elanco necropsy guide

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  • Practical Necropsy Guide

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  • Introduction

    This guide is intended to aid beef cattle veterinarians as they discuss

    the value of performing necropsies with their clients. Beef cattle

    veterinarians can use this guide with clients to increase their

    understanding of proper necropsy techniques and resulting methods

    of diagnosis.

    This guide has three parts:

    The first is a collection of images comparing normal organs with

    common cattle health abnormalities.

    The second is a review of practical necropsy procedures.

    The third is a set of guidelines for proper tissue sampling techniques

    and submission procedures.

    This guide is not intended to be a fully comprehensive reference and should only be used in conjunction with veterinary consultation.

    1

    Elanco Animal Health Practical Necropsy Guide

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  • 2Eyes

    Conjun ctivitis variety of causes, including:IBR, mycoplasma, foreign bodies and other irritants

    Corneal lesion, diffuse corneal edema, starts atperiphery Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)

    Normal eye

    Corneal lesion, central corneal ulcer with neovascularization pinkeye

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  • Oral cavity, ulcers BVD ( )

    Muzzle, shallow ulcers typical of viral diseases BVD, MCF, blue tongue and rinderpest

    Oral cavity, ulcers, hard and soft palate BVD

    Normal oral tissues

    3

    Oral Cavity

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  • Oral Cavity

    4

    Tongue, extensive ulcers (ruptured vesicles) vesicular disease

    Oral cavity, raised proliferative lesions, oftenwith irregular edges, hard palate papularstomatitis

    Pharynx, retropharyngeal cellulitis (A )caused by a penetrating wound (B ) ballinggun injury

    Notes

    A

    B

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  • 5Esophagus, trauma ( ) penetrating wound,resulting purulent peri-esophageal abscess

    Normal esophagus, normal postmortem changewith mild anterior congestion and posteriorpallor resulting from postmortem bloat

    Esophagus, bloat line at thoracic inlet; othersupportive evidence includes: history, pallorand edema of hindlimb musculature

    Esophagus

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  • Esophagus

    6

    Esophagus, shallow erosions BVD

    Esophagus, extensive linear ulcers BVD

    Notes

    Pharyngeal mucosa removed from underlyingstructures, ulcers BVD

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  • Upper Respiratory Tract

    7

    Larynx, necrotic laryngitis ( ) calf diphthe-ria

    Larynx, laryngeal edema allergic reaction;look for pulmonary edema or congestion

    Larynx, chronic laryngitis, small ulcer onepiglottis (circled)/laryngeal polyp ( )

    Normal larynx

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  • 8Upper Respiratory Tract

    Normal trachea, congestion, with intactmucosal lining can be normal postmortemchange

    Trachea, tracheitis, adherent fibrinonecroticpseudomembrane IBR

    Normal trachea

    Nasal cavity (nasal septum removed), fibrinopurulent rhinitis IBR

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  • Upper Respiratory Tract

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    Trachea, tracheitis, adherent fibrinonecroticpseudomembrane IBR

    Trachea (cross section), edema in dorsalmucosa ( ) honker syndrome

    Notes

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  • 10

    Lungs

    Sampling procedures for lungs Include tissue as indicated by clinical signs or gross lesions Fresh sample size: 4 cm cubes of affected tissue Fixed sample size: 1 cm thick or less of affected tissue

    Bronchopneumonia, acute (shipping fever, typicalof pneumonic pasteurellosis) ( )

    Fibrinous pleuropneumonia; consolidated lung ( ) with pleural fluid (oval) and fibrinous pleuri-tis; solid line denotes sternum

    Normal lungs

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  • Lungs

    11

    Subacute shipping fever with fibrinous pleuritis( )

    Fibrinous pleuropneumonia (cut section)

    Bronchopneumonia, advanced, progressive,early abscesses in older part of lesion ( )

    Bronchopneumonia, chronic with abscesses (1 ), emphysema (2) and atelectasis (3)

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  • Lungs

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    Chronic pneumonia with atelectasis Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP); entire lungoverinflated; individual lobules slightly firm

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) (cut section);interlobular edema and emphysema commonlyseen with AIP

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)

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  • Lungs

    13

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP); note emphysema ( )

    Embolic pneumonia (multifocal lesions through-out lung) ( ) hematogenous spread of bac-teria from lesions such as endocarditis and liverabscesses

    Aspiration pneumonia (gangrenous), necroticlesion ( )

    Parasitic pneumonia note lung worms(Dictyocaulus viviparus) in opened bronchi ( )

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  • Lungs

    14

    Pulmonary granuloma tuberculosis ( ) Lymph node, granuloma tuberculosis

    Notes

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  • 15

    Normal heart Normal heart

    Heart, endocarditis ( ) blackleg Heart, pericarditis blackleg

    Heart

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  • 16

    Heart

    Heart, fibrinous pericarditis (pericardial sacreflected) Haemophilus somnus and otherbacteria

    Heart, dilated right ventricle, rounded appearance right heart failure

    Heart, eosinophilic myositis (note pale areas inendocardium and myocardium)

    Heart (cross section), beef measles, tapewormcysts of Taenia bovis ( )

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  • Heart

    Heart (cross section), myocarditis Haemophilus somnus

    17

    Notes

    Heart, myocarditis Haemophilus somnus,lesions most frequently located in papillarymuscle ( )

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  • 18

    Liver

    Normal liver Normal liver, postmortem changes; superficialdiscoloration is common; incise lesion todetermine significance

    Liver, abscesses Liver, nutmeg liver/accentuated lobular patterncommonly associated with chronic congestion,often due to heart failure

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  • Liver

    19

    Liver (cross section), thrombophlebitis, sec-ondary to liver abscesses

    Liver, focal hemorrhage or necrosis; bacillaryhemoglobinuria; necrotic lesion extends deepinto tissue

    Liver, distended, thickened bile ducts liverflukes ( )

    Liver (dark pigmented tracts) liver flukes

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  • 20

    Urinary System

    Kidney, acute pyelonephritis ascending bac-terial infections

    Kidney, renal infarcts ( )

    Normal kidney

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  • Urinary System

    21

    Kidney, pale moist cortex tubular necrosis,usually due to toxins such as aminoglycosides

    Kidney, hemoglobin stained due to hemolysis

    Bladder, urethral calculus

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  • 22

    Urinary System

    Normal bladder

    Bladder, urinary calculi and cystitis Penile urethra, calculusKidney, early hydronephrosis

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  • Gastrointestinal

    23

    Normal rumen; postmortem changes, looseningof rumen lining

    Rumen chronic rumenitis; note shortenedpapilli and scarring ( )

    Rumen, inflammation rumenitis, mycotic;may be secondary to acidosis

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  • 24

    Gastrointestinal

    Rumen, ulcers on rumen pillar Rumen, erosions BVD

    Abomasum, chronic ulcer ( )Omasum, mycotic lesion may be secondary toacidosis

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  • Gastrointestinal

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    Abomasum, small ulcers (BVD) Abomasum, parasites Ostertagia spp.

    Notes

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  • Gastrointestinal

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    Normal small intestine, typically thin-walledand pale

    Small intestine, hemorrhagic enteritis Salmonellosis; note thickened mucosa andbloody contents

    Small intestine, inflammation Salmonellosis;note enlarged lymph nodes ( )

    Normal mesenteric lymph nodes

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  • 27

    Gastrointestinal

    Gall bladder and small intestine, fibrinous casts( ) Salmonellosis

    Small intestine, acute enteritis

    Small intestine, Peyers patch necrosis BVD Small intestine, Peyers patch necrosis BVD

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  • Gastrointestinal

    28

    Small intestine, parasites nodular worm,Oesophagostomum ( )

    Small intestine, proliferative enteritis (Johnes),not seen in animals less than two years of age

    Notes

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  • 29

    Normal mesenteric lymph nodes

    Gastrointestinal

    Normal large intestines

    Spiral colon, hemorrhagic mucosa coccidiosis

    Large intestine