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A-PDF Text Replace DEMO: Purchase from www.A-PDF.com to remove the watermark MILHDBK-1o15/131 MAY 19S9

MILITARY HANDBOOK

ELECTROPLATING

FACILITIES

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DISTRIBUTION UMLIMITED

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APPROVED

FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

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t41L-HDBK-lfl15/l

ABSTFUiCT l%is handbook provides guidance for the design of electroplating facilities constructed for the Navy. It includes descriptions of industrial plants by metal finishing systems for the production of inorganic finishes on metallic substrates, in contrast to uetallic substrates finished with organic coatings or organic substrates finished with metallic coatings. Emphasis has been placed on processes, systems, and equipment which havewide application within industry and the Navy.

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MIL-HDBK-10IS/l

FOREWORD This handbook has been developed from an evaluation of facilities in the shore establishment, from surveys of the availability of new materials and construction methods, and from selection of the best design practices of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOFS) other Government , agencies, and the private sector. This handbook was prepared using, tq the maximum extent feasible, national professional society, association, and institute standards. Deviations from these criteria in the planning, engineering, design, and construction of Naval shire facilities cannnot be made without prior approval of NAVFACENGCOM HQ Code 04. Design cannot remain static any more than can the funccions it serves or the technologies it uses. Accordingly, recommendations for improvement are encouraged and should be furnished to Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Code 04) , 200 Stovall Street, Alexandria, VA 223322300; telephone (202)325-0450. THIS HANDBOOK SHALL NOT BE USED AS A REFERENCE DOCUMENT FOR PROCUREMENT OF FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION. IT IS TO BE USED IN THE PURCHASE OF FACILITIES ENGINEERING STUDIES .AND DESIGN (FINAL PSANS , SPECIFICATIONS , AND COST ESTIMATES) . DO NOT REFERENCE IT IN MILITARY OR FEDERAL SPECIFICATIONS OR OTHER PROCUREMENT DOCUNENTS

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HIL-HDBK- 1015/1

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CRITSRIA MANUALS Criteria Manual MIL-HDBK-lo15/l MIL-HDBK-1015/2

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Electroplating Facilities Ghemical Engineering, Electroplate ing Technical Synopsis

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ELECTROPLATING FACILITIES CONTENTS

W.eSection 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Section 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 Section 3 3.1. 3.1.1 3.1.1.1 3.1.1.2 3.1.1.3 3.1.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.2.1 3.3.2.2 3.3.2.3 3.3.2.4 3.3.3 3.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . Cancellation . . . . . . De finitions . . . . . . . . . . . Electroplating Facilities . ; Facilities (General Definition) Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooperation With Review Agencies Safety and Health Considerations Environmental Cons iderat ions . Environmental Impact Statements . Energy Conservation . . . . . . Water Conservation . Prpject Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating and Maintenance Manual . Special Provisions in Seismic Areas . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ELECTROPLATING SYSTEMS Process ing Steps . . . . . . Design Steps . . . . . . . . Design Relations . . . . . . Electroplating System Design System Design . . . . . . . . 1 1 11

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SURFACE PREPARATION Mechanical Polishing, Buff ing, and Coloring Polishing and Buffing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic and Semiautomatic Machines . . . . . . . Polishing Materials . . . . Polishing Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust Systerns for Polishing Machines Abrasive Blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass Bead Blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abrasive Silica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallic Shot (Peening) . . . Decreasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ Decreasing Process Selection . . . . . Vapor Decreasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Degreasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Controls for Vapor Degreasers . . . . Space Requirements for Vapor Degreasers . . Heating Requirements for Vapor Degreasers . Ultrasonic Decreasing . . . . . . , , . . Ultrasonic Solvent/Vapor Cleaning System Size

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Ease3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.1.1 3.4.1.2 3.4.1.3 3.k.2 3.4.2.1 3.4.2.2 3.&.2.3 3.4.2.4 3.4.3 3.4.6 3.4.5 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.1.1 3.6.1.2 3.6.2. 3.7 3,7.1 3.7.2 3.i.3 3.7.3.1 3.7.3.2 3.7.4 3.7,5 3.7.5.1 3.7.5.2 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 Section 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.4.1 4.1.4.2 4.1.4.3 4.1.4.4 4.1.4.5 30 Ultrasonic Cleaning Compounds . . . 30 Distillation Equipment . . . 30 Optional Equipment . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 30 Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Preliminary Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alkaline Immersion Cleaning . . . . --- 31 31 Emulsifiable Solvent Cleaning . . . . . . . . . 31 Solvent Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Alkaline Cathodic Cleaning . . : . . . 32 Anodic Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Periodic Reverse Cleaning . . . . . . . 32 Bipolar Electrode (Cathanodic) Cleaning . 32 Sequential Electrolytic Cleaning . . . . . 32 Emulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 34 Cleaning Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Pickling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Phosphoric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Hydrochloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Inhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Equipment Used for Pickling . . . 36 Descaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Corrosion Resisting Steel . 36 Acid Pickling of.Corrosion Resisting Steel 36 Salt Bath Descaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 39 Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Blowoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Hot Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Absorption . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 40 Manual Absorption Drying . . . 41 Mechanical Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Dewatering Agents... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Metallurgical Furnaces . . . . 44 Furnace Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Furnace Atmospheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Furnace Design . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ . SPECIAL PROCESSES Electropolishing . . . . . . . . Electropolishing Processes Metallurgical Requirements . . Electropolishing Equipment . Electropolishing Bath Operation Configuration for Electropolishing Electrical Control . . . . . . . Electropolishing Rime . . . Electropolished Finishes . Aluminum andits Alloys. J . . .

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E!.ss4.1.5 4.1.6 &.1.7 4.1.8 &.2 4.2.1 h.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 Section 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.4,1 5.1.4.2 5.1.5 5.1.5,1 5.1.5.2 5.1.5.3 5.1.6 5.1.6.1 5.1.6.2 5.1.6.3 5.1.6.4 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.1.1 5.2.1.2 5.2.1.3 5.2.2 5.2.2.1 5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2.2.4 5.2.2.5 5.2.3 5.2.4 Section 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.1.1 :. ix Carbon Steel...... . . . . . . . . . Copper and its Alloys... . Nickel and its Alloys.. . . . . . . . . . Corrosion-Resisting Steel . Passivation and Stripping . . . . . .. . Passivation (Corrosion-Resisting Steel) . Stripping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Deposited Cadmium. . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Deposited Cadmium Process . . . Vapor Deposited Cadmium Equipment . . General Considerations for Vapor Deposition Vapor Deposited Cadmium Rack Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 52

ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS ES AND CHEMICAL TRZATMENT Metal Deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating Conditions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bath Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reversible Rack - Two Bus Bar (RR-2BB) System of Hard Chromium Plating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innovative Hard Chromium Plating (IHCP) . HCP Water Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IHCP Bath Purifier,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selective (Brush) Plating Processes . Selective Plating Equipment . . Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thickness Control ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precious Metal Deposits . Silver Gold .::::::::::.: ::::::::::::: Platinum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Treatment Processes (Including Anodizing) Anodizing Aluminum (Al)... . . . . . . . . . . . . Chromic Acid Anodizing .. Sulfuric Acid (Conventional) Anodizing Hard -Coat Anodizing .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chromate Conversion Coatings . . .