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"Militia Cookbook" Emergency Food Preparation Page 1 of 37 Emergency Food Preparation During wartime or a natural disaster, food shortages and lack of natural gas or electricity for cooking requires a great deal of improvisation and reliance upon back-to-basics cooking techniques used by our forefathers in order to survive. In an emergency it helps to know what to do with all the wheat, rice, cornmeal, sugar, molasses, vegetable oil and dried beans, milk, fruits and vegetables which you've wisely cached along with firewood or cooking fuel. Colonial, pioneer and nineteenth century military cooking methods and recipes are useful when preparing meals from simple cached staples. Many of the recipes included in this information paper don't need perishables like meat, eggs or yeast, which you might not have. Recipes for the modern kitchen with a temperature-controlled oven will naturally have to be adjusted by trial and error if you are baking in a clay oven in the field or cooking over a campfire. Improvisation is called for to substitute what is available. For example if a recipe calls for bacon drippings, you can use any cooking fat like lard, margarine, butter, vegetable oil or shortening. Butter Flavor Crisco can be used in most recipes, doesn't require refrigeration and is available in easy to measure sticks. The interaction between a sweetener, baking soda and buttermilk or sour milk (which you can make by adding a little vinegar to reconstituted dry milk; 1 tablespoon per cup of milk and let stand 5 minutes) can substitute for yeast if none is available. White hardwood ashes can replace baking powder as a leavening agent. Honey, molasses or syrups and be substituted for sugar in most recipes by using less water. 1 cup honey = 1-1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid. Use whatever dried fruit is available regardless of what the recipe calls for. Experimentation is the order of the day. If you remember to add spices in stages (they can't be removed if you use too much) and if all of the ingredients you use are food, then the chances are the end result will be edible (especially if you are hungry enough).

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  • "Militia Cookbook" Emergency Food Preparation

    Page 1 of 37

    Emergency Food PreparationDuring wartime or a natural disaster, food shortages and lack of natural gas or electricity forcooking requires a great deal of improvisation and reliance upon back-to-basics cookingtechniques used by our forefathers in order to survive. In an emergency it helps to know what todo with all the wheat, rice, cornmeal, sugar, molasses, vegetable oil and dried beans, milk, fruitsand vegetables which you've wisely cached along with firewood or cooking fuel.

    Colonial, pioneer and nineteenth century military cooking methods and recipes are useful whenpreparing meals from simple cached staples. Many of the recipes included in this informationpaper don't need perishables like meat, eggs or yeast, which you might not have.

    Recipes for the modern kitchen with a temperature-controlled oven will naturally have to beadjusted by trial and error if you are baking in a clay oven in the field or cooking over a campfire.

    Improvisation is called for to substitute what is available. For example if a recipe calls for bacondrippings, you can use any cooking fat like lard, margarine, butter, vegetable oil or shortening.Butter Flavor Crisco can be used in most recipes, doesn't require refrigeration and is available ineasy to measure sticks.

    The interaction between a sweetener, baking soda and buttermilk or sour milk (which you canmake by adding a little vinegar to reconstituted dry milk; 1 tablespoon per cup of milk and letstand 5 minutes) can substitute for yeast if none is available.

    White hardwood ashes can replace baking powder as a leavening agent.

    Honey, molasses or syrups and be substituted for sugar in most recipes by using less water. 1 cuphoney = 1-1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid.

    Use whatever dried fruit is available regardless of what the recipe calls for.

    Experimentation is the order of the day.

    If you remember to add spices in stages (they can't be removed if you use too much) and if all ofthe ingredients you use are food, then the chances are the end result will be edible (especially ifyou are hungry enough).

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    Sources of Recipes

    Living history reenactors of the American Revolution and the War of Northern Aggression takegreat delight in recreating authentic army meals around their campfires and hardcore reenactorsactually eat the mess. Patricia B. Mitchell has published a series of cookbooks (available fromSims-Mitchell House Bed & Breakfast, 242 Whittle Street SW, P.O. Box 429, Chatham, VA24531) to make this task easier and many excerpts from her books "Revolutionary Recipes,""Union Army Camp Cooking," "Confederate Camp Cooking," "Confederate Home Cooking" and"Cooking for the Cause" are included in this paper. Some recipes have been included from"Colonial Treasure Cookbook" (Hutcraft, High Point, NC 27262) and from "Colonial FireplaceCooking & Early American Recipes" (Shoestring Press, 430 N. Harrison, East Lansing, MI48823).

    Regional cookbooks, especially from the South, are a source of recipes for nutritional meals fromsimple foods. Recipes have been included from various southern cookbooks including "Cookin'Yankees Ain't Et" (The Merry Mountaineers, Highlands, NC 28741), "Southern Recipes" and"Piggin' Out in Dixie" (Southern Cookbooks, P.O. Box 100905, Nashville, TN 37224).

    Recipes and field cooking techniques have also been excerpted from "The Green Beret Gourmet"(The Guttenberg Press Publications, P.O. Box 973, Rockledge, FL 32955).

    Some quick bread recipes which don't require yeast come from "Sunset Breads" (SunsetPublishing Corp., Menlo Park, CA 94025), a cookbook with recipes from all over the world. Ifyou have active dry yeast or sourdough starter, this book is an excellent reference for other breadrecipes not included in this paper.

    Vegetarian cookbooks should also be a good source of survival recipes, but being a confirmedcarnivore, the writer of this paper has no personal knowledge of any such books. Backpackingbooks are also an excellent source of field cooking techniques and recipes.

    There is a chapter on field nutrition and camp cooking as well as an extensive appendix of recipesin "The National Outdoor Leadership School's Wilderness Guide" (Simon & Schuster, Inc., Simon& Schuster Building, Rockefeller Center, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020)."Roughing It Easy" by Dian Thomas (The Dian Thomas Company, P.O. Box 171107, Holladay,UT 84117; 1-800-846-6355) is a comprehensive collection of outdoor cooking recipes andtechniques, including many variations on improvised tin can stoves and ovens, pit and open firecooking, dutch oven cooking, building a solar reflector cooker or solar oven and a section ondrying fruits, vegetables and jerky.

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    The Improvised Kitchen

    You should have a camping stove for emergency cooking purposes. Two-burner stoves are usefulin a fixed location or if you are vehicle mobile. Propane stoves are easy to use but fuel isexpensive, the high pressure steel canisters are heavy and not likely to be widely available duringa long-term emergency. A multifuel stove capable of using either white gas (lantern fuel orColeman fuel) or ordinary gasoline is easier to resupply in an emergency. However, gasolineburns hotter than propane and is not as useful for low heat simmering of foods, so it might be wiseto have both types of stove.

    If you are in a fixed location like a survival retreat or base camp, nothing beats a cast iron skillet,covered kettle and especially a dutch oven for open fire or hot coal cooking. An excellentconfiguration for a cooking fire is the keyhole type. Build a fire ring of rocks with a rectangularextension, build a fire in the circular part and coals can be raked or shoveled into the rectangularcooking area as needed. A grill or griddle can be supported over the rectangular cooking area(bricks can be used instead of rocks here for more stability) or the area can be used with a dutchoven. A metal tripod (or one fashioned from green branches) to hang a kettle can be used forboiling water or directly cooking over the flames in the circular part of the fire ring.

    The book "Roughing It Easy" shows how useful heavy duty aluminum foil is for outdoor cooking;stock up. Also, if you store food in large #10 cans (1 gallon) or in five gallon square cans, get thisbook and a pair of tin snips to convert the empty cans into many useful stove and oven variations.A cookie cooling rack can be used over a small pit of coals or an improvised #10 can barbecue.

    A grill and dutch oven can be arranged to allow simultaneous use as a baking oven and for frying.Dig a shallow hole 9 to 12 inches in diameter and 3 to 4 inches deep; place coals or charcoalbriquets in the hole and place the grill across the hole; put the pan containing the item to be bakedon the grill and cover with an inverted dutch oven; place coals on the base of the dutch oven whichis now the top; place the inverted dutch oven lid on the base tripod legs and it becomes a griddlefor frying foods.

    Another useful accessory for either base camp cooking or for use in the field is a folding packgrill. Such a grill can be used for directly broiling meats, as a stand over the coals for a skillet,griddle or a stock pot (used for soups and stews, as a steamer or as an oven for baking or roasting),as a reflector oven (using disposable aluminum cooking pans for reflectors), as a stand for aninverted dutch oven lid allowing it to be used for frying, as a dirt free stand for placing a dutchoven lid when adding ingredients to or checking the progress of food in the oven and as a standaway from the fire for serving or for safely adding ingredients without burning yourself or spillingthe food. The Coghlan's brand pack grill is cheap enough (about $3 to $4 in discount stores) thatseveral can be purchased for use in a base camp. A single pack grill and a lightweight nestingcooking set or GI mess kit can be carried in your rucksack to simplify field cooking.

    You can also add a folding pocket stove or GI canteen cup stand and solid fuel tablets to yourrucksack for reheating prepared foods or preparing hot beverages like instant soup, coffee, tea orcocoa.

    To ease the cleanup chore when reheating cooked food, immerse the food container (can, MREpouch, vacuum seal bag or freezer bag) in boiling water in your cooking pot; pierce the foodcontainer above the water line so it doesn't explode. In the field this method of heating foodreduces cooking odors and lessens the chance of giving away your unit's position to enemy scouts.

    A single-burner butane or multifuel backpacking stove can be shared between two or three people.Most butane cartridges nowadays are filled with iso-butane which can be used down to about 20degrees but, like with two-burner camp stoves, a multifuel stove is easier to resupply. Get an extraGI canteen cover and you can carry your stove attached to the side of your GI rucksack.

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    If you are on the move without a vehicle or pack animals to carry heavy cooking vessels like castiron skillets and dutch ovens (or in case you get separated from your well stocked rucksack), hereare some of the many other ways of cooking food using natural materials described in "The GreenBeret Gourmet":

    Clay Ovens:Construct an arched structure of green sticks (similar in shape to a beehive), insert a thick stickvertically through the top to form a flue opening and daub with wet clay until it is completelycovered except for a front opening. Pile on successive layers of clay until a thick wall is made.Allow the layers to dry between applications by either placing hot coals inside or, if time is not aproblem, by the sun. If each layer is not thoroughly dry, the oven will crack when you try to useit. A clay oven can also be made by hammering a thick sharpened stick down through a bank orslope about three feet back from the edge. Scoop out the size of the oven you want about a foot orso down the bank. Leave a thick ceiling. Leave a narrow front opening and dig back and hollowthe bank as far as the stick which you hammered down. Pull the stick out to form the chimneyopening. Wet your hands and smooth the interior surfaces, then harden the walls by building asmall fire inside. After your oven is prepared, to use it build a fire inside. When the fire hasburned down, scrape out the coals and ashes. Lay food inside on stones, leaves or hardwood slabs.Close off the front opening and flue. Leave food inside to cook. Cooking time depends upon thetype of food being cooked.

    Cooking in Natural Containers:A stone with a hollow in it makes an excellent container. If it is small enough you can build a firearound the stone. Bark can be used to fashion pots to boil water, cook soups, stews or any foodswith liquids over a fire. Peel a square of bark and fold the corners inward and hold them in placewith wooden pegs. Keep the flames from touching your bark pot above the liquid level and yourmeal will cook in this simple container. Large leaves make an instant "aluminum foil" whenbaking or steaming food, but be sure to use edible nonpoisonous leaves.

    Baking in Clay.This method is excellent for small game or fish. Remove the entrails from the animal beingprepared. This is easiest to do if the animal is already dead. Do not skin, pluck or scale. Coverwith a layer of clay about an inch thick. Place it in hot ashes and build a fire above it. Cookingtime varies with animal size and taste preference. A one pound animal will be cooked inapproximately 30 to 40 minutes. The meat will be stripped clean of fur, feathers or scales whenyou break off the clay.

    Baking on a Stick.Heat a peeled green stick by the fire while you prepare a bread dough. Mix a GI canteen cup offlour with a mound of baking powder the size of a quarter and a dash of salt. Add water graduallyto make a soft dough. Work quickly so the bread will rise as it bakes. Wrap dough around heatedstick and place upright next to the fire to let it bake.

    Cooking in Ashes.Foodstuff is placed in warm ashes and then covered with embers. Self-contained foods such asvegetables do not need to be wrapped in anything; simply place them in the ashes and dust themoff after cooking. Cooking time depends upon the type of food and personal preferences. Youcan test vegetables by feeling for softness and putting them back if they still feel firm.

    Cooking on Wood Slabs.Select a green hardwood slab (evergreens season the food with a pine or turpentine taste) largeenough to lash or peg the animal. Fish and very small game can be successfully cooked this way.Clean the animal and flatten down on the slab. Either pin the animal down with wooden pegs orlash to the slab with whatever is available. Lean the slab up in front of glowing coals. Turn a fewtimes so the food will cook evenly.

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    This recipe comes from Richmond, Virginia in the Confederate States of America when Yankeeinvaders were marauding and food was in short supply:

    Roasted RatThe rat must be skinned, cleaned, his head cut off and his body laid upon a square board, the legsstretched to their full extent and secured upon it with small tacks, then baste with bacon fat androast before a good fire quickly like canvasback ducks.

    Broiling on a Stick.This is a good method for cooking a small amount of food. Fish, birds and small animals (largeanimals must be cut into smaller chunks) can be cleaned and then skewered on a peeled greenwood stick. If the food tends to slide, a bark twine can be used to tie it down by splitting the wooddown to the game on both ends and twisting bark through the splits. Sear the meat in the flame toseal in the juices. The skewer can be laid over forked green sticks at both ends of an ember bed.As long as the fire does not flame up, the meat needs only occasional turning so it cooks evenly.

    Steaming in a Hole.This method can be used to cook small or enormous amounts of food with great results. Build afire and place some stones in it to heat. Don't select rocks from a stream bed, limestone orsandstone since they can contain trapped moisture and may explode when heated. While thestones are heating, dig a hole. Put the stones in the pit and place a thick layer of wet vegetationlike grass or seaweed over them. Lay the food on top of the wet vegetation and place a stick nearthe edge of the pit. Fill with dirt. Pull the stick out and pour water down this opening onto therocks to steam the food. Tamp down the top and leave the food to steam for at least two or threehours. If you are cooking something larger than fish or small game, the cooking time will need tobe extended.

    GrillingMeat can be grilled over the coals if it is fat. Lean game will end up very dry. Build a bed ofhardwood embers and place a grill matting of green sticks on it. Place the meat on the grill andturn immediately after the sides are seared to seal in the juices. Try not to pierce the meat withwhatever you are turning it with so you don't lose any juices. Keep a small container of waternearby to douse any flames that surface from the fat drippings.

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    Fire Cake and Hoe Cakes

    One of the easiest ways of making flour edible, even if not very appetizing, is to make a simpledough and fry or bake it over a fire. During the Revolutionary War it was common for soldiers tomake a thick paste of flour and water (salt was added when available) and then bake it on hotrocks around a campfire. The result was an unpalatable, chewy, soggy glob which only thestarving soldiers at Valley Forge probably appreciated. Hoe cakes were made from a corn mealdough carried to the fields by slaves and other farm workers. At lunch they cleaned their hoes, putthe dough on them and cooked it over a fire.

    Entrenching Tool Cake4 GI canteen cups white cornmealboiling water1 GI mess kit spoon (1 tablespoon) bacon drippingsGI mess kit spoon saltScald cornmeal with enough boiling water to make a stiff batter, then add bacon drippings andsalt. Shape into pones, leaving the imprint of four fingers across top. Place batter on the cleaned,greased blade of an entrenching tool and set up next to fire to bake.

    Corn Pone2 cups cornmeal3/4 tsp. salt (or less)boiling water2 tbsp. butter or margarine, melted; or vegetable oilCombine all ingredients to make a semi-stiff mush. Spread 1/4-inch thick in a well-greased heavypan and bake at 375 degrees 20 to 25 minutes. Corn pones used to be baked on a greased shovelover glowing coals.

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    Hardtack

    During the War for Southern Independence, hardtack was a staple food (when fresh bread wasunavailable) for both the brutal soldiers of the oppressive Federal government and the braveConfederate patriots defending their homeland. Hardtack was a virtually indestructible 1/2-inchthick cracker about three inches by three inches, pierced with sixteen holes and made from flourand water. Tack was a contemptuous term for food and the soldiers "affectionately" referred tohardtack as worm castles, sheet iron crackers and tooth dullers. Some of the hardtack issued tosoldiers in the 1860's was supposedly left over from the 1846-48 Mexican War. The daily rationwas nine or ten crackers, but there was usually enough for those who wanted more since somemen would not draw a full ration. They were eaten plain, soaked in coffee or crumbled and addedto the stew pot. A dish known as Skillygalee was made by soaking hardtack in cold water andthen browning it in pork fat and seasoning to taste. A favorite seasoning of the times was cayennepepper. Confederate Cush provided a dinner entree that consisted of bits of cooked beef, seasonedwith garlic, fried in bacon grease and then stewed with crumbled hardtack or cornmeal mush. Thecrackers included in military C-rations and the current MREs are similar to hardtack, being muchmore dense, containing more flour and less air than commercial saltine crackers. When fresh,hardtack was not unappetizing, but when boxes of hardtack sat on railroad platforms orwarehouses for months before being issued it hardened and often became insect infested. Becausehardtack was packed in boxes marked "B.C." (probably for "Brigade Commissary"), soldiers saidthey were so hard because they were baked "Before Christ".

    The following account from a Yankee invader indicates how much hardtack was appreciated:"While before Petersburg, doing siege work in the summer of 1864, our men had wormy hardtack,or ship's biscuit, served out to them for a time. It was a severe trial, and it tested the temper of themen. Breaking open the biscuit and finding live worms in them, they would throw the pieces inthe trenches where they were doing duty day by day, although the orders were to keep the trenchesclean for sanitary reasons. A brigade officer of the day, seeing some of the scraps along our front,called out sharply to our men 'Throw that hardtack out of the trenches.' Then, as the men menpromptly gathered it up as directed, he added, 'Don't you know that you've no business to throwhardtack in the trenches? Haven't you been told that often enough?' Out from the injured soldierheart there came the reasonable explanation 'We've thrown it out two or three times, sir, but itcrawls back.'"

    Hardtack (original 1860's recipe) Use one part water to six parts flour. Roll dough flat and scoreinto cracker shapes. Bake 20-25 minutes and cool off until completely dry before storing incanisters. The crackers should be hard as bricks and indestructibly unappetizing. If not consumedby hungry soldiers, the crackers might last at least until the Lord returns!

    The following recipes don't duplicate the indestructible nature of 19th century hardtack, but theyare more appetizing since they are made from more than just flour and water:

    Corntack1-1/4 cups cornmeal1 cup water (about)1/2 tsp. salt2 tbsp. vegetable oilCombine the above ingredients, using enough water to moisten. Bake in a greased 7x11-inch panat 375 degrees for around 15 minutes, or until the edges begin to brown slightly. While still warm,cut into squares. A modern day cross between hardtack and cornbread, these thick crackers areactually pleasantly tasty served warm or reheated.

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    Swedish Hardtack1 cup water3 tbsp. vegetable oil3 tbsp. honey3 cups rye flour (or 1-1/2 cups rye & 1-1/2 cups whole wheat flour)1-1/2 tbsp. brewer's yeast (optional)1/4 tsp. saltMix liquids together. In a separate bowl, mix dry ingredients. Combine the mixtures, stirring tomoisten throughout. Form a ball. On a floured surface, flatten the dough, and roll out thinly. Cutinto squares and prick each cracker with the tines of a fork a couple of times. Transfer to lightlygreased baking sheets. Bake at 425 degrees around 8 minutes, checking to be sure not to over-brown. Best served warm.

    Southern Soda Crackers2 cups flour (preferably whole wheat)1/4 tsp. salt1/2 tsp. baking soda2 tbsp. oil2/3 cup sour milk (or buttermilk)Mix dry ingredients. Add oil and sour milk. With a fork, stir to thoroughly moisten. Form a ball.Flatten and roll out on a floured surface. Cut into squares and transfer to lightly greased bakedsheets. Prick crackers with a fork. Bake at 350 degrees for about 8-10 minutes, watchingvigilantly so as not to burn. Best served warm.

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    Cornbread

    Red meats are complete proteins containing all of the essential amino acids needed by the body tobuild and maintain muscle and other tissues. Most vegetables don't contain all of the necessaryamino acids (although soybeans contain most) and are referred to as incomplete proteins. TheConfederate army marched and fought on a staple diet of cornbread and beans, combiningincomplete proteins to provide good nutrition.

    Southern Cornbread2 cups cornmeal1/2 tsp. salt1/2 tsp. baking soda2 tsp. baking powder1-1/4 cups buttermilk (or sour milk)1 egg, well beaten1/4 cup melted grease (your choice)Preheat oven at 425 degrees. Mix cornmeal, salt, soda, baking powder and sugar. Add buttermilkand egg. Blend well. Heat grease (until it almost smokes) in an 8 or 9 inch iron skillet, then pourmost of the grease into the batter and stir, mixing well. Pour batter into the very hot skillet. Bakefor 20 to 25 minutes, or until nicely browned.

    Molasses Cornbread or Muffins1-1/2 cups bran1 cup all-purpose flour1/2 cup cornmeal1 tbsp. baking powder1/4 tsp. salt1/4 cup sugar1/3 cup vegetable oil2 eggs, beaten1 cup milk1/3 cup molassesCombine dry ingredients. Add liquid and blend well. Pour into a greased 9x9x2-inch baking dishand bake at 375 degrees for 30 minutes; or pour into 18 greased muffin tins and bake at 375degrees for 20 minutes.

    Grandma Sarah's Cornbread1-1/2 cups sour milk or buttermilk2 eggs1 tbsp. sugar1/2 tsp. salt1/2 tsp. baking soda1-1/2 cups cornmeal1/2 cup flour1/4 cup melted butterCombine first five ingredients. Stir in cornmeal and flour. Add melted butter. Pour batter intogreased 8-inch square pan. Bake at 425 degrees for 30 minutes.

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    A Lady's Touch Cornbread1 cup cornmeal1 cup whole wheat, unbleached or all-purpose flour2 tbsp. sugar (optional)1 tbsp. baking powder1/4 to 1/2 tsp. salt1 egg, beaten (optional)3 tbsp. vegetable oil1-1/4 cup milkCombine the dry ingredients. Stir in the liquids and spoon into a greased 8-inch square pyrex dish.Bake at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. The recipe can be easily doubled and baked in a 9x13-inchpyrex dish.

    Country Sunshine Cornmeal Loaves4 cups yellow cornmeal2 cups all-purpose flour2 tsp. baking powder2 tsp. baking soda3/4 tsp. salt1/2 cup sugar6 tbsp. butter or margarine, melted4 cups buttermilk or sour milkMix dry ingredients. Stir in butter and buttermilk. Blend well. Pour batter into two greased 9x5-inch loaf pans. Let stand 15 minutes. Bake at 350 degrees for one hour. (Note: no eggs requiredfor this recipe)

    Johnny Cake or Journey Cake1 cup cornmeal1 tbsp. salt1 cup water1/2 cup milkStir cornmeal and salt into boiling water. Cook until thick. Remove from heat and add milk. Mixwell. Drop from large spoon on greased hot griddle or skillet. Turn to brown both sides.

    Johnny Cakes1 cup cornmeal1/2 tsp. salt1 tsp. sugar1-1/2 cups boiling water1/2 cup milkIn a bowl combine the cornmeal, salt and sugar. Stir in water, beating out lumps. Slowly addmilk. Drop by tablespoons full into greased skillet. Cook slowly for 5 minutes. Turn over andcook 5 minutes more. Makes 10 cakes.

    Dixie Corn Dodgers2 cups cornmeal1/2 tsp. salt2 tsp. baking powder2 tbsp, vegetable oil, melted butter, or bacon drippings2/3 cup milk (approximately)Combine the dry ingredients. Stir in liquids. Form eight "bullet-shaped" dodgers. Drop in agreased and heated heavy skillet. Brown on one side, turn to brown bottom.

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    Campfire Cornbread1 cup cornmeal1 cup flour2 tsp. baking powder3/4 tsp. salt1 cup milk1/4 cup vegetable oilMix dry ingredients. Stir in liquids. Spoon into a well-greased, heated 10 or 12 inch skillet.Cover tightly. Cover over a low flame for 20 to 30 minutes, or until firm in the center. When panbaking over hot coals place the pan on a low grill, on a three rock stand in the coals or directly oncoals. Place coals on top of the lid (like a dutch oven) to distribute heat more evenly. Bakedfoods are more likely to burn on the bottom than the top. To prevent burning, check thetemperature of your coals before placing a pan on them. Hold your hand about six inches abovethe coals; it should be hot, but you should be able to keep your hand in place for eight seconds.

    No-Flour Camp Cornbread1-1/2 cups cornmeal1 tsp. salt1 tsp. baking soda1 tbsp. sugar, molasses, sorghum, or honey2 cups buttermilk or sour milk (To sour milk, put 2 tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar in a pintmeasuring cup. Add milk to make 2 cups. Stir and let sit a few minutes until clabbered.)2 eggs, beaten1 tbsp butter or margarine, melted (or other fat)Mix dry ingredients. Stir in liquids. Spoon into a well-greased hot 10 or 12 inch iron skillet.Cover and cook over a low flame for about 30 minutes or until firm in the center (or bake in theoven at 425 degrees for approximately 30 minutes).

    Hush Puppies2 cups yellow cornmeal1 tbsp. flour1 tbsp. sugar1 tsp. baking powder3/4 tsp. baking soda1/4 cup finely chopped onion1-1/4 cups buttermilk1 egg, well beatenlard or cooking oil for deep frying, heated to 375 degreesMix dry ingredients together and make a well in the center. In a separate bowl mix buttermilk andbeaten egg. Pour in the well all at one time and mix until well blended. Using a heapingtablespoon for each, form into small cakes. Deep fry only as many as will float uncrowded onelayer deep. Turn several times as they rise to the surface during cooking (do not pierce). Fry 3 to4 minutes or until well browned. Drain a few seconds before transferring to paper towels. Servehot. (Note: At fish frys the dogs would start howling from the aroma of the cooking fish and hushpuppies were thrown to shut them up.)

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    Cornmeal Pancakes2 tsp. sugar1 tsp. salt1 tbsp. baking powder1-1/4 cups sifted flour3/4 cup cornmeal2 eggs, well beaten1-1/4 cups milk3 tbsp. melted shorteningSift together sugar, salt, baking powder and flour. Stir in cornmeal. Combine eggs and milk andadd to flour mixture. Add shortening and mix until smooth. Drop by tablespoons full on agreased hot griddle. Cook until edges are brown and bubbles are in the middle. Turn and cook onother side. Serve with butter and sorghum, molasses or other syrup.

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    Beans

    There is an old saying, "Beans, beans, good for the heart, the more you eat beans the more yourhealth will improve." All varieties of dried beans except split peas and lentils need to be soakedbefore cooking. Beans tend to retain their shape better with a long soak.

    Cooking Dried Beans.To prepare dried beans (1 pound of dried beans = about 2 cups raw or 5 to 6 cups cooked), placewashed beans in a pot with 2 to 3 times their volume of water (1 pound of beans needs 4 to 6cups). Let stand 8 to 12 hours. To quick soak, bring water and beans to a boil and allow to boil 2minutes. Cover pot and let stand 1 hour. The time required for cooking beans is generally 1-1/2to 2 hours, but this depends upon the variety of bean and the length of time they have been stored.Check beans often as they begin to get tender so they don't get mushy. Cook at a gentle simmerwith the lid tilted to retain shape. If beans foam up during cooking, add a tablespoon of oil or fatto the water or cook with a small amount of fat pork or bacon. If a recipe calls for tomatoes,lemon juice or vinegar, add when beans are almost tender or acid will slow the softening process.Beans can also be prepared for quick-cooking in camp like minute rice. Cook them normally untiltender, drain and dry them in a food dryer or spread them on a flat pan and dry in a warm oven orin the sun. Store in airtight canisters. They can then be reconstituted in water by boiling about 20minutes.

    Trench Beans1 lb. dry pinto beans, cooked1 tbsp. seasoned salt1 tbsp. worcestershire sauce1 tbsp. A-1 Steak Sauce1/8 tsp. Tabasco1 tsp. lemon pepper1 tsp. onion powderSoak and cook beans. When tender, add seasonings and simmer an additional 30 minutes.

    Battalion Baked Beans1 large can pork and beans1/2 cup tomato catsup6 small onions (or 1 jar small onions)1/2 cup brown sugar1 tsp. vinegar2 tbsp. molasses1 tsp. dry prepared mustardbacon stripsCombine all ingredients except bacon and spoon into a casserole dish. Cover with strips of bacon.Bake at 300 degrees to 350 degrees for 1 hour or until the bacon is done and the beans are bubbly.

    Secession Baked Beans2 cans pork and beans (or 3 cups cooked dry beans)1/4 cup molasses1/2 cup tomato sauce (3/4 cup if more liquid is needed)1 medium onion, sliced into rings1/2 tsp. dry prepared mustard1/4 tsp. salt (or more to taste)dash of pepper3 strips of bacon, cut in half (optional)Combine everything except bacon. Pour into 1-1/2 quart casserole dish. If you use bacon, arrangeon top of the bean mixture. Bake at 325 degrees for 2 hours or 375 degrees for 1 hour.

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    Baked Beans6 cups cooked dry beans (2 cups raw)1 small chopped onion1/2 cup brown sugar2 tbsp. molasses1 tbsp. salt1/2 tsp. dry prepared mustard2 slices fat pork or baconPlace half the cooked beans in a bean pot place chopped onion on top. Add remaining beans. Mixbrown sugar, molasses, salt and mustard and pour on top of beans. Lay fat pork or bacon on topand cover beans with hot water. Cover bean pot and bake in a slow oven (250 degrees) for 6hours. Uncover last hour to brown.

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    Rice and Beans

    Like the cornbread and beans diet of the Confederacy or the fish and rice staple diet of the Orient,rice and beans combine incomplete proteins from two different foods to form complete proteins.The combination of rice and beans is a staple diet for much of the world's population. You can topthe Carolina Red Rice recipe with cooked dried beans (seasoned to taste). Use the recipes forHopping John (a colonial dish served on New Year's Day to insure good luck) as guidelines andsubstitute whatever type of beans you have available. Try adding canned chili and tomato sauceor salsa to cooked rice (or make your own chili with meat, tomato sauce and chili seasonings) andadd it to any rice and bean mix (seasoned to taste with hot sauce).

    Cooking RiceInstant or minute rice, while good for cooking in the field, won't store for long periods (withoutvacuum or nitrogen packing) since it has already been cooked and then dried. To prepare regularlong grain white rice (1 cup uncooked rice = about 3 cups cooked rice), rinse lightly and drain thewater. Add one cup of water and 1/2 to 1 tsp. salt (or meat stock or bouillon) for each cup of rice.Optionally, add one teaspoon of butter or oil for each cup of uncooked rice. Bring to a boil overhigh heat and allow to boil one minute. Cover pot, reduce heat and simmer for 20 minutes.Remove from heat and let stand for 10 minutes more. Don't open lid while cooking.

    Bean-Rice Casserole3 cups water1 cup uncooked rice1/2 cup quick-cooking black beans (see previous section for instructions on preparing quick-cooking beans or substitute cooked dried beans or a can of cooked beans)1 tbsp. instant beef bouillon3 tbsp. margarine1/2 cup chopped dried apricots1/2 cup chopped dried pineapplePut all ingredients in a frying pan and mix. Cover and cook over medium heat for about 20minutes. Don't stir while it's cooking because that will make the rice gummy. When the water hasbeen absorbed, test rice for doneness. If it's still a little chewy, add a little more water and cook afew minutes more.

    Carolina Red Rice1/4 lb. bacon3/4 cup chopped onions2 cups cooked rice2 cups canned tomatoes (or reconstituted dried tomatoes)1/2 tsp. salt1/2 tsp. pepper1/4 tsp. Tabasco sauceCook bacon, remove from pan and crumble. Cook onions in bacon fat until tender. Add rice,tomatoes, seasonings and crumbled bacon. Cook on low heat about 35 minutes, stirring well. Stirwith fork several times while cooking. Check after 15 minutes and add water if needed.

    Hopping John2 cups cooked black-eyed peas2 cups cooked rice1 chopped onion (optional)2 tbsp. butterdash salt, pepper and hot sauceBlend and heat slowly about 30 minutes.

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    Hopping John Soup1 cup dry black-eyed peas ("southern caviar")8 cups water6 slices bacon3/4 cup chopped onion1 clove garlic, minced1 cup regular rice2 tsp. salt1/4 tsp. pepperRinse black-eyed peas. In a large saucepan add the peas and water, bring to a boil 2 minutes.Remove from heat and let stand 1 hour. Drain, setting aside 6 cups of the cooking liquid. Inheavy saucepan, cook the bacon, onion and garlic until the bacon is crisp and the onion is tenderbut not brown. Remove the bacon, drain on paper towels: crumble and set aside. Stir the black-eyed peas, raw rice, salt, pepper and reserved cooking liquid into mixture in saucepan. Bring to aboil, cover and reduce heat. Simmer 1 hour, stirring occasionally. Stir in crumbled bacon and it'sready to serve eight regular folks or two good ol' boys.

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    Bread and Biscuits

    In case of a power outage, bread bakes just as well in a dutch oven with hot coals or charcoalbriquets (cooking time should be roughly the same as in your home oven). If you don't do a lot ofbaking, you might want to invest in a set of no-stick air-bake insulated baking pans and cookiesheets, which will lessen the chance of burning your baked goods. Bread can be prepared fromstockpiled staples and can be served with any meal. However, note that due to their oil content,items like wheat germ and whole wheat flour or other unprocessed flours will turn rancid withoutrefrigeration (or freezing). It's best to store whole grains, get a hand cranked mill and grind yourown flour. In the face of an expected long-term power outage, you will want to preserve or use upthe perishables in your refrigerator. Baking bread is a good way to use your milk, eggs and butter(substitute melted butter in recipes that call for vegetable oil) before they spoil and will give yousomething to put your peanut butter and jelly on or sop up some gravy. To ease this task, you maywant to keep a stock of Jiffy Muffin Mix on hand (rotate periodically by using and replacing).These mixes are easy to use and are very versatile. For example, the corn muffin mix package hasinstructions for preparing as muffins, cornbread, corn sticks and corn pancakes or waffles. AnyJiffy Muffin Mix can be extended using the following recipe:

    Jiffy Muffin Mix Mini-Loaves1 package Jiffy Muffin Mix (corn muffin, blueberry, apple-cinnamon, etc.)In addition to the ingredients listed in package recipe (e.g. corn muffins call for 1 egg and 1/3 cupmilk), also use:1/3 cup wheat germ, bran or uncooked multigrain cereal1 tbsp. brown sugar or molasses1/4 tsp. salt1/3 cup raisins or chopped dried fruit (or 1/4 cup each dried fruit & chopped nuts)1/2 tsp. baking powder1 tbsp. melted butter or vegetable oil1 tbsp. milkFor corn muffin mix, preheat oven to 400 degrees (or temperature called for by other type muffinmix). Mix dry ingredients together. Beat remaining ingredients together in a separate bowl, thenblend with dry mix. For maximum rise, let batter rest 3 or 4 minutes and then pour into twogreased 3x5-1/2 inch mini-loaf pans (which will fit in a 10-inch dutch oven, by the way; set thepans on top of home-canning jar rings or pebbles placed in the bottom of the oven to let hot aircirculate under the pans). Bake 15 to 20 minutes or until brown.

    The following quick breads (no active dry yeast required) can also be prepared to use up yourmilk, eggs and butter before they spoil:

    Logan Bread6 eggs3 cups flour (any mixture of whole wheat and rye)3/4 cup wheat germ1/4 cup brown sugar1/2 cup powdered milk1 cup oil1/2 cup honey1/4 cup molasses1/4 cup sorghum syrup or maple syrup(any combination of these four sweeteners totaling one cup works fine)1/2 cup shelled walnuts or pecans1 cup dried fruit (raisins, dates, apricots, peaches, etc.)Beat all the ingredients together in a large bowl. Pat down into two greased 9x5-inch loaf pans.Bake at 275 degrees for two hours, or until a tester comes out clean. The bread will be veryheavy, dense and chewy; each loaf weighs 24 ounces. Logan bread tastes good on the trail, is highin calories and is almost impervious to spoilage.

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    Pioneer Bread1/2 cup butter or margarine1/2 cup honey3 eggs1 cup buttermilk (or sour milk: 1 tbsp. vinegar, 1/3 cup powdered milk, water to make 1 cup, letset 5 minutes)2 cups whole wheat flour2 cups unbleached white flour1 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. salt1 cup raisins2 tbsp. caraway seedsCombine butter, honey, and eggs in a bowl and add buttermilk. Separately, combine flours andbaking soda and add salt, raisins, and caraway seeds. Combine both bowls. Place in a greased9x5-inch loaf pan. Bake at 375 degrees for 50 to 60 minutes or until a tester comes out clean.

    Molasses Graham Bread1/4 cup sugar2 cups flour2 tsp. baking soda2 tsp. salt1 tsp. baking powder1-3/4 cups graham flour (or whole wheat flour)1/3 cup butter2 eggs, beaten1-3/4 cups sour milk or buttermilk3/4 cup molassesMix together dry ingredients, then cut in the butter. Work with fingertips until mixture resemblescoarse cornmeal. Blend eggs, milk and molasses. Pour into dry mixture and stir just enough toblend. Pour into two greased and floured loaf pans. Bake at 350 degrees for about 40 minutes.

    Irish Soda Bread3 cups all-purpose flour1/2 cup sugar1 tbsp. baking powder1 tsp. baking soda1-1/2 cups dried currants or raisins1-3/4 cups buttermilk2 large eggs3 tbsp. melted butter or margarine1/2 tsp. vanillaMix flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda and currants in a large bowl. In a small bowl, beatbuttermilk, eggs, 2 tablespoons of the butter and vanilla until blended. Add egg mixture to flourmixture and stir until evenly moistened. Spread batter in a greased 10-inch oven-proof frying pan.Drizzle with remaining 1 tablespoon butter. Bake at 350 degrees until bread is browned and pullsaway from sides of pan (about 45 minutes). Let cool in pan on a rack for 10 minutes.

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    Nut Bread3 tbsp. butter1 cup sugar2 eggs2-1/2 cups flour3 tsp. baking powder1 tsp. salt1 cup milk1 cup chopped nuts1 tsp. vanillaCream together butter and sugar. Add eggs and beat real good. Sift together dry ingredients andadd to butter mixture alternately with the milk. Mix in nuts and vanilla. Pour batter into greasedloaf pan and let rise for 30 minutes. Bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes.

    Date Nut Bread1 cup chopped dates1 cup sugar2 tbsp. shortening1 cup boiling water2-1/4 cups all-purpose flour1 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. salt1 tsp. baking powder1 cup chopped nuts1 eggPreheat oven to 375 degrees. Put dates, sugar and shortening into a bowl. Pour boiling water overmixture and cool. Sift flour with soda, salt and baking powder. Mix with dates. Add nuts andmix real good. Add egg last, mix thoroughly and pour into a greased loaf pan. Bake 1 hour.

    Whole Wheat Beer Biscuits2 cups all-purpose flour1 cup whole wheat flour2 tbsp. sugar4-1/2 tsp. baking powder1 tsp. salt3/4 tsp. cream of tartar3/4 cup (1/4 lb. plus 1/4 cup) cold butter or margarine, cut into pieces1 large egg, lightly beaten1 cup beerMix all-purpose flour, whole wheat flour, sugar, baking powder, salt and cream of tartar in a largebowl. With a pastry blender or 2 knives, cut in butter until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Addegg and beer. Stir with a fork just until dough holds together. Turn dough out onto a well flouredboard and knead briefly until smooth (2 or 3 turns). Pat dough 1-inch thick. Using a floured 2-1/2to 2-3/4 inch round cookie cutter, cut out biscuits. Gently pat scraps together and cut outremaining biscuits. Arrange biscuits slightly apart on a large greased baking sheet. Bake at 425degrees until browned (18 to 20 minutes). Transfer biscuits to a rack. Makes 8 or 9 biscuits.

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    Carolina Choice Rice (or Grits) Loaf (or Muffins)2 cups cooked brown rice (or 2 cups cooked hominy grits)1-1/4 cup sour milk1/4 cup vegetable oil1 egg, beaten1 tsp. baking soda, dissolved in 1 tbsp. of water2 cups whole wheat, unbleached or all-purpose flour1/2 tsp. salt1 to 2 tbsp. sugarCombine the rice or grits, sour milk, oil, egg and soda in water. In a separate bowl, mix theremaining 3 ingredients. Stir together the two mixtures. Spoon into a greased 9x5-inch loaf panor into greased muffin tins. Bake at 375 degrees. For the loaf bread, bake 50-60 minutes. Formuffins, bake 15 to 20 minutes. Test with a toothpick or broom straw. Insert near the center; if itcomes out unsticky, the bread is baked.

    Charleston Rice Muffins2 cups flour2 tsp. baking powder1/2 tsp. salt1/4 tsp. freshly ground pepper1 cup cold cooked rice2 eggs, beaten1 cup milk1/4 cup butter, meltedCombine dry ingredients. Add rice and liquid ingredients. Mix. Spoon into greased muffin tins.Bake at 400 degrees for around 20 minutes. Makes 12 muffins.

    In case of a long-term survival situation, the following bread and biscuit recipes don't require eggsor yeast and can be prepared with foodstuffs which will keep on a pantry shelf withoutrefrigeration (except whole wheat flour which you should grind as needed):

    South Boston Brown Bread1 cup rye flour1 cup yellow cornmeal1 cup whole wheat flour2 tbsp. plain white flour2 tsp. baking soda3/4 tsp. salt3/4 cup raisins2 cups buttermilk or sour milk (to sour milk, put 2 tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar in a pint container,add milk to make 2 cups, stir and let sit a few minutes until clabbered)3/4 cup molassesSift dry ingredients together. Add raisins. Stir. Mix buttermilk with molasses and pour into drymixture. Blend well and pour into greased 9x5-inch loaf pan (do not use 8x4-inch pan unless youenjoy cleaning your oven). Bake at 350 degrees for about 45 minutes. (Note: This bread is namedafter South Boston in Halifax County, Virginia, CSA.)

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    Old-Fashioned Brown Bread2 cups graham or whole wheat flour1 cup all-purpose flour1 tsp. baking soda1/2 tsp. salt1 cup dark molasses1 cup buttermilk1/2 cup low-fat milkMix graham flour, all-purpose flour, baking soda and salt in a medium size bowl. In a large bowl,combine molasses, buttermilk and low-fat milk; stir until blended. Add flour mixture to milkmixture; stir until well blended. Pour batter into a greased 9x5-inch loaf pan. Bake at 325 degreesuntil bread begins to pull away from sides of pan and a skewer inserted in center comes out clean(1 to 1-1/4 hours). Let cool in pan on a rack for 10 minutes, then turn out onto rack and let coolcompletely.

    Master Biscuit Mix4 cups whole wheat flour4 cups unbleached or all-purpose flour1/3 cup baking powder1 tbsp. saltMix all ingredients (store in refrigerator or freezer for later use, if desired). To prepare, take 1-1/2cups of master biscuit mix and add 3/4 cup milk and 2 tablespoons vegetable oil. Mix. With alarge spoon, drop mounds of batter on baking sheet or cast iron skillet. Bake at 425 degrees forabout 15 minutes or until the tops are brown.

    Cabin Buttermilk Biscuits2 cups flour2 tsp. baking powder1/4 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. salt1 cup buttermilk (about)2 tbsp. lard or shorteningSift dry ingredients together and blend with lard or shortening. Add buttermilk, about one cup tomake soft dough. Roll on a floured board until 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick and cut with drinking glass orbiscuit cutter. Place on baking sheet and bake in 350 degrees oven about 10 minutes or untilbrown.

    Mammy's Baking Powder Biscuits2 cups flour4 tsp. baking powder1/4 tsp. salt2 tbsp. shortening1/2 cup milkSift dry ingredients together. Work in shortening with fingertips. Add milk slowly, stirring thebatter until smooth. Roll on a floured board until 1/2-inch thick and cut. Place on a baking sheetand bake in a hot (450 degrees) oven for 15 minutes.

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    Rebel Yell Whole Wheat Biscuits2 cups whole wheat flour2 cups unbleached or plain white flour1-1/2 tsp. salt8 tsp. baking powder1/2 cup vegetable oil1-1/2 cups milk (or more)Mix dry ingredients. Combine oil and milk. Stir the liquid into the dry mixture quickly. Ongreased baking sheets, make mounds of dough using a large spoon, leaving enough space to allowfor expansion. Bake at 425 degrees for about 12 minutes.

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    Casseroles, Soups, Stews and Dumplings

    Much colonial cooking consisted of meals that simmered for hours in cast iron kettles over thefireplace. One-pot meals in a dutch oven or iron kettle over a fire are still a practical method forpreparing a lot of food with minimum effort. For casseroles the ingredients are mixed together inthe cooking vessel and then baked. For soups and stews on the stove top or over the fire, the meatgoes in first and vegetables are added towards the end of the cooking time. If unexpected guestsshow up, an extra potato can be quartered and dropped in the stew pot. If meat is in short supplyfor your stew, you can substitute bouillon cubes and a little butter or vegetable oil and addpotatoes or dumplings. Dumplings can be quickly prepared to stretch a meal by adding biscuitdough in small lumps or strips and steaming in the covered pot for 10 to 15 minutes (either use abiscuit recipe from the previous section or try one of the dumpling recipes below).

    Whole Wheat Biscuit Mix for Dumplings1 cup white flour1 cup whole wheat flour2 tsp. baking powder1 tsp. salt2 tbsp. shortening or oil1/4 cup powdered milkCombine at home and store in a zip-lock bag or Nalgene bottle. In camp, add 3 tablespoons waterper 1/2 cup biscuit mix and mix well. Spoon into boiling stew or soup. Simmer 10 minutesuncovered and 10 minutes covered.

    Cornmeal Dumplings1 cup cornmeal1/4 tsp. black pepperham stockMix cornmeal and pepper. While ham stock is boiling, pour some over meal mixture and stir intodough. Make stiff enough to form balls the size of an egg and drop in briskly boiling stock.Reduce heat and simmer 20 minutes.

    Dumplings4 cups flour1/3 cup lard or other shortening1-1/2 to 2 cups waterMix together flour and lard. Add water and mix thoroughly. Toss dough on a floured surfaceuntil coated with flour. Divide into 4 balls and roll dough out 1 ball at a time to about 1/4-inch orthinner. Cut in strips and cut strips into 2-inch pieces. Add a few pieces at a time to boiling broth.Cook uncovered, making sure that each dumpling is under the liquid part of the time. cook about5 to 10 minutes. Makes 4 to 5 large servings. (Note: If using self rising flour, make sure to usehot water so dough will rise before cooking.)

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    Beef Stew with Dumplings1-1/2 pounds rump roast1/4 cup flour1-1/2 tsp. salt1/4 tsp. pepper1 small onion1/3 cup cubed carrots1/3 cup cubed turnips4 cups potatoes, quarteredWipe meat off, remove from the bone, cut in 1-1/2 inch cubes. Mix flour with salt and pepper andcover meat with mixture. Heat some fat from meat in a frying pan. Add meat and brown. Putmeat with browned fat in stew kettle, add boiling water to cover. Simmer until tender, about 3hours. Add carrots and turnips for last hour of cooking. Add potatoes 20 minutes and dumplings15 minutes before serving. Use one of the dumpling recipes above.

    Chicken and Dumplings1 stewing hen3 cups flour1 egg1 heaping tablespoon shortening1 tsp. salt1/2 cup cold waterCut chicken for stewing. Barely cover with water and cook until tender for about 2 to 3 hours.Remove chicken from stock and remove bones. Put flour in mixing bowl. In center of flour putegg, shortening and salt. Gradually add cold water. Work plenty of flour into dough. Roll thinand cut in 2x3-inch strips. When dumplings are added to broth, lower heat and simmer about 12to 15 minutes. Place the chicken back in the stew. A little butter may be added if chicken islacking in fat.

    Chicken Pot Pie3 to 4 cups cooked chopped chicken1 16-ounce can mixed vegetables, drained1 can cream of chicken soup1 cup chicken broth1 cup self-rising flour (if using ordinary flour, add 1 tsp. baking powder and 1/2 tsp. salt)1 tsp. baking powder1 cup milk1/2 stick (1/4 cup) margarine, meltedPlace chicken in a large casserole dish and add vegetables, soup and broth. Mix together, in aseparate bowl, the next 4 ingredients for the topping. Pour the topping mixture over the chicken.Bake at 425 degrees for about 45 minutes or until the crust is golden brown.

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    Meat Loaf with Cornbread Toppingmeat loaf ingredients:1-1/2 pounds ground chuck1 pound ground pork breakfast sausage1-1/2 cups cooked rice1 tsp. salt1/2 tsp. peppertopping ingredients:1 cup flour1 tsp. baking powder1/2 tsp. salt1/4 tsp. sage1 tsp. shortening3/4 cup milk1/2 cup cornmeal2 tsp. sugar1/8 tsp. pepper1/4 tsp. thyme3 eggs, beatenPreheat oven to 350 degrees. Mix meat loaf ingredients together and lightly press into a 9x5-inchloaf pan. The top of the meat loaf should be flat to make an even surface for the topping. In amixing bowl, combine the dry topping ingredients and cut in shortening. Add eggs and milk andblend well. Spread topping evenly on top of meat loaf. Bake at 350 degrees for 60 minutes.

    Beef Stew and Lima Beans3/4 cup dried lima beans1 pound boneless chuck stew beef, cut in pieces1 bunch carrotssalt, pepper and celery saltSoak beans overnight, drain. Add meat and cook 1-1/2 hours in boiling water. Add carrots andcook until tender. Season with salt, pepper and celery salt. Serve with tomato sauce.

    Beef Stew1-1/2 pounds boneless stew beef3 tbsp. bacon fat or shortening1-3/4 tsp. salta few dashes of pepper1 onion the size of a large egg, peeled1/3 cup water, and more as needed5 carrots (6 inch long)5 potatoes (medium size)Wipe meat with a damp cloth and cut into 1-1/2 inch cubes. Heat fat until sizzling in a heavy 3quart saucepan or dutch oven. Add meat, turning it often until a fine rich brown. Add thicklysliced onion to meat the last five minutes of browning. When brown, sprinkle with 1 teaspoon saltand pepper. Add water, cover, heat to boiling, reduce heat and simmer until meat is almost done,from 1-1/2 to 2 hours. After simmering 1 hour, if more water is needed, stir in 1/4 cup at a time.A half-hour before serving time, add scraped and washed carrots cut into 2-inch lengths and paredhalved potatoes. Sprinkle with remaining 3/4 teaspoon salt. Cover and cook until vegetables arejust done. There should be enough liquid in pot to almost cover meat and vegetables. To makegravy, mix 1/3 cup water and 1 tablespoon flour. Blend until smooth. Push meat and vegetablesto one side and pour flour mixture, while stirring, in a stream into broth. Cook and stir 2 to 3minutes longer until thickened and smooth.

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    Carolina Beef Stew1 pound boneless beef cubes2 tbsp. fat1 onion, chopped2 tbsp. catsup3 cups beef bouillon1 cup diced tomatoes1 tsp. salt and pepper2 cups diced raw potatoes2 cups sliced carrots6 small onions (whole)Brown beef in fat. Add chopped onion, catsup, bouillon, tomatoes, salt and pepper. Cover andsimmer about 1-1/2 hours until meat is tender. Add potatoes, carrots and whole onions, barelycover with water. Cover and simmer until vegetables are cooked (about a half hour).

    Brunswick Stew1 large chicken1 rabbit2 bay leaves, crumbled5 peppercorns3 sprigs parsley1 stalk celery, cut up3 potatoes, cut up2 large onions, slicedpiece of salt pork2 cups fresh corn, cut from cob2 cups large lima beans6 tomatoes, quarteredsalt and pepper1 tbsp. sugar1/2 tsp. oregano1/2 tsp. thyme1/2 tsp. savoryCut salt pork in small pieces and brown slowly in large skillet. Remove salt pork and save. Cutrabbit into serving pieces, dredge in seasoned flour and brown in salt pork fat. Place chicken inlarge pot, place rabbit on top of chicken. Add salt pork, beans, onions and celery. Cover withboiling water, cover tightly and simmer 2 hours. Add other ingredients except tomatoes. Cookuntil vegetables are just tender. Mix a little flour and water and add to stew. Add tomatoes andcook 5 minutes. Correct seasoning and serve.

    Brunswick Stew2 pounds beef or veal cubes1 large chicken2 cups diced raw potatoes4 cups cut corn1 cup chopped onions3 cups fresh lima beans (or cooked dry lima beans)4 cups canned tomatoes1 tbsp. salt (to taste)2 tbsp. hot sauce2 tsp. red pepperPlace beef or veal and chicken in large pot, cover with water, bring to boil, reduce heat andsimmer over medium-low heat until tender. Remove meat from bones. Skim fat from liquid.Return meat to broth. Add other ingredients. Simmer slowly for several hours to blend flavorsand thicken. Serve hot.

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    Company Brunswick Stew2 fat hens, cut up6 28-ounce cans of tomatoes5 pounds of onions, chopped10 pounds of potatoes, cubed4 10-ounce packages frozen lima beans4 17-ounce cans cream style corn3 10-ounce packages frozen cut okra4 red pepper pods2 20-ounce cans tomato puree1 5-ounce bottle worcestershire sauce1 pound butter (no substitute)Cook hens in plenty of water over medium-low heat until they are tender enough to fall frombones. Remove chicken and let cool. Add tomatoes and onions to broth and cook 1 to 1-1/2hours. Meanwhile, remove meat from bones and return to broth. Add potatoes, lima beans, corn,okra and pepper pods. Reduce heat and cook 1 hour longer, stirring occasionally. Add tomatopuree, worcestershire sauce and butter. Simmer about another half hour. Serves 35 to 40.

    Pea Soup1/2 tsp. salt1/8 tsp. pepper2 tbsp. buttercelery saltparsley3 cups chicken stock2 cups cooked green peas1 cup cold water1/2 onion1 cup milkSet aside one third of peas. Add remainder to water, chicken stock and seasoning and let simmerfor 30 minutes. Press through sieve. Add butter. Let boil for a few minutes then add milk andremaining peas which have been heated.

    Split Pea Soup1-1/2 cups dried split peas1/2 cup onion, chopped1/8 tsp. pepper5 cups waterSimmer peas, onion, salt and pepper in water 20 to 30 minutes until peas are tender.

    Corn Chowder2 slices diced salt pork (or 2 tbsp. butter)1/2 cup diced onion3 cups diced raw potatoes2 cups water2 cups fresh (or canned) corn4 cups hot milk1 tsp. salt1 tsp. pepperSaute onion in butter (or pork grease) and mix all ingredients (except milk) in large pot. Cookuntil potatoes are tender. Add milk last and serve hot.

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    Confederate Corn Chowder3 cups water1 medium onion, diced1 cup potato flakes1 cup whole kernel corn1/2 cup dry milk powdersalt and pepperCombine ingredients in a large pot. Bring to a boil and simmer until onion is tender. Season totaste. Makes 6 servings.

    Forager's Potato Soup3 cups potatoes, peeled and diced2 cups water3/4 tsp. salt1 cup onion, chopped2 tbsp. vegetable oil or butter2 tbsp. flour2 cups milk1 tsp. dried parsley1/2 to 1 tsp. garlic powder1/4 tsp. pepperBring potatoes, water and salt to a boil in a saucepan. Reduce heat and simmer, covered, for 15minutes or until the potatoes are tender. Without draining the potatoes, mash them up.Meanwhile, in a large saucepan, heat oil and add onion. Cook until onion is soft. Sprinkle in flourand stir for 1 minute. Gradually add milk, stirring frequently for 5 or 10 minutes until thickened.Add cooked potato mixture and seasonings blended together.

    Old Timey Potato Soup1 medium onion, minced1/4 cup butter4 cups diced raw potatoes2 cups water1 tsp. salt4 cups milka few dashes celery seedsalt and pepper to taste4 slices bacon, cooked and crumbledSaute onion in butter until translucent. Add potatoes, water and salt and cook until tender. Addmilk and season to taste. Simmer a few minutes before serving.

    Bacon and Bean Soup2 cups dried beans (or 2 cans cooked beans)4 slices bacon4 cups water1 cup diced onions1 cup diced celery1 tsp. dried parsley1 tsp. savory1 clove garlic2 tbsp. bacon fat1 tsp. red pepper1 tsp. saltSoak dried beans overnight and cook until tender (or use canned beans). Fry bacon until crisp anddrain. In a large pot, mix cooked beans with remaining ingredients. Simmer for 1 hour. Addwater as desired during cooking process. Crumble crisp bacon on top and serve.

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    Desserts

    The complex carbohydrates in bread and pasta can take four hours for the body to break down andmake use of. This is fine to provide energy for a long hike or to allow you to sleep warmly. Thecarbohydrates in simple sugars are more easily assimilated by the body (about fifteen minutes).Cookies or breads containing fruit and a high sugar content make good snacks for a quick pick-me-up on the trail. For example, most of recipes in the cornbread section can be prepared using alittle extra brown sugar, molasses and some raisins. Cooking the sugar rich cornbread batter in acast iron corn stick pan makes an excellent trail snack or something to munch on in a sniper hide.To satisfy your sweet tooth and to provide quick energy, here are some recipes that use sugar(brown sugar is easier to carry and use in the field), molasses and dried or fresh fruits (there is apossibility that you might just happen to run across a couple of apples in Washington State):

    Yankee Cake2 cups brown sugar2 tbsp. shortening2 cups hot water1 package seedless raisins3 cups flour1 tsp. salt1 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. cinnamon1 tsp. clovesCombine and boil the sugar, water, shortening, raisins, salt and spices for 5 minutes. Dissolvesoda in a teaspoon of hot water. When all ingredients cool, mix in the flour and dissolved soda.Pour batter into two loaf pans. Bake at 325 degrees for 45 minutes. (Note from recipe book:"Notice this here recipe ain't got no eggs, milk or butter. Now I guess you know where it got it'sname. Cause of them Yankees there wuz no eggs, milk or butter after THE WAR.")

    Hard Times Spice Cake1-1/2 cups milk1/4 cup vegetable oil1/3 cup molasses1-1/4 cup whole wheat, unbleached or all-purpose flour1 cup cornmeal1 tbsp. baking powder1/2 tsp. salt2 tsp. cinnamon1/4 tsp. cloves3/4 to 1 cup raisinsMix together the milk, oil and molasses. In a separate bowl, combine the remaining ingredientsexcept raisins. Mix together the two mixtures and stir in raisins. Pour batter into a greased 9x9-inch pyrex baking dish. Bake at 350 degrees for about 30 minutes.

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    Old Fashioned Stack Cake1/2 cup sour milk or buttermilk1/2 tsp. baking soda1 egg1/2 cup shortening1 cup molassesflour1 quart cooked dried applessugarallspice or nutmeg (Schilling Pumpkin Pie Spice combines cinnamon, ginger, allspice and nutmegand is good with stewed fruit)Mix sour milk, soda, egg, shortening and molasses real good. Then add flour to make a stiffdough. Roll thin and cut layers round, the size of cake desired, and bake. To stack, drain juicefrom cooked dried apples, mash, sweeten and spice to taste and use between layers.

    Stack Cake3/4 cup shortening1 cup sugar1 cup sorghum molasses3 eggs1 cup milk4 cups wheat flour2 tsp. baking powder1/2 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. salt3 cups sweetened, spiced applesauceSift well the flour, salt, soda and baking powder. Cream in shortening. Then add sugar a little at atime, blending well. Add molasses and mix thoroughly. Add eggs one at a time, beating welluntil smooth. Pour 1/3-inch deep in greased 9-inch pans and bake. This will make 6 or 7 layers.When cool, stack using applesauce between layers. Commercial applesauce can be used or youcan try the next recipe.

    Windfall ApplesauceCut apples, peels and all. Place in pot and add small piece of cinnamon and a small amount ofwater. Cook covered for 20 minutes. Cool slightly and add 1 tablespoon butter per quart ofapples and add grated nutmeg, ginger, grated lemon peel and ground cloves to taste. Cool andserve.

    Dried Apple Cake2 cups dried apples2 eggs1 cup sugar1 cup milk1 cup molasses3 cups flour1 tsp. baking soda2/3 cup baking powder1 cup raisinscinnamon and nutmegSoak apples long enough to soften. Chop apples up small and boil them for 15 minutes in themolasses. Dissolve the soda in hot water, put into molasses when cold. Mix in all ingredients,beat well and pour into cake pan. Bake in moderate (350 degrees) oven until done.

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    Confederate Puddin'3 cups hot milk3 cups cold boiled rice1 tsp. salt1/4 cup molasses1/4 cup raisins1/2 tsp. nutmeg1 tbsp. butterMix hot milk and rice, add molasses, butter, raisins, nutmeg and salt. Bake in a greased pan at 350degrees for an hour. Stir after 30 minutes. (Note from recipe book: "Southern folks always had asweet tooth. After the war white flour wuz hard to come by so they came up with this here recipe.It wuz so good they kept right on eatin' it even when they could git flour.")

    Baked Cornmeal Pudding2 cups cornmeal1 cup flour2 well beaten eggs1/4 cup shortening1 cup sorghum molasses1/4 tsp. allspice1 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. salt1 cup buttermilkSift meal twice. Mix all dry ingredients real good. Add eggs, milk, molasses and shortening. Mixall together good, adding more milk if too stiff. Bake at 350 degrees in well greased pudding panuntil golden brown. Test with toothpick, if it comes out clean, pudding is done. Serve hot withany kind of fruit.

    Southern Bread Pudding2 cups milk4 eggs beaten1 tbsp. vanilla1 cup raisins4 cups biscuit crumbs2 tbsp. butternutmeg to tasteMix milk, eggs and nutmeg together in a saucepan. Place over heat until hot but not boiling. Linebaking dish with biscuit crumbs mixed with melted butter. Pour milk mixture over biscuit crumbs(you can use store-bought light bread, but biscuits are better). Sprinkle with nutmeg. Place thebaking dish in a pan of hot water in a 350 degrees oven and bake for 45 minutes.

    Apple Brown Betty2 cups soft bread crumbs1/4 cup margarine3 cups apples, sliced (they need not be peeled)1/2 cup sugar1 tsp. cinnamon3/4 cup waterIn an oven-proof skillet, saute bread crumbs in margarine. Add apples, sugar, cinnamon andwater. Cover and bake at 375 degrees for 30 to 40 minutes, until apples are translucent and tender.If mixture becomes too dry during baking, add 1/4 cup water (apples vary as to moisture content).

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    Apple Custard Piefilling ingredients:3 apples, sliced and peeled1-1/4 cup sugar1 tsp. cinnamon1 egg1 cup evaporated milk (or 1 cup double-strength powdered milk)crust ingredients:1-1/2 cups flour1/2 tsp. salt1 stick butterFor crust, mix flour, salt and butter with a fork until mixture resembles coarse meal. Press firmlyon the bottom and sides of a buttered pie plate. Place sliced apples on crust. Sprinkle with 2/3cup sugar and cinnamon. Bake at 375 degrees for 20 minutes. Beat together egg, remaining sugarand evaporated milk. Pour over apples and return to oven to bake 30 minutes longer.

    Timeless Gingerbread2/3 cup molasses1-1/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk2 tbsp. vegetable oil2 cups whole wheat flour1 tsp. baking soda1/4 tsp. salt1 tbsp. gingerMix the liquids. In another container, mix the dry ingredients. Beat together the two groups ofingredients and pour into a greased 9-inch square pan. Bake at 350 degrees for 25 to 30 minutesor until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out un-sticky.

    Scotch Shortbread2 sticks butter1 cup sugar2-1/2 cups flour1/2 cup chopped nuts (optional)Cream butter with sugar until soft. Add flour and mix well with hands. Add nuts if desired. Chilldough 1 hour, then roll thin. Cut into shapes or short strips. Place on ungreased cookie sheet.Bake at 300 degrees for 20 minutes. Makes about 3 dozen pieces.

    Grandma's Molasses Cookies1 cup molasses1 stick butter3 cups flour1 tsp. baking powder2 tsp. baking soda1 tsp. salt1-1/2 tsp. gingerHeat molasses and butter. Remove from heat. Mix remaining ingredients together and add tomolasses mixture. Mix well and chill 3 hours. Roll thin and cut with cookie cutter. Place ongreased cookie sheet and bake at 350 degrees about 12 minutes. Cool.

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    Molasses Crisps1-1/4 cups flour3/4 tsp. baking soda1/2 tsp. ginger1/2 cup molasses1/4 cup shorteningSift the dry ingredients. In a saucepan, bring the molasses and shortening to a boil. Cool slightly.Add flour mixture. Mix real good. Chill thoroughly. Cut into desired shapes and arrange ongreased cookie sheet. Bake at 375 degrees until done, about 8 or 10 minutes. Makes about 2dozen.

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    Domestic Animals and Vermin

    Most Americans have an aversion to eating dogs, cats or horse meat while they don't give a secondthought to eating a piece of chicken, beef or pork. It's also a culinary taboo to eat vermin like ratsand groundhogs, but many people eat other rodents like rabbits and squirrels. Cultural culinarytaboos have nothing to do with nutrition and if you can "unlearn" them a wide variety of newpotential protein sources is available to you. If you have trapped a nice juicy rat or if Fido andTabby aren't performing a vital task like protecting your food larder, garden or hen house you mayfind the recipes in this section of interest.

    Fried Cat1 cat, 2 to 3 pounds1/2 GI canteen cup flour2 GI mess kit spoons paprika1-1/2 GI mess kit spoons salt1/4 GI mess kit spoon pepper1 GI canteen cup shorteningCut cat in serving pieces. Blend flour, paprika, salt and pepper in a clean container. Shake 2 or 3pieces of the cat at a time until well coated with flour. Save any left over flour for gravy. Heatshortening in a heavy pan. Place cat pieces in pan and brown slowly on all sides. Cover and cookslowly until cat is tender. Uncover about 15 minutes to crisp cat.

    Clay Cat1 small catsalt & pepperaromatic spices such as bay leaves, juniper berries or lemon grass (use what is available)5 garlic cloves2 oranges, peeled and halvedDress and clean the cat, leaving the fur on. In the stomach cavity (which should be patted withsalt and pepper) place the peeled oranges, peeled garlic cloves and aromatics. Tie the cavityclosed or pin closed with little wooden skewers, threaded in and out of the soft belly skin. Coatthe whole animal with clay. Do several coats so you have a good shell formed. Put in a hole withhot coals at the bottom and pile hot coals on top of the clay cat. Throw a blanket of banana leaves(or other green vegetation) over the hole. Let bake for 2 or 3 hours while you are tending to otherthings. The fur will come off when you strip the clay away.

    Baked Dog DiRocco1 small dog10 bay leaves or any aromatic spice1 onion1 pod hot red pepper1 GI mess kit spoon saltblack pepper3 slices baconMike DiRocco, who served three tours in Vietnam, offers a good tip on selecting the best dog forcooking. He says the Vietnamese judge how tender the dog will be by color; a white dog is best,brown second best and lastly a black dog. Skin and clean dog. Remove the glands from under thelegs (they have a strong taste, though they are not harmful if eaten). Cut into sections. Put piecesin a pot. Add bay leaves or aromatics, then onion, red pepper and salt. Cover with cold water.Cover pot and boil gently for 30 minutes. Drain meat and discard water and seasonings. Coveragain with cold water and boil for 1 hour. Again pour out the water and drain. Cover dog withcold water for a third time and cover pot. Boil gently until tender, about 1 hour. Drain. Put dogin pan. Season with plenty of black pepper and salt if needed. Cover with slices of bacon or fatpork. Put in a clay oven or a covered pan placed in hot coals and covered with coals. Bake for 1-1/2 hours. Make gravy with pan juices.

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    Barbecued DogDress dog, removing any glands from under the legs. Take off all fat, if any. Cut into servingpieces and parboil in salt water for several hours until tender. Place on spit or grill and pour yourfavorite sauce recipe over the pieces. Grill, turning as needed to brown evenly. Baste with saucethroughout cooking. (improvised sauce: mix a GI canteen cup of tomato sauce or juice with a GImess kit spoon of garlic powder, two GI mess kit spoons of worcestershire sauce and a dash ofpepper)

    Bunker Beef Curry2 cups boned bunker beef (any meat on the hoof that you find down in your bunker; usually rats)1/4 cup flour3 large onions, sliced4 tbsp. butter or oil1 cup boiling water1/4 tsp. ground coriander1/2 tsp. ground cumin1/2 tsp. turmeric1/4 tsp. cayenne pepper1 cup tomato juiceSprinkle the "beef" with seasoned flour. Cook "beef" and onions in butter or oil until brown. Addwater and spices and bring to a boil. Cover pan. Simmer for a couple of hours until "beef" istender. Stir in tomato juice. Serve with rice. Any condiments such as coconut, raisins, nuts orchutney which are available can be sprinkled on top of Bunker Beef Curry on rice.

    Barbecued Bunker Beef4 cups cooked bunker beef, boned1/4 cup vinegar or wine1/4 cup sugar1/2 cup butter or oil1/2 tsp. black pepper1/2 tsp. cayenne pepper2 onions, peeled and sliced1-1/2 cups water4 tbsp. mustard1 tsp. salt2 slices lemon1 cup catsup3 tsp. worcestershire sauceSteam enough "beef" to make four cups, pulled from the bone. Set aside to cool. Combinevinegar or wine with sugar, butter or oil, peppers, onions, water, mustard, salt and lemon slices ina pan. Bring to a rolling boil. Add catsup, worcestershire sauce and "beef". Simmer for 15minutes. Serve over bread or rice.

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    Rat Roulade2 medium rats, dressed (cut off heads, paws and tails)4 slices bacon, diced1 onion, chopped1-1/2 cups toasted bread cubes2 tbsp. minced parsley1/2 tsp. celery seeds1/4 tsp. sage1/2 tsp. salt1/2 tsp. pepper1 cup bouillon (1 cup water, 1 bouillon cube)1 8-ounce can tomato sauceSaute bacon with onion until onion is tender. Mix in bread cubes, parsley, celery seeds and sage.Season rats with salt and pepper. Stuff each rat with stuffing. Tie rats closed with strings bywrapping around bodies. Place in pan and pour bouillon over roulades. Cover pan and simmer 45minutes to 1 hour or until rats are tender. Add tomato sauce and cover pan again. Cook for 30minutes more.

    Jane Fondue or Meat with Red Sauce3 pounds meat (beef, pork, horse, monkey, water buffalo, dog, cat ... any red meat)3 cups cooking oil (any kind)Red Sauce (see next recipe)Cut the meat into 1-inch cubes and set at room temperature for about 30 minutes. Fill a pot 1/2full with cooking oil and heat to 375 degrees (meat will brown quickly when oil is heatedproperly). Place cubes of meat on sticks and cook in oil for 10 to 30 seconds until browned. Dipinto Red Sauce. Note: If fowl is substituted for red meat in Jane Fondue recipe, be sure to useonly the left wings of the chicks.

    Red Sauce1 8-ounce can tomato sauce2 tbsp. brown sugar1/2 cup steak sauce (or your favorite bottled steak condiment)2 tbsp. cooking oilCombine all ingredients in a saucepan and heat thoroughly.

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    Hopefully the recipes in this "Militia Cookbook" will give you some ideas on how to preparemeals from your stockpiled staple foods during an emergency so you won't have to choke downplain uncooked flour and break your teeth on dry beans.

    Roasted RatEntrenching Tool CakeCorn PoneCorntackSwedish HardtackSouthern Soda CrackersSouthern CornbreadMolasses Cornbread or MuffinsGrandma Sarah's CornbreadA Lady's Touch CornbreadCountry Sunshine Cornmeal LoavesJohnny Cake or Journey CakeJohnny CakesDixie Corn DodgersCampfire CornbreadNo-Flour Camp CornbreadHush PuppiesCornmeal PancakesTrench BeansBattalion Baked BeansSecession Baked BeansBaked BeansCooking RiceBean-Rice CasseroleCarolina Red RiceHopping JohnHopping John SoupBread and BiscuitsJiffy Muffin Mix Mini-LoavesLogan BreadMolasses Graham BreadIrish Soda BreadNut BreadDate Nut BreadWhole Wheat Beer BiscuitsCharleston Rice MuffinsSouth Boston Brown BreadOld-Fashioned Brown BreadMaster Biscuit MixCabin Buttermilk BiscuitsMammy's Baking Powder BiscuitsRebel Yell Whole Wheat Biscuits

    Casseroles, Soups, Stews and DumplingsWhole Wheat Biscuit Mix for DumplingsCornmeal DumplingsDumplingsBeef Stew with DumplingsChicken and DumplingsChicken Pot PieMeat Loaf with Cornbread ToppingBeef Stew and Lima BeansBeef StewCarolina Beef StewBrunswick StewBrunswick StewPea SoupSplit Pea SoupCorn ChowderConfederate Corn ChowderForager's Potato SoupOld Timey Potato SoupBacon and Bean Soup

    DessertsYankee CakeHard Times Spice CakeOld Fashioned Stack CakeStack CakeWindfall ApplesauceDried Apple CakeConfederate Puddin'Baked Cornmeal PuddingSouthern Bread PuddingApple Brown BettyApple Custard PieTimeless GingerbreadScotch ShortbreadGrandma's Molasses CookiesMolasses Crisps

    Domestic Animals and VerminFried CatClay CatBaked Dog DiRoccoBarbecued DogBunker Beef CurryBarbecued Bunker BeefRat RouladeJane Fondue or Meat with Red SauceRed Sauce