eia equine infectious anemia. what is eia? equine infectious anemia (eia) is a disease, caused by a...
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Equine Infectious Anemia
What is EIA?
Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a disease,
caused by a virus that causes anemia,
intermittent fever, and severe weight loss.
Equidae (e.g., horses, ponies, mules,
zebras, and donkeys) are the only animals
known to be affected by the virus. Once an
animal is infected with the virus, it is infected
What is EIA
Persistent viral disease (retrovirus) that is closely related to HIV in humans.
Sometimes called Swamp fever or Coggins Disease.
First reported case was in France in 1843. In 1888 the first case was reported in North
America. This is no cure and no vaccine for it.
What is “Swamp fever”?
This is a term given to a number of diseases that are acquired in wet, swampy environments; Malaria, Leptospirosis, and EIA.
It only takes ONE drop of blood! Insect bites - blood-feeding flies such as
horseflies, stable flies, and deer flies. Note: Mosquitos are not capable of transmitting EIA
Mechanical means - hoof knives, needles (tattooing or bleeding), syringes, dirty instruments, bits, spurs etc.
Anemia Fever Weight loss Edema of ventral
abdomen and legs
Depression Weakness Jaundice Can be stress
induced with relapses of these symptoms in recovered animals.
Three clinical (forms) stages:
Acute phase: fever, anorexia, may dieChronic phase: weight loss, anemia,
edemaInapparent Carrier: no clinical signs;
these are the majority of your EIA positive horses.
How far can a fly, fly?
THE COGGINS TEST
The only way to accurately determine whether a horse is infected with the EIA virus is by a serum test.
The most commonly used method is the Coggins test, also known as the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test.
Each year more than a million horses are screened for EIA by this test.
AGID test (agar gel immunodiffusion) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test.
Must be performed by a USDA or APHIS-accredited veterinarian or TAHC (TX. Animal Health Commission) authorized personnel.
Only USDA or APHIS approved laboratories are allowed to run the tests.
Let’s Give Some Credit to:
In 1970, Dr. Leroy Coggins of Cornell University developed the first accurate laboratory procedure for diagnosing the disease.
The Coggins test does not detect the EIA virus itself but detects the presence of antibodies to fight the disease in the infected animal.
In 1973 the USDA designated the Coggins test the official test for determining the presence of EIA, and established said protocols of it.
Identification of positive equines Permanent notation of
equines: Hot iron, chemical brand, freezemarking, or lip tattoo using the National Uniform Tag code number assigned by the USDA to the State in which the reactor was tested, followed by the letter “A”.
What’s your role in this?
Blood collection of course!Completing submission formsSending in samples for EIA testing under
the direct supervision of the attending veterinarian.
THE ONLY PROTECTION IS PREVENTION
There is no effective treatment for EIA. There is no vaccine to prevent it. There is no cure. However, good management can reduce the potential of infection. The following guidelines will help:
Use disposable needles and syringes, one per horse, when administering vaccines and medications.
Sterilize dental tools and other instruments before using them on another horse.
Test all horses for EIA at least annually. Stable owners should request current negative Coggins
certificates before introduce? any new horses to the farm or ranch.
New horses should be quarantined for 45 days and observed for any signs of illness, including elevated temperatures, before introducing them to the herd.
They should be retested if exposure to EIA is suspected
All stable areas should be kept clean, dry, and waste-free.
Good pasture management techniques should also be practiced. Remove manure and provide adequate drainage to discourage breeding sites for pests.
Horses that are at greater risk, such as animals who are in frequent intact with outside horses or who live or travel in geographic regions known for EIA outbreaks, should be tested frequently every 4-6 months.
Horse show and event managers should require and verify current negative Coggins certificates for all horses entering the premises.