elements&principles of interior design

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  • 1. The Elements of Design
    • Space
  • Line
  • Form
  • Texture
  • Color

2. Space

  • Spaceis the three-dimensional expanse that a designer is working with, as well as the area around or between objects within that expanse.
  • Different-sized spaces convey a range of feelings.
  • For example:

Large, open spaces give many people a feeling of freedom and sometimes luxury.Too much empty space, on the other hand, can make people feel lonely and uncomfortable.When a space is too large for its purpose, it can be divided with permanent or temporary room dividers or screens.You can also divide space by arranging furniture in small clusters, almost as if each group were within walls.In small rooms with low ceilings, people can often feel confined or crowded.However, well-designed small spaces can make people feel snug and secure.The feeling of these spaces is generally one of privacy or intimacy. To make a small space appear larger, keep as much space open as possible by limiting the number of furnishings.Select relatively small furniture of a plain design.Avoid using lots of patterns.You might install mirrors to visually enlarge the room.Another strategy is to choose furniture that has a dual purpose. 3. Line

  • Linedelineatesspace , outlinesform , and conveys a sense of movement or direction.
  • Lines can be used to convey a sense of strength, serenity, gracefulness, or action.
  • Combining lines and placing them in a design in certain ways can create specific effects and feelings.
  • The use of line can also have an effect on how space is perceived.

Another effect that line can create is increased height.As you look at a tall window or long draperies, your eye is drawn in an up and down direction--emphasizing the vertical space. Width can be emphasized too.Low sofas and bookshelves draw your gaze around the room and create the illusion of greater width. 4. Line Diagonal or zigzag lines convey excitement and movement. A horizontal line may suggest rest because people and animals sleep in that position. A vertical line may suggest action because humans are upright when they walk.

  • By placing lines in certain combinations and directions, you can create restful feelings or exciting ones.

5. Form

  • Formdescribes the shape and structure of solid objects.
  • Form, like line, can be used to achieve certain effects.Large, heavy objects, such as a piano or sofa, usually give a feeling of stability.
  • Another way to create stability in design is to place several small objects together.Two chairs and a table placed close together, for example have a visual effect similar to a large sofa.

6. Form

  • Weight is an interesting factor in considering form.
  • Sometimes the same form can appear lighter or heavier based on its color or texture.

7. Texture

  • An objectstextureis the appearance or feel of its surface.
  • Your sense of touch reveals thetactile texture --the feeling of roughness or smoothness--of the surface.
  • The surfaces that have a smooth tactile texture, but a roughvisual texture , deceive the perception of the eye.
  • Texture is useful for adding variety and interest to a room.
  • Texture can influence the way people feel in a room although responses to texture are personal and subjective.
  • Plush, deep-pile carpet and furniture covered with soft fabric provide a sense of comfort.
  • Nubby, rough materials convey a feeling of ruggedness and stability.
  • Smooth velvets and heavy brocades suggest luxury.
  • Glass, metal and stone give a feeling of coolness.

Texture can also affect the apparent size of an object.For instance, a chair covered in a rough, loosely woven fabric may seem larger than the same piece covered in a smooth, satin-like fabric. Another interesting aspect of texture is the way if affects color. In general, smooth textures appear lighter in color than rough textures. 8. The Principles of Design

  • Proportion
  • Scale
  • Balance
  • Rhythm
  • Emphasis
  • Unity and Variety

9. Proportion Proportion: The relationship in size of objects or parts of objects to one another and to the design as a whole. 1/2 1/3 1/3 The golden mean is the division of a line anyplace between one-half and one-third of its total length. These curtains are tied back at the golden mean for this window. 10. Scale Scale: Theproportionof an object or space to human beings and to other objects or spaces in a design. Human scale should be taken into account when selecting furnishing for home and non-residential environments that children use frequently. 11. Balance Symmetrical Balance: A design effect in which the arrangement of forms on one side of an imaginary central line is the mirror image of the arrangement of forms on the opposite side. The two mirrored windows are accentuated by the pair of identical night-stands, equipped with matching accessories. 12. Balance Asymmetrical Balance: A design effect in which elements on either side of an imaginary central line are unmatched but appear to be in balance. The objects on either side of the lamp balance the top of this small chest. 13. Rhythm Rhythm:The design principle that suggests connected movement between different parts of a design by using colors, lines, forms, or textures; also referred to as continuity. The repeating lines in the wallboard, and even the starfish, develop a sense of rhythm in this colorful studio. 14. Emphasis Emphasis:In design, the center of interest or focal point that first catches the viewers attention. In most settings a large floral arrangement is a simple way to create a focal point. 15. Unity and Variety Unity: A principle of design that occurs when all the parts of a design are related by one idea. Eclectic: A style of decorating that involves mixing furnishing of different styles and possibly from different periods. A quart of paint transformed these four mismatched chairs into a harmonious grouping.