employees motivation – a key for the success of fast food restaurants

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  • Employees Motivation A Key for the Success of Fast Food Restaurants

    Author: Abdul Rashid

    Supervisor: Yvonne von Friedrichs

    Student

    Ume School of Business

    Spring semester 2010

    Master thesis, one-year, 15 hp

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

    i

    ABSTRACT

    In this modern era where the flows of customers are increasing towards fast food restaurants it is becoming more challenging to offer good customer service. For this purpose, there is strong need of highly trained and skilful workforce as like other service oriented businesses, the frontline employees of fast food restaurants also have direct interaction with customers and are considering the backbone of restaurants. Therefore, the main intention to conduct this study is to understand the working conditions in fast food restaurants, to discover the core factors of employee motivation and to determine the role of management in attaining this inspiration.

    The theoretical framework of this study presents the well known theories and other important literature for employees motivation. The requirements for employees motivation in fast food industry are highlighted by the author on the basis of these literatures. Additionally, a conceptual model for employees motivation in fast food restaurants is derived from different literature and serves as an opening position for the empirical research.

    This study based on qualitative strategy and inductive approach with research philosophy of constructionist and interpretivist stances. The data is collected through semi-structured interviews consisting of four managers and three employees of Max, Subway and McDonalds restaurants in Ume, Sweden. For analysis the data is categorized on the basis of different factors mentioned in the proposed model.

    In the findings of this study, the elements of the conceptual suggested model are identified and validated for employees motivation in fast food restaurants. The findings are concerned with different motivational factors through which employees can be motivated in fast food restaurants. In which the main role of management is to work on human capacity and provide training, the best working environment, salaries and wages and promotional and growth opportunities to their employee. These are the most important functions highlighted after empirical finding and analysis, however, other factors i.e. cultural values, stress of work, respect and recognition are also important factors for frontline employees motivation in fast food restaurants.

    This study is only limited to three fast food restaurant (Max, McDonalds & Subway) of one city of Sweden (Ume). The data was collected from a small sample (only seven individuals) which limits the generalization of this study to other restaurants in Sweden.

    Key Words: Motivation, Employees Motivation, Fast Food Restaurant, Managers

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

    ii

    Acknowledgement

    I would like to thank those people who have contributed to my research study and as well as to this master program of management through direct or indirect means.

    First of all I am thankful to Sweden Government, Umea University and USBE respectively for providing a nice international atmosphere to interact/work with multicultural students and to freely exchange ideas about different cultures which were without any cost. And due to this opportunity, I strengthen my academic skill and hopefully it will also open gates to my professional growth.

    I am more than ever pleased and thankful to my supervisor Yvonne von Friedrichs for her pleasant, nice and inspired supervision. Who give me knowledgeable feedback and guided direction till last date, which enable me to complete my research thesis and extended my knowledge circle in the field of management.

    My sincere thanks for those four Managers and three Employees who give me time from their busy schedules for interviews and participate in this study.

    Additionally, I am very grateful and cannot forget the sincere moral and honest cooperative support of my best friends Yousaf Nisar, Khanzeb khan, Rehab Iftikhar and Saqib Saeed Khan from Pakistan and Sandhiya Goolaup from Mauritius.

    Last but not least I have no words to thank my father (LALA), my brothers (Shah Zada, Sahib Zada, Khan Bahader, Sher Bahader) and sister (khorakai) for financial and moral support throughout my study.

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

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    DEDICATION

    MAY GOD REST HER SOUL IN PEACE

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

    iv

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background 1 1.2 Problem Recognition 2 1.3 Research Questions 2 1.4 Research Purpose 3 1.5 Research Limitations 3 1.6 Definitions 3 1.7 Disposition of Thesis 4

    CHAPTER 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    2.1 Motivation 5 2.2 Theories for Employees Motivation 6 2.2.1 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 6 2.2.2 Adams Equity Theory 7 2.2.3 Expectancy Theory 7 2.2.4 Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory 8 2.2.5 Four Drives for Employees Motivation 9 2.3 Rewards 11 2.4 What Motivates Employees in Fast Food Restaurants? 12 2.4.1 Management Commitment 12 2.4.2 Human Capacity 13 2.4.3 Working Conditions 13 2.4.4 Culture Values 13 2.4.5 Growth and Promotion 14 2.4.6 Wages and Salaries 14 2.4.7 Job Stress/Pressure 14 2.4.8 Training and Development 14 2.4.9 Respect and Recognition 15 2.5 Suggested Model for Employees Motivation in Fast Food Restaurants 15

    CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

    3.1 Theoretical Methodology 17 3.1.1 Research Philosophy 17 3.1.1.1 Epistemology 17 3.1.1.2 Ontology 18 3.1.2 Research Approach 19 3.1.3 Research Strategy 19 3.2 Practical Methodology 21

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

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    3.2.1 Choice of the Subject 21 3.2.2 Preconception 21 3.2.3 Literature 21 3.2.4 Data Collection Methods 22 3.2.5 Sampling Approach 22 3.2.6 Selection of the Participants 23 3.2.6.1 Managers 24 3.2.6.2 Employees 24 3.2.7 Interview 24 3.2.7.1 Interview Guide 24 3.2.7.2 Conduction of the Interviews 25 3.2.8 Quality Criteria 26 3.2.8.1 Credibility 26 3.2.8.2 Transferability 26 3.2.8.3 Dependability 27 3.2.8.4 Conformability 27 3.2.9 Ethical Considerations 27

    CHAPTER 4. EMPIRICAL FINDINGS

    4.1 Managerial Point of View 29 4.1.1 Management Commitment 29 4.1.2 Human Capacity 30 4.1.3 Working Conditions 30 4.1.4 Cultural Values 30 4.1.5 Growth and Promotion Opportunities 30 4.1.6 Wages and Salaries 32 4.1.7 Job Stress/Pressure 31 4.1.8 Other Benefits, Incentives 31 4.2 Employee Point of Views 32 4.2.1 Management Commitment 33 4.2.2 Human Capacity 33 4.2.3 Working Conditions 34 4.2.4 Cultural Values 34 4.2.5 Growth and Promotion Opportunities 35 4.2.6 Wages and Salaries 35 4.2.7 Job Stress/Pressure 36 4.2.8 Other Benefits, Incentives 36

    CHAPTER 5. DATA ANALYSIS

    5.1 Comparison of Restaurants 37 5.1.1 Restaurant A 37 5.1.2 Restaurant B 38

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

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    5.1.3 Restaurant C 39 5.2 Discussion 40 5.2.1 Management Commitment 41 5.2.2 Human Capacity 42 5.2.3 Working Conditions 42 5.2.4 Culture Values 43 5.2.5 Growth and Promotion 43 5.2.6 Wages and Salaries 44 5.2.7 Job Stress/Pressure 44 5.2.8 Training and Development 45 5.2.9 Respect and Recognition 45 5.2.10 Company Loyalty 46

    CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS

    6.1 Conclusion 47 6.2 Future Recommendations 48

    LIST OF REFERENCES.......................................................................................................49

    APPENDICES

    1 Interview Guide for Managers 52 2 Interview Guide for Employees 54

  • Abdul Rashid, USBE 2010

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    FIGURES

    1 Disposition of Thesis 4 2 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 6 3 Expectancy theory 8 4 Drives that Motivates Employees 10 5 Suggested Model for Employees Motivation in Restaurant Industry 16 6 Research Philosophy 17 7 An Outline of the Main Steps of Qualitative Research 20

    TABLES

    1 Major differences Between Deductive and Inductive 19 2 Fu

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