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- 1. Emotion Theories Ali Patrice Seyed SNeRG 2/8/2008
- What is its nature, what is its role in human life?
- emotions are dangerous for achieving true knowledge because they can overcome and subvert reason and the intellect
- Emotive and cognitive aspects of human understanding were seen as in opposition
- Emotion is a judgment that is wrong, untrustworthy and incorrect
- Minimize confusion by cultivating more detached states.
- Emotion is part of moral/character only when in balance.
- A moral decision cannot be made on emotion.
- Defines emotions as impressions which is his term for conscious feelings.
- Although reason can judge notions, ideas and matters of fact, the most noticeable results never persuade us to action as much as the slightest emotion or feeling can do.
- Located in the soul, the seat of consciousness
- Called passions because the soul is passive in relation to them
- species of perception perceptions of the soul, caused/changed by movement of the spirits
- Differ from sensory perceptions, which have external objects
- Passions are related to the soul.
- Distinguished from desires, which are caused by the soul itself.
5. Descartes (cont.)
- Their causation in the condition of the body gives them an inertia that lends agents a capacity for follow through more consistently on their intentions.
- A motivator to guide in the face of shifting thoughts.
- Activity of the body that affects the soul.
- Social psychology
- Expressed emotion as communication in group settings
- Folk psychology
- Ungrounded in scientific study, based on assumptions of common sense
- Relationship between brain functioning and psychological processes
- Psychological tasks during brain imaging techniques (fMRI, MEG, EEG).
- Cognitive neuropsychology
- Branch of neuropsychology dealing with studying the cognitive effects of brain injury in support of models of normal brain functioning
- Brain lesions to emotion centers have a practical cost
- Emotion different but evaluated by criteria that is connected to reason
- Some emotions are grounded by belief, but not belief themselves.
- Holds "that our most refined thoughts and best actions, our greatest joys and deepest sorrows, use the body as a yardstick"
8. Damasio (cont.)
- Phineas Gage case study, railway worked with steel rod through the pre-frontal lobe region
- After the accident Gages personality change, became more child-like and impulsive, the shrewd businessman his friends knew before the accident was no longer.
- He was incapable of making good and effective decisions, although his memory, language and traditional notions of intelligence were untouched.
- Kierkegaard and Heidegger hold that without care, concern, and interest, nothing would be salient, indeed the world would have no categories.
9. Somatic Feeling Theory
- Rooted in work by William James
- Emotions are just the feelings of certain bodily changes as a result of perception of some fact
- our feelings of the changes as they occur is the emotion
10. Somatic Feeling Theory
- Part of the nervous system that receives information about the muscles of the body
- Perception of the Object -> Change in bodily state -> Feeling of bodily change (The emotion)
- James, Damasio: emotion is experiences of changes in the body.
- Emotions can register changes in the levels of chemicals in the brain (e.g. changes in hormone levels caused by the endocrine system).
- Emotional response can occur in the absence of bodily changes when brain centers ordinarily associated with bodily change are active
- Sensory areas of the brain can be activated endogenously, Damasio calls this pathway the as-if loop.
- Emotions can bypass the body altogether, somatic brain centers become active when we imagine undergoing an emotion.
11. Somatic Feeling Theory
- Emotional feelings are feelings of bodily changes, but emotions are not exhausted by feelings.
- For definitional purposes, I liken emotional feelings to sensory awareness or more accurately conscious perception of the condition known as an emotion. Feelings of the condition of ones body.
- Unconscious neural responses to changes in bodily states count as emotions for Damasio.
- Therefore, Damasio holds:
- A somatic theory of emotion
- A somatic theory of emotional feelings
- BUT NOT a somatic feeling theory of emotion
- Emotion need not be consciously observed.
- Can bypass the body (bodily changes through sensory input) and also bypass consciousness
12. Somatic Feeling Theory
- Darwin observed the connection b/w body changes and emotion.
- Our hair stands on end when afraid: in earlier, hairier mammals this would have increased apparent body size, scaring off predators.
- Darwin inspires not only this link, but also that one may identify emotions with behaviors to which bodily changes dispose us.
- In essence, we attach emotion to its effect rather than the root cause
13. Damasios Somatic Theory Perceptionof the object Changes inbodily state Perception of bodily change The emotion As-if loop 14. Somatic Feeling Theory
- Emotions are therefore cognitive representations of body states that are part of a homeostatic mechanism by which the internal milieu is monitored and controlled, and by which this internal milieu influences behavior of the whole organism.
- Emotions are a result of nerve activation patterns and subsequent bodily changes
15. Behavioral conditioning theory
- Watson: emotions are not behavioral dispositions but rather are behavioral responses to reward/punishments.
- Naturally behaviorists do not appeal to inner states.
- Rolls holds that emotions are the responses to rewards and punishment, but regards emotions as internal states.
16. Processing mode theory
- Emotions lead to systematic changes in faculties of attention, memory, and reasoning.
- Impacts our overall processing
- E.g. sadness makes us pessimistic and sensitive to our flaws.
- Oatley, Johnson, and Laird argue this applies to an important set of emotions: anger, anxiety, happiness, and sadness.
17. A pure cognitive theory of emotion
- Emotions are identical to thoughts.
- Solomon: Evaluative judgments that provide the structure of our world.
- Although judgments do not cover desires or wishes.
- Gordon: emotions involve wish-frustration or wish-satisfaction.
- Philosophers hold that the word cognitive pertains only to beliefs or judgments, and construals/desire theories do not qualify as pure cognitive theories of emotion, unless desires are reducible to beliefs.
18. Hybrid theories
- Cognitive labeling theory : If you fail to assign emotional signi