Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Influential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now)

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  • The cave entrance loomed high above their headsa hard and dangerous climb in the grueling sun. But they had heard the tales of unique calcite and iron ore stalactites and stalagmites that had formed inside and were eager to satisfy WKHLUVFLHQWLFFXULRVLW\5REHUW+5LFKDUGVKHDGRIWKH0DVVDFKXVHWWV,QVWLWXWHRI7HFKQRORJ\V0,70LQLQJ(QJLQHHULQJ'HSDUWPHQWKDGgathered the students and colleagues DFFRPSDQ\LQJKLPRQWKLVDGYHQWXUHto strategize how best to access these geological wonders. Thats when he UHDOL]HGWKDWKLVZLIHZKRZDVDOVR

    Ellen Swallow Richards:

    SDUWRIWKHH[SHGLWLRQZDVQRZKHUHWRbe found. (OOHQ6ZDOORZ5LFKDUGVKDGdecided to see the cave for herself. Weighed down by the heavy VNLUWVDQGVWD\VDQGSHWWLFRDWVWKDWHQFXPEHUHGZRPHQLQWKHODWHVVKHSXOOHGKHUVHOIKDQGRYHUKDQGXSDURSHDQGZDVWKHUVWRIWKH0,7SDUW\WRHQWHUWKHFDYH+HUKXVEDQGVRRQIROORZHGDQ[LRXVWKDWVKHKDGPDGHVXFKDSHULORXVDWWHPSWRQKHURZQ$OWKRXJKDEXPSRQWKHKHDGKDGNQRFNHGKHUXQFRQVFLRXVVKHZDVMXVWQH,WZDVDYHU\VSLF\DGYHQWXUHVKHODWHUZURWH

    7KDWPDWWHURIIDFWGHWHUPLQDWLRQZDVLQGLFDWLYHRIKRZ5LFKDUGVDSSURDFKHGWKHUHVWRIKHUOLIHbreaking down barriers and HVWDEOLVKLQJVFLHQWLFPRYHPHQWVEHFDXVHVKHEHOLHYHGLWZDVLPSRUWDQWZRUN(OOHQZDVFDUHIXOWRURLOQRZDWHUVVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ5LFKDUGVVELRJUDSKHUDQGUVWFRXVLQWKUHHJHQHUDWLRQVUHPRYHG6KHEHKDYHGZLWKH[WUDRUGLQDU\WDFWNQRZLQJKRZPXFKGHSHQGHGXSRQKHUVXFFHVV6KHZDQWHGWRQRWRQO\RSHQDGRRUIRUKHUVHOIEXWWRNHHSLWRSHQIRURWKHUZRPHQWRIROORZ+HUstrategy was to become very useful DQGWRGHPRQVWUDWHKRZFDSDEOHVKHZDV 5LFKDUGVVVWUDWHJ\PLJKWKDYHbeen too successful: her name XVXDOO\GRHVQWOHDSWRWKHWRSRIPRVWSHRSOHVOLVWVRIJURXQGEUHDNLQJIHPDOHVFLHQWLVWV$QG\HWWKHSRZHURIKHUDFFRPSOLVKPHQWVFDQWEHGHQLHGWKHUVW86ZRPDQWREHDFFHSWHGWRDFROOHJHRIVFLHQFHDQGWHFKQRORJ\WKHUVWIHPDOHmember of the American Institute RI0LQLQJ0HWDOOXUJLFDODQG3HWUROHXP(QJLQHHUV$,0(DSLRQHHULQDSSO\LQJVFLHQFHWRLPSURYHcommunity health and safety; and a IRXQGHURIWKHHFRORJ\PRYHPHQWZLWKVLJQLFDQWFRQWULEXWLRQVWRestablishing early standards for clean ZDWHULQSKRWRDERYH5LFKDUGVDQGDFROOHDJXHFROOHFWZDWHUVDPSOHV 5LFKDUGVVIDUUHDFKLQJLQXHQFHLQscience and society were a revelation WR(OL]DEHWK+ROP706SUHVLGHQWZKRUVWKHDUGRI5LFKDUGVGXULQJDUHFHQWSUHVHQWDWLRQRQWKHKLVWRU\RI$,0(E\LWVSUHVLGHQW*HRUJH/X[EDFKHU+HUFXULRVLW\SLTXHG+ROPORRNHGXS5LFKDUGVVELRJUDSK\DQGZDVDPD]HG (OOHQ5LFKDUGVZDVDSLRQHHULQGLYHUVLW\ZKRLQKHURZQZD\overcame seemingly insurmountable EDUULHUVWREHFRPHDQDFFRPSOLVKHGSURIHVVLRQDOPHPEHURIWKHHQJLQHHULQJHVWDEOLVKPHQWVDLG+ROP+HUVZDVWKHEDWWOHWKDWLVIRXJKWHYHU\GD\WKURXJKTXLHW

    6JG/QUV+PWGPVKCN5EKGPVKUV;QWProbably Never Heard Of (Until Now)Lynne Robinson

    (Photo courtesy of Pamela Swallow, with permission for use from the MIT Archives.)

    JOM, Vol. 66, No. 1, 2014

    DOI: 10.1007/s11837-013-0838-2 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

    15

  • 16 Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Infl uential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now)

    Figure 1. From an early age, Ellen Swallow Richards loved nature and animals, while also displaying a tireless work ethic. She never wasted a minute, said Pamela Swallow. She would even knit or read while walking to classes at Vassar. (Family photo courtesy of Pamela Swallow.)

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role models in their determination and courage in the face of adversity. %\FHOHEUDWLQJWKHLUDFKLHYHPHQWVZHKRSHWRSURYLGHLQVSLUDWLRQDQGDIUPDWLRQWRWKRVHSURIHVVLRQDOVZKRDUHDGGUHVVLQJFKDOOHQJHVRIWKHLURZQas well as those who want to become

    involved in efforts to advance the cause of diversity and inclusion within RXUHOG

    6JG.WTGQH2TCEVKECN5EKGPEG *OLPSVHVRI(OOHQ6ZDOORZ5LFKDUGVVGULYHWRRSHQVFLHQFHbeyond the traditional boundaries of her time can be seen in her childhood RQDVPDOOIDUPLQ'XQVWDEOH0DVVDFKXVHWWV%RUQDQRQO\FKLOGLQ5LFKDUGVZDVIUDLODQGVLFNO\SURPSWLQJKHUSDUHQWVZKRZHUHERWKWHDFKHUVWRKRPHVFKRROKHUVRVKHZRXOGQWEHH[SRVHGWRWKHGLVHDVHVWKDWUDQUDPSDQWLQWKHORFDORQHURRPVFKRRO+HUSK\VLFLDQ

    UHFRPPHQGHGWKDWVKHVSHQGDVPXFKWLPHDVSRVVLEOHLQWKHIUHVKDLUIRUKHUKHDOWKDQGVKHKDSSLO\SDVVHGKHUGD\VH[SORULQJWKHRXWGRRUV7KRVHearly observations of nature ignited KHUSDVVLRQIRUVFLHQFHDQGKHUIDWKHU3HWHU6ZDOORZWRRNQRWLFH +HUHFRJQL]HGWKDWKLVGDXJKWHUZDVH[FHSWLRQDOO\EULJKWDQGJLIWHG)LJXUHDQGEHOLHYHGWKDWVKHdeserved better than they could JLYHKHURQWKHIDUPVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ3HWHU6ZDOORZVROGKLVIDUPand moved his family to the nearby WRZQRI:HVWIRUGVR5LFKDUGVFRXOGDWWHQG:HVWIRUG$FDGHP\RQHRIWKHUVWFRHGXFDWLRQDOVHFRQGDU\VFKRROVLQWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV7KHGHFLVLRQWRVDFULFHVRPXFKIRUDGDXJKWHUVeducation was highly unconventional IRUWKHWLPHJLYHQWKDWWKHVWDWHRI0DVVDFKXVHWWVGLGQRWHYHQUHTXLUHJLUOVWRDWWHQGVFKRRO5LFKDUGVFRPSOHWHGKHUVWXGLHVDW:HVWIRUGLQWZR\HDUVZKLOHKHOSLQJKHUIDWKHUmanage a general store that the family had bought to make ends meet. 5LFKDUGVGHVSHUDWHO\ZDQWHGWRVWXG\PRUHVFLHQFHVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ$IWHUUHDGLQJLQGodeys Ladys BookWKDW9DVVDU&ROOHJHLQNew York was hiring staff to teach VFLHQFH5LFKDUGVVHWKHUVLJKWVRQIXUWKHULQJKHUHGXFDWLRQWKHUH6KHZRUNHGDVDVFKRROWHDFKHUWXWRUQDQQ\FRRNDQGVHDPVWUHVVIRUWKUHH\HDUVWRVDYHWKHIRURQH\HDUVWXLWLRQ:KHQVKHQDOO\WRRN9DVVDUVHQWUDQFHH[DPLQDWLRQVKHSODFHGLQDVDMXQLRUGHVSLWHKDYLQJRQO\WZR\HDUVof formal education. 5LFKDUGVTXLFNO\PDGHDQDPHIRUKHUVHOIDVDSDVVLRQDWHOHDUQHURIUDUHLQWHOOHFWVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ

    The only trouble here is they wont let us study enough. They are so afraid we shall break down and . . . the reputation of the College is at stake, for the question is, can girls get a college degree without ruining their health?

    Ellen Swallow Richards in a letter to her parents, while attending Vassar

  • Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Infl uential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now) 17

    6KHGHYHORSHGKHUJLIWIRUVFLHQWLFREVHUYDWLRQDQGSUHFLVLRQXQGHU0DULD0LWFKHOOWKHUVW$PHULFDQZRPDQWRZRUNDVDSURIHVVLRQDODVWURQRPHUDQG9DVVDUVUVWDSSRLQWHGIDFXOW\member. It was her studies with &KDUOHV)DUUDU9DVVDUVSURIHVVRURIFKHPLVWU\DQGSK\VLFVKRZHYHUWKDWSRLQWHGKHUWRKHUOLIHVZRUN&KDUOHV)DUUDULQWURGXFHGKHUWRWKHFRQFHSWRIDSSOLHGFKHPLVWU\ZKLFKUHDOO\DSSHDOHGWRKHUVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ+HUJRDOIURPDQHDUO\DJHZDVWREHXVHIXODQGWRFRQWULEXWHWRVRFLHW\6KHVDZWKDWWKLVPRUHSUDFWLFDOVFLHQFHFRXOGEHXVHGWRKHOSRWKHUV Armed with glowing recommendations from Farrar and 0LWFKHOO5LFKDUGVWULHGWRVHFXUHDMREDVDFKHPLVWXSRQJUDGXDWLQJIURPVassar. Although her credentials were LPSHFFDEOHQRFRPSDQ\ZDVSUHSDUHGWRKLUHDZRPDQ2QHUPGLGVXJJHVWshe try to continue her studies in chemistry at the recently established 0,77KHLGHDDSSHDOHGWR5LFKDUGVDQGVKHVXEPLWWHGKHUDSSOLFDWLRQ

    6JG5YCNNQY'ZRGTKOGPV 0,7WKHQNQRZQDV%RVWRQTechhad never admitted a female VWXGHQWDQGDFFRUGLQJWR3DPHOD6ZDOORZKDGQRLQWHQWLRQWRFKDQJH7KH0,7SUHVLGHQWDQGDGPLVVLRQVcommittee were astounded that they KDGUHFHLYHGVXFKDVWURQJDSSOLFDWLRQIURPDZRPDQVKHVDLG7KH\ZHUHLPSUHVVHGZLWKKHUUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVDQGZRUNDW9DVVDUEXWWKHWKRXJKWRIKDYLQJDIHPDOHVWXG\DW0,7ZDVDSSDOOLQJWRPDQ\RIWKHP7KH\IRXJKWDERXWLWIRUZHHNVXQWLOWKH\QDOO\GHFLGHGWRDGPLWKHUDVWKH6ZDOORZ([SHULPHQW0,7VVWUDWHJ\WRDFFHSWVXFKDQREYLRXVO\JLIWHGLQGLYLGXDOZKLOHVWLOOPDLQWDLQLQJVRFLDOFRQYHQWLRQZDVWREULQJ5LFKDUGVLQDVDVSHFLDOVWXGHQWZKRZDVQRWUHTXLUHGWRSD\WXLWLRQ7KDWZD\3DPHOD6ZDOORZH[SODLQHGWKH\GLGQRWKDYHWRNHHSDQRIFLDOUHFRUGRIKHU,QDGGLWLRQthe admissions committee noted in LWVPLQXWHVWKDWLWZDVXQGHUVWRRGthat her admission did not establish a SUHFHGHQWIRUWKHJHQHUDODGPLVVLRQRI

    IHPDOHV,Q-DQXDU\5LFKDUGVEHJDQKHUVWXGLHVDW0,7DVWKHUVWAmerican woman to be admitted to any university of science and technology. *HWWLQJLQWR0,7SURYHGWREHRQO\WKHUVWKXUGOHIRU5LFKDUGV6HYHUDOSURIHVVRUVUHIXVHGWRWHDFKKHUDQGshe was segregated from the rest of the school in a basement laboratory UHVHUYHGIRUPLQHUDORJ\VWXGLHV6KHZDVTXLWHVFRUQHGDFWXDOO\VDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ6KHZDVWROGWRNHHSWKHGRRUVKXWZKHQWKHUHZHUHstudents in the hall and her work ZDVVOLSSHGWRKHUXQGHUWKHGRRU%HWZHHQWKHH[FHSWLRQDOZRUNWKDWVKHVOLSSHGEDFNXQGHUWKHGRRUDQGKHUQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHIXOQHVV5LFKDUGVgradually gained ground with some RIWKHIDFXOW\6KHZRQWKHPRYHUE\EHFRPLQJH[WUHPHO\XVHIXOVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ6KHDOZD\VFDUULHGDZRUNNLWDQGZDVWKHSHUVRQWKH\FRXOGFRPHWRIRUKHOSZKHWKHULWZDVDEURNHQVXVSHQGHURUDFXWKDQG:KHQ0,7KDGWROHWWKHFOHDQLQJ

    ODG\JRGXULQJDEXGJHWFXW(OOHQGLGWKHODERUDWRU\FOHDQLQJDQGNHSWWKHVXSSOLHVLQRUGHU6KHGLGZKDWHYHUshe thought was needed to gain their WUXVWDQGDFFHSWDQFH 5LFKDUGVZDVHYHQWXDOO\SHUPLWWHGto attend classes with the rest of the student body. The academic rigor suited her and she was soon tutoring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

    The First TMS Summit on Creating and Sustaining

    DIVERSITY IN THE MINERALS, METALS, AND MATERIALS PROFESSIONS (DMMM1)Honoring the First Female Member of AIME: Ellen Swallow Richards

    $G2CTVQH$WKNFKPIC/QTG+PENWUKXG/KPGTCNU/GVCNUCPF/CVGTKCNU%QOOWPKV[

    The title is a little long, but the order is quite tall.The First TMS Summit on Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Minerals,

    Metals, and Materials Professions (DMMM1): Honoring the First Female Member of AIME: Ellen Swallow Richards is set to take place July 2931 at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C. More than a meeting to discuss issues related to diversity, a key goal of the summit is to develop actionable strategies and practical resources for creating a culture of inclusion in the workplace. Attendance will be capped at 300 individuals to ensure optimum interaction and learning. Check the DMMM1 website at www.tms.org/diversitysummit for updates and registration details.

    Sponsored by TMS, DMMM1 is co-sponsored by AIME, the National Academy of Engineering, the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, and the Society of Women Engineers. It is endorsed by the American Association of Engineering Societies, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the Association for Women in Science.

  • 18 Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Infl uential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now)

    0,7DGPLQLVWUDWLRQZDVQRWFRQYLQFHGWKDWLWFRXOGEHUHSOLFDWHG(OOHQDSSURDFKHGWKHPDERXWDGPLWWLQJRWKHUIHPDOHVWXGHQWVDQGWKH\LQIRUPHGher that she was a unique caseno RWKHUZRPDQFRXOGSRVVLEO\PDWFKKHUFDOLEHUVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ8QGHWHUUHG5LFKDUGVFRQYLQFHG0,7WRDOORZKHUWRFRQYHUWDQROGgymnasium into a laboratory that ZRXOGRIIHUFRXUVHVWRZRPHQZLWKmoney that she had raised from the

    :RPHQV(GXFDWLRQ$VVRFLDWLRQRI%RVWRQ7KH:RPHQV/DERUDWRU\DW0,7RSHQHGLQZLWK5LFKDUGVDVLWVXQSDLGDVVLVWDQWLQVWUXFWRU)LJXUH+HUVWXGHQWVWKULYHGDQGDV5LFKDUGVUHSRUWHGWRWKH0,7DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ7KHFDSDELOLW\RIwomen to carry through a severe FRXUVHRIVFLHQWLFHGXFDWLRQwithout injury to body or mind is QRZHVWDEOLVKHG0,7VOHDGHUVKLSHYHQWXDOO\DJUHHGDQGLQYRWHGWRGLVFRQWLQXHWKH:RPHQV/DERUDWRU\DQGVWXGHQWVZLOOEHDGPLWWHGZLWKRXWGLVWLQFWLRQRIVH[

    6JG9QTM/CVVGTGF/QUV A year after the Womens /DERUDWRU\FORVHG0,7DSSRLQWHG5LFKDUGVDVDQLQVWUXFWRULQVDQLWDU\FKHPLVWU\SDLGWKLVWLPHDQGgave her charge of what would EHFRPHRQHRIWKHQDWLRQVUVWSXEOLFhealth laboratories. This gave her the

    GLVWLQFWLRQRIEHLQJ0,7VUVWIHPDOHIDFXOW\PHPEHU6KHZRXOGJRRQWREHWKHRQO\ZRPDQRIFLDOO\WHDFKLQJDW0,7GXULQJKHUOLIHWLPH Based on the quality of a water SROOXWLRQVXUYH\WKDW5LFKDUGVKDGZRUNHGRQZLWK:LOOLDP5LSOH\1LFKROVWKH0DVVDFKXVHWWV6WDWH%RDUGRI+HDOWKFRPPLVVLRQHG0,7Vnew sanitary chemistry laboratory to FRQGXFWDFRPSUHKHQVLYHVWXG\RIWKHVWDWHVGULQNLQJZDWHULQ2YHUDWZR\HDUSHULRG5LFKDUGVDQGKHUDVVLVWDQWVDQDO\]HGPRUHWKDQZDWHUVDPSOHVIRUZKDWZDVFRQVLGHUHGWKHPRVWVLJQLFDQWLQGLFDWRURIHQYLURQPHQWDOLPSDFWDWWKHWLPHchlorine from salt used in food and IRULQGXVWULDOSXUSRVHV)URPWKHVHGDWD5LFKDUGVGHYHORSHGVWDQGDUGVIRUDFFHSWDEOHFKORULQHOHYHOVDQGFUHDWHGWKH1RUPDO&KORULQH0DSWKDWYLVXDOO\SORWWHGWKHH[WHQWRISROOXWLRQthroughout the state. The results VSXUUHG0DVVDFKXVHWWVWRHVWDEOLVKWKHUVWZDWHUTXDOLW\VWDQGDUGVDQGPXQLFLSDOVHZDJHWUHDWPHQWSODQWLQWKHFRXQWU\DQGWKH1RUPDO&KORULQH0DSEHFDPHWKHPRGHOIRUVLPLODUstudies conducted throughout the world for years to come. :KLOHWKH1RUPDO&KORULQH0DSEHFDPHIDPRXVLQVRPHVFLHQWLFFLUFOHV5LFKDUGVGLGQRWFRPPHQWHG3DPHOD6ZDOORZHYHQWKRXJKKHULPPHGLDWHVXSHUYLVRU7KRPDV0'URZQZDVTXLFNWRJLYHKHUFUHGLW

    Figure 2. Two years after entering MITs ve-year program, Richards graduated with a B.S. in chemistry. Concurrently, she earned her masters degree from Vassar, based on her thesis of the chemical analysis of vanadium. (Family photo courtesy of Pamela Swallow.)

    Figure 3. The MIT Womens Laboratory offered a curriculum that covered chemical analysis, industrial chemistry, mineralogy, and applied biology. (Photo courtesy of Pamela Swallow, with permission for use from the MIT Archives.)

    +QHVGPVJKPMVJCVCNNVJGFKHEWNVKGUYGGPEQWPVGTonly give us the more strength if we keep hold of our work, and we must not now give up while in the prime of life. It is best to keep trying, and by and by the opportunity will come. If we have given up, then we shall not be ready for it when it does come.Ellen Swallow Richards, in a letter of encouragement to a student

  • Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Infl uential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now) 19

    #YCTF%GNGDTCVGU4QNG/QFGNUKP#FXCPEKPIDiversity

    Like Ellen Swallow Richards, many scientists and engineers have quietly helped break down barriers to full participation in the minerals, metals, and I=PANE=HOAH@OPDNKQCDAT=ILHA=J@=?PEKJ1DA"HHAJ0S=HHKS/E?D=N@ODiversity Award, established by the TMS Board in 2013, intends to bring this important work to light so that others can learn and be inspired to do the same. Made possible through a generous donation to the TMS Foundation by Jeffrey Wadsworth and his wife, Geraldine McCulley Wadsworth, the annual =S=N@NA?KCJEVAO=JEJ@ERE@Q=HSDKNAA?PO/E?D=N@OOLEKJAANEJCOLENEPEJovercoming adversity to pursue a career in minerals, metals, and/or materials or in helping others to overcome such challenges to pursue their careers.

    We believe it is vital to recognize that we are failing to achieve our potential in the minerals, metals, and materials community without full, @ERANOANALNAOAJP=PEKJO=E@'ABBNAU4=@OSKNPD DEAB"TA?QPERA,B?ANand President, Battelle Memorial Institute, Inc. One way to make the point that this is possible is to highlight the leaders and pioneers from the past, who achieved it under conditions far more adverse than we face today.

    Wadsworth noted that both he and his wife, having had careers in science =J@AJCEJAANEJCK>OANRA@PDAH=?GKB@ERANOEPUEJKQNAH@O=J@PDAproblems and biases that accompanied that situation. Conversely, the more diverse the participants are in a discussion, the more rich the discussion, and PDA>APPANPDAKQP?KIA&POPD=POEILHADAO=E@

    In sponsoring the Ellen Swallow Richards Diversity Award, we are able to make a personal commitment to advocate for values that we feel strongly about, Wadsworth continued. That is, to constantly be aware of the need to provide opportunity to all. Through role models, we can emphasize how achievement is possible even in the face of adversity. We need to learn from that and advance.

    The inaugural Ellen Swallow Richards Award will be presented at the First TMS Summit on Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Professions in July. Nominations are now being accepted through April 1 for the 2015 award presentation. Visit the TMS Professional Honors and Awards website for information on nomination requirements at awards.tms.org or contact Deborah Price, TMS Awards and Recognition Specialist, at price@tms.org.

    IRUWKHZRUN6KHOLNHGWKHOHDGHUVKLSUROHVVKHZDVJLYHQEXWVKHZDVQWUHDOO\ORRNLQJIRUIDPHVKHVDLG6KHYLHZHGKHUVHOIDVDSLRQHHUDQGZDVVXLWHGWRWKDWUROH,QVWLQFWLYHO\she knew how to use different strategies to maneuver through areas WUDGLWLRQDOO\UHVHUYHGIRUPHQDQGVKHPDQDJHGWRHDUQWKHLUUHVSHFWDQGadmiration without drawing attention to herself. It was the work that PDWWHUHGPRVWWRKHU 5LFKDUGVVFRPPLWPHQWWRXVLQJscience as a force for social good H[WHQGHGEH\RQGKHUZDWHUVWXGLHVWRWRXFKDOPRVWHYHU\DVSHFWRIOLIHLQWKHV6KHLVFRQVLGHUHGWKHIRXQGHURIKRPHHFRQRPLFVEDVHGRQKHUDGYRFDF\WRDSSO\VFLHQWLFSULQFLSOHVWRIRRGLQGRRUDLUTXDOLW\VKHOWHUVDQLWDWLRQDQGRWKHUWRSLFVthat directly affected families and their homes. +HUUHVHDUFKLQWRWKHLPSDFWof industrialized society on the environment laid the groundwork IRUWKHHOGRIHFRORJ\DWHUPWKDWshe actually coined to describe the LQWHUUHODWHGV\VWHPVRIQDWXUH$QGshe used her skills as a chemist and talents as a communicator to reveal the SRWHQWLDOUHKD]DUGVRIPDQXIDFWXULQJSUDFWLFHVDVZHOODVKLGGHQWR[LQVLQIDEULFZDOOSDSHUDQGJURFHU\VWDSOHV 5LFKDUGVVVWDXQFKHVWVXSSRUWHUWKURXJKRXWKHUPXOWLIDFHWHGFDUHHUZDVKHUKXVEDQG5REHUW5LFKDUGV)LJXUHKLPVHOIDQLQGXFWHHRIWKH860LQLQJ+DOORI)DPHDQGRQHRIWKHUVWSUHVLGHQWVRI$,0(7KH\KDGmet while she was an undergraduate DW0,7EXWEHLQJDSURIHVVRU5REHUW5LFKDUGVZDVQRWSHUPLWWHGWRFRXUWKHUVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ+HSURSRVHGDVVRRQDVVKHJUDGXDWHGbut she chose to hold off on the ZHGGLQJIRUWZR\HDUVRXWRIFRQFHUQWKDWVRFLDOH[SHFWDWLRQVZRXOGIRUFHKHUWRJLYHXSKHUZRUNDVDPDUULHGZRPDQ5REHUW5LFKDUGVVLQWHQWLRQVIRUWXQDWHO\ZHUHWKDWWKH\ZRXOGEHSDUWQHUVLQZRUNDVZHOODVOLIH+HZDQWHGWKHPWREHSLRQHHUVWRJHWKHUVDLG3DPHOD6ZDOORZ 5LFKDUGVVZRUNZLWKKHUhusband focused on the chemistry

    We never can tell how our lives may work to the account of the general good, and we are not wise GPQWIJVQMPQYKHYGJCXGHWNNNGFQWTOKUUKQPQTnot.Ellen Swallow Richards

  • 20 Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Infl uential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now)

    RIRUHDQDO\VLVDQGVKHIUHTXHQWO\DFFRPSDQLHGKLPRQKLVHOGstudies with students to mining VLWHVWKURXJKRXWWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV,QVKHSXEOLVKHG$1HZ0HWKRGWR'HWHUPLQH1LFNHOLQ3\UUKRWLWHVDQG0DWWHVZKLFKsecured her recognition as a Fellow of the American Association for $GYDQFHPHQWRI6FLHQFH$SSO\LQJWKLVPHWKRGWRRUHIURPWKH&DQDGLDQ&RSSHUFOLIIHORGHVKHNLFNHGRIIWKHQLFNHOLQGXVWU\DURXQG2QWDULRZLWKKHUGHWHUPLQDWLRQRIYHSHUFHQWQLFNHOLQWKHVDPSOHVDLG%DUEDUD-

    WRHPSRZHURWKHUV%XW,WKLQNVKHwould realize that today we need her DVDUROHPRGHOVDLG$UQROG :KLOHZLGHVSUHDGUHFRJQLWLRQHOXGHG5LFKDUGVLQOLIH)LJXUH3DPHOD6ZDOORZLVKRSHIXOWKDWLQLWLDWLYHVVXFKDVWKH'LYHUVLW\6XPPLWDQGDZDUGHVWDEOLVKHGLQher honor will introduce her to a new generation of female scientists DQGHQJLQHHUV6KHPDGHLWFOHDUWKDWWKHUHZDVDSODFHIRUZRPHQLQVFLHQFHVKHVDLG6KHZDVZLVHDQGFDUHIXOEXWVWRRGKHUJURXQGZKHQLWPDWWHUHGDQGZDVDEOHWRDFFRPSOLVKJUHDWWKLQJVE\KHUH[DPSOH(YHU\WKLQJVKHGLGZDVWLHGLQWRKHUNQRZOHGJHDQGSDVVLRQIRUVFLHQFHand her desire to make science DFFHVVLEOHWRDOO

    Lynne Robinson is the contributing editor to JOM. JOM also gives special acknowledgement to Pamela Swallow for the information, insights, and images that she contributed to this article. Additional information was obtained from the MIT Institute Archives, https://libraries.mit.edu/archives.

    $UQROG3UHVLGHQW3UHS7HFK,QFDQGDSUHVHQWHURQ5LFKDUGVVLPSDFWRQH[WUDFWLYHPHWDOOXUJ\DWWKHXSFRPLQJ'LYHUVLW\6XPPLW)RUWKHVHDQGother contributions to mining and PLQHUDORJ\$,0(HOHFWHG5LFKDUGVDVLWVUVWIHPDOHPHPEHULQ $UQROGLQWHQGVWKDW5LFKDUGVMRLQKHUKXVEDQGLQWKH0LQLQJ+DOORI)DPHDQGLVLQWKHSURFHVVRIXSGDWLQJWKHQRPLQDWLRQWKDW)UDQN$SODQ'LVWLQJXLVKHG3URIHVVRU(PHULWXV3HQQ6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\KDGUVW VXEPLWWHGLQ6KHGLGQWUHDOO\ZDQWWKHOLPHOLJKW6KHDOZD\VWULHG

    Figure 4. Robert Richards was extremely proud of his wife, and constantly impressed by her intelligence and capabilities, said Pamela Swallow. (Photo courtesy of Pamela Swallow, with permission for use from the MIT Archives.)

    The well-educated young woman of 1950 will blend art and sciences in a way we do not dream of; the science will steady the art and the art will give charm to the science. This young woman will marryyes, indeedbut she will take her pick of men, who will by that time have begun to realize what sort of men it behooves them to be.Ellen Swallow Richards, The College Woman in 1950

    Figure 5. Richards at work in her of ce at MIT. When she passed away in 1911, MIT held its ags at half mast, and the men who carried her casket were former MIT presidents and trusteesmany of them the same people who argued against her being admitted as a student, said Pamela Swallow. (Photo courtesy of Pamela Swallow, with permission for use from the MIT Archives.)

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    Ellen Swallow Richards: The Most Influential Scientist You Probably Never Heard Of (Until Now)DIVERSITY IN THE MINERALS, METALS, AND MATERIALS PROFESSIONS (DMMM1)Award Clebrates Role Models in Advancing Diversity

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