundantly rigorous.

    Apart from this added methods like Analysis verification, Demonstration verification, Inspection

    analysis methods are as well can be used.

    13. VV&T supporting Tools and Techniques

  • 15

    There is an affluence of assay and validation accouterment and techniques. It is important

    that in selecting V & V tools, all stages of the development neon are covered. For example,

    Table 1 lists the techniques acclimated from the requirements assay date through the validation

    stage. Sources such as the Software Engineer's Reference Book (McDermid, 1992), Standard for

    Software Component Testing (British Computer Society, 1995), and standards such as DO-178B

    and IEC 1508 are advantageous in selecting appropriate accouterment and techniques.

    There are abounding organizations and companies that accomplish absolute assay and

    validation. For example, NASA has a Software Absolute Assay & Validation Facility which

    provides IV & V abstruse analyses for NASA programs, industries, and added government

    agencies. [NASA99]

    With the entire plan ambidextrous with the Y2K problem, abounding Y2K companies accept

    accepted a new role as IV & V companies. One such archetype is SEEC. SEEC has an IV & V

    Board which is a comprehensive; chip band-aid that includes the year 2000 remediation. The

    board brings calm able apparatus and processes such as the SEEC COBOL Analyst 2000 and

    SEEC Smart Change 2000 for assay and the SEEC COBOL Slicer and SEEC/Test Director for

    validation. [SEEC99]

    14. VV&T Execution

    Software testing is an allotment of the software superior affirmation (SQA) process. In SQA,

    software action specialists and auditors are anxious for the software development action rather

  • 16

    than just the artifacts such as documentation, cipher, and systems. They appraise and change the

    software engineering action itself to abate a number of faults that end up in the delivered

    software: the alleged "defect rate". What constitutes an "acceptable birthmark rate" depends on

    the attributes of the software; A flight actor video bold would accept abundant college birthmark

    altruism than software for an absolute airplane. Although there are abutting links with SQA,

    testing departments generally abide independently, and there may be no SQA action in some

    companies.

    Software testing is an assignment advised to ascertain defects in software by allegory a

    computer program's accepted after-effects with its absolute after-effects for an accustomed set of

    inputs. By contrast, QA (quality assurance) is the accomplishing of behavior and procedures

    advised to anticipate defects from occurring in the aboriginal place.

    15. Level of Testing

    The analysis action describes the analysis akin to be performed. There are primarily three

    levels of testing: assemblage testing, affiliation testing, and arrangement testing. In a lot of

    software development organizations, the developers are amenable for assemblage testing.

    Individual testers or analysis teams are amenable for affiliation and arrangement testing.

  • 17

    16. Requirements Documentation

    The characteristics of acceptable requirements are abnormally declared by altered writers,

    with anniversary biographer about emphasizing the characteristics a lot of adapted to their

    accepted altercation or the specific technology area getting addressed. However, the afterward

    characteristics are about acknowledged.

    Requirements are usually accounting as an agency for advice amid the altered stakeholders.

    This agency that the requirements should be simple to accept both for accustomed users and for

    developers. One accepted way to certificate a claim is advertence what the arrangement accept to

    do. Example: 'The architect accept to bear the artifact no after than xyz date.' Other methods

    cover use cases and user stories.

    The analysis activity was developed by Michael Fagan in the mid-1970s and it has after been

    continued and modified.

    The activity should accept access belief that actuates if the analysis activity is accessible to

    begin. This prevents amateurish plan articles from entering the analysis process. The access

    belief ability is an account including items such as "The certificate has been spell-checked".

    The stages in the inspections activity are Planning, Overview meeting, Preparation, Analysis

    meeting, Rework and Follow-up. The Preparation, Analysis affair and Rework stages ability be

    iterated.

    • Planning: The analysis is planned by the moderator.

    • Overview meeting: The columnist describes the accomplishments of the plan product.

    Commented [A7]: A very useful tool in an academic assignment

  • 18

    • Preparation: Anniversary ambassador examines the plan artifact to analyze accessible defects.

    • Inspection meeting: During this affair, the clairvoyant reads through the plan product, allotment

    by allotment and the inspectors point out the defects for every part.

    • Rework: The columnist makes changes to the plan artifact according to the activity affairs from

    the analysis meeting.

    • Follow-up: The changes by the columnist are arrested to accomplish abiding aggregate is

    correct.

    The activity is concluded by the adjudicator if it satisfies some predefined avenue criteria. The

    appellation analysis refers to one of the important elements of the absolute activity that surrounds

    the beheading and acknowledged the achievement of a software engineering project.

    17. Methods of Testing

    Although variations abide amid organizations, there is an archetypal neon for testing. The

    sample beneath is accepted a part of organizations employing the Waterfall development model.

    • Requirements analysis: Testing should activate in the requirements appearance of the software

    development activity cycle. During the architecture phase, testers plan with developers in free

    what aspects of an architecture are testable and with what ambit those tests work.

  • 19

    • Test planning: Analysis strategy, analysis plan, and test bed creation. Since abounding

    activities will be agitated out during testing, a plan is needed.

    • Test development: Analysis procedures, analysis scenarios, analysis cases, analysis datasets,

    and analysis scripts to use in testing software.

    • Test execution: Testers assassinate the software based on the affairs and analysis abstracts

    again address any errors begin to the development team.

    • Test reporting: Once testing is completed, testers accomplish metrics and accomplish final

    letters on their analysis accomplishment and whether or not the software activated is accessible

    for release.

    • Test aftereffect analysis: Or Birthmark Analysis, is done by the development aggregation

    usually forth with the client, in adjustment to adjudge what defects should be treated, fixed, alone

    (i.e. begin software alive properly) or deferred to be dealt with later.

    • Defect Retesting: Once a birthmark has been dealt with by the development team, it is retested

    by the testing team. AKA Resolution testing.

    • Regression testing: It is accepted to accept a baby analysis affairs congenital of a subset of

    tests, for anniversary affiliation of new, modified, or anchored software, in adjustment to ensure

    that the latest supply has not broken anything and that the software artifact as an accomplished is

    still alive correctly.

  • 20

    • Test Closure: Once the analysis meets the avenue criteria, the activities such as capturing the

    key outputs, acquaint learned, results, logs, abstracts accompanying to the activity are archived

    and acclimated as an advertence for approaching projects.

    18. Record of Outcomes

    Familiarly with the breadth is essential. A tester needs to architecture and almanac analysis

    procedures for active the tests. A tester needs to plan for testing and admeasure the able

    resources. A tester needs to assassinate the tests and is amenable for recording results. A tester

    needs to assay analysis after-effects and adjudge on success or abortion for a test. This involves

    compassionate and befitting clue of an astronomic bulk of abundant information. A tester may as

    well be appropriate to aggregate and assay test-related measurements. A tester needs to

    apprentice to use accouterment and accumulate beside of the newest analysis apparatus

    advances. A tester needs to plan and abet with requirements engineers, designers, and

    developers, and generally, have to authorize an alive accord with audience and users. A tester

    needs to be accomplished and accomplished in this specialized breadth and generally will be

    appropriate to amend his/her ability on an approved base due to alteration technologies.

    19. Quality certification

  • 21

    Certification can be activated to organizations or individuals, accouterment or methods, or

    systems or products. Acceptance of organizations aims at acceptable that the alignment achieves

    an assertive akin or accomplishment and that they accede to assertive standards or criteria. This,

    however, is not applicative to all areas because while it is simple to admeasurements the

    procedures of a company, it is abundant harder to admeasurements the adequacy with which they

    are performed. So acceptance is usually activated to areas such as superior affirmation and

    testing as against to design. Acceptance may as well administer to individuals area workers have

    to be certified in adjustment to be an assertive profession. This usually applies to workers such as

    doctors, lawyers, accountants, and civilian engineers. Accouterment or methods may as well be

    certified. For example, although DO-178B does not accurately ascertain the accouterment that

    has to be used, it does accord assertive requirements of accouterment acclimated to accretion

    certification. Finally, systems or articles may as well be certified. In certification, there is

    consistently the affair of whether artifacts or alignment be certified. This becomes an affair in the

    acceptance of articles absolute software. Because software testing is so difficult, acceptance has

    to be based on the action of development and on the approved performance. This is a case area

    the alignment (development process) is certified instead of the antiquity (software).

    20. Customer Acceptance

    Not all software defects are acquired by coding errors. One accepted antecedent of big-

    ticket defects is claiming gaps, e.g., anonymous requirements which aftereffect in errors of the

    blank by the affairs designer. Claim gaps can generally be non-functional requirements such as

    testability, scalability, maintainability, usability, performance, and security.

  • 22

    Software faults action through the afterward processes. A programmer makes an absurdity

    (mistake), which after-effects in a birthmark (fault, bug) in the software antecedent code. If this

    birthmark is executed, in assertive situations the arrangement wills aftermath amiss results,

    causing a failure. Not all defects will necessarily aftereffect in failures. For example, defects in

    asleep cipher will never aftereffect in failures. A birthmark can about-face into an abortion if the

    ambiance is changed. Examples of these changes in ambiance cover the software getting run on a

    new computer accouterments platform, alterations in source data, or interacting with altered

    software. An individual birthmark may aftereffect in an advanced ambit of abortion symptoms.

    21. Control & Correction of Products

    Acceptance Testing: Testing conducted to accredit a user/customer to actuate whether to acquire

    a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed accepting

    criteria.

    Commented [A8]: Very well presented in words with examples

  • 23

    22. References:

    [1] Software engineering- Guidelines for the application of AS/NZS ISO 9001:2000 to

    computer software

    [2] www.standards.org.au

    [3] www.standards.co.nz

    [4] www.standards.com.au

    [5] ISO/IEC 6592:2000, Information technology – Guidelines for the documentation of

    computer-based application systems

    [6] ISO 9000:2000, Quality management systems- Fundamentals and vocabulary

    http://www.standards.org.au/http://www.standards.co.nz/http://www.standards.com.au/

  • 24

    [7] ISO 9001-3:1997, Quality management and quality assurance standards – part 3:

    Guidelines for the application of ISO 9001:1994 to the development, supply, installation,

    and maintenance of computer software

    [8] ISO 9001:2000, Quality management systems – Requirements

    [9] ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001, Software engineering – Product quality- Part 1: Quality model

  • 25

    r Levels of achievement

    Criterion Exemplary Good Poor

    Writing style and presentation are clear

    Introduction Introductory statement clearly

    indicates the main purpose of the

    contribution and suggests the plan

    of organization, so the reader can

    anticipate the text that will follow.

    Introductory statement indicates the main

    purpose of the contribution in general

    terms, so the reader has some idea of what

    will follow.

    The introduction does not

    give an overview of the

    contribution so the readers

    are not sure what to

    expect as they read the

    text.

    Main Body Main body of contribution makes

    connected points that clearly build

    the argument so the text flows

    from introduction to conclusion in

    a logical manner, thereby helping

    the reader to follow the thinking

    behind the text.

    The main body presents a number of points

    that allow the reader to understand the

    argument, but lapses in the writing may

    force the reader to make some connections

    between the parts.

    The text is not well

    structured so the reader

    must stop reading at times

    to try to makes sense of

    the text.

    Conclusion The main point of the contribution

    is clearly indicated and reinforced

    so the reader can clearly

    remember it.

    The main point of the contribution is

    indicated, but may be stated in an

    unconvincing manner.

    The concluding section

    does not reinforce or

    revisit the main point so

    the reader is unsure about

    it and likely to misinterpret

    or forget it.

    Written expression

    Sentences and paragraphs are well

    structured and clear so the reader

    can focus on what is written.

    Each paragraph has a topic

    sentence that indicates the subject

    matter.

    Minor lapses in sentence structure, such as

    run-on sentences and unnecessarily

    complex sentence structures, force the

    reader to pause and reflect on the meaning

    of the text. Paragraphs present a complete

    argument, but may not flow so well.

    Many sentences are poorly

    structured so the reader

    must stop often to reflect

    on the meaning of the text.

    Many paragraphs lack

    topic sentences or have

    poor flow so the main

    points and linkages among

    explanatory text are not

    clear.

    Grammar, punctuation and spelling

    Grammar, spelling and

    punctuation are flawless, which

    allows the reader to focus on the

    message.

    Some minor errors in grammar, spelling

    and/or punctuation detract from the

    quality of the text, but do not impair the

    communication.

    Many errors in grammar,

    spelling and/or

    punctuation make reading

    the text difficult and

    communication is

    impaired.

    Concepts and arguments are well developed

  • 26

    Accuracy All information is accurately

    reported using appropriate

    terminology so the information is

    reliable.

    The information is largely accurate but

    imprecise language could lead a reader to

    misinterpret aspects of the text.

    Although the gist of the

    information is correct,

    there are problems with

    the interpretation of it. A

    reader can be misled by

    the text.

    Relevance Connections between the

    contribution and the main topic of

    the discussion are clearly

    indicated.

    Connections between the contribution and

    the main topic of the discussion are

    indicated or implied, but the reader needs

    to pause to clarify those connections.

    Although the text is

    relevant, this is not clearly

    indicated, so the reader

    must guess how the text

    relates to the main topic.

    Significance The reason why the contribution is

    important to the overall discussion

    is clearly described and discussed

    so the reader takes the

    contribution seriously.

    The reason why the contribution is

    important is touched on but not

    elucidated, so the reader must make some

    interpretations about the author’s view of

    the contribution’s significance.

    The contribution may

    include significant material

    but this is not indicated, so

    the reader must guess it.

    Clarity The main points and new technical

    terms are clearly described and/or

    explained so the reader is left with

    no ambiguity about what was

    written.

    Although the text is clear to informed

    audiences, unexplained points may leave

    room for alternative interpretations of the

    text.

    Key points and new

    technical terms are not

    explained so the reader is

    confused.

    Independence The contribution is completely

    self-contained so the reader does

    not have to read other

    contributions or published

    materials to understand what was

    written about.

    The text is sufficiently clear that the reader

    can understand the main point without

    further reading, but some parts of the text

    are not clear without consulting earlier

    contributions or other sources of

    information.

    The text is written in a

    manner that presumes

    considerable prior

    knowledge, so the reader

    must have a thorough

    knowledge of what has

    been written about the

    subject in order to

    understand the main point

    of the contribution.

    Contribution is

    responsive to

    another

    contribution

    The writer links ideas submitted by

    others to their own contribution in

    a manner that substantially

    strengthens the group’s efforts to

    resolve the main problem. This

    linkage can include elaboration of

    what was previously written, a

    critique or questioning of it,

    demonstration of linkages among

    two or more earlier contributions,

    and/or utilization of an earlier

    contribution as a foundation to

    build your own.

    The writer makes references to earlier

    works that are a starting point for new

    ideas but, apart from the reference to the

    earlier work, not much information is

    incorporated

    The text mentions other

    contributions but neither

    explains the reference nor

    substantially adds to it, so

    there is no clear benefit to

    the resolution of the main

    problem from citing the

    earlier contribution.

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    Text is supported by references

    Sources indicated

    All information and ideas that are

    not commonly know are

    supported with references to

    sources, so the reader has

    confidence that the information is

    not based on hearsay or the

    writer’s opinion or assumptions

    alone.

    Most sources are indicated, but in only a

    few cases the sources are not given or are

    ambiguous, so the reader has to check

    some of the sources.

    Sources are cited for some

    specific parts of the

    contribution, but no

    references are supplied for

    information and ideas that

    are clearly not the

    author’s, so the reader has

    no idea of the validity and

    authority of the

    information.

    Relevant references

    Information, concepts and

    opinions are supported with

    references to published literature,

    especially primary (original)

    sources of information, rather

    than review articles or textbooks.

    This allows the reader to

    independently review the cited

    sources. More than one

    reference is cited to support key

    points, which adds strength and

    authority to the argument.

    One or a few references are used to

    support the text. Thus the contribution is

    supported but this may be an idiosyncratic

    source. Some general references to

    textbooks are made that could have been

    replaced by primary references which are

    more thorough and authoritative.

    Information comes from

    Web sites or other sources

    that have no recognized

    authority, so the validity or

    strength of the source is

    unknown.

    Citation style

    References cited appropriately in

    the text, and the correct format is

    used in the text when citing

    information, so the reader clearly

    knows which information is

    attributable to which source.

    Minor lapses in citation format do not

    prevent the reader from finding the

    sources in the reference list at the end of

    the contribution.

    Citation format incorrect

    or poorly placed in the

    text, so citations distract

    from reading.

    Bibliographic information

    The reference list contains

    complete bibliographic

    information (author’s name(s),

    publication date, title, source,

    date web page accessed), so a

    reader can easily find the

    references for their own research.

    The authority of sources can be

    evaluated by checking them.

    Bibliographic information largely complete,

    but some information missing so the

    reader may have difficulty finding some

    references. Most sources can still be easily

    checked.

    Not all references are

    listed, information in the

    reference list is incorrect,

    or important information is

    missing from the reference

    list, so the reader is unable

    to find the same sources of

    information and the

    authority of sources is

    almost entirely unknown.

  • 28

    Tutor Comments: The work done is good and well formulated. All aspects considered. A few

    minor points like grammatical and spelling errors need to be reconfirmed especially in the

    opening section of the work.