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Percy E. Newberry, 1906

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SCARABS.

v...^^Ring bearingthe

name

of

King Apepy.

Ring bearing the lame of KingNefer-Ka-Ra,

RingRingof

of

King

King Amenhetep IL

Akhenaten,

Ring

of

King Hor-em-heb.

UiNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGYEGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES

SCARABSAN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF EGYPTIANSEALS

AND SIGNET RINGS

BY

PERCY

E.

NEWBERRY&c.

Author of " The Amherst Papyri," " The Life of Rekhmara," "Bent Hasan,"

"El Bersheh,"

WITH

FORTY-FOUR PLATES AND ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

CHEAPER RE-ISSUE.

t /l-.

^IniLONDONARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND CO LTD1908

/V

HARRISON AND SONS,PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY,ST. martin's lane,

LONDON.

55L]

Ira P{

TO

MY FRIEND

MRS.

E.

B.OF

ANDREWS

"THE BEDUiN."

PREFACE.SincePetrie's

the

year

1895,

when

Professor

FHnders"

book on Historical Scarabs becamethe

out

of print,"

want of a comprehensive worklittle

on

these interesting

Egyptian antiquities has beenit

muchis

felt.

Two

volumes on Egyptian Scarabs,published since that date,

true,

have been

but

these works treat of private collections and do not

claim

toin

deal

with

the subject

in

its

entirety

or

even

a scientific manner.

Aat

long residence, extending over several years,

Thebes, the centre of the Upper Egyptian Scarab

market, and the place where the best imitation Scarabsare

now manufactured,

has,

I

mayits

claim,

given

me

exceptional opportunities for studying this classallied forms.

of Ancient Egyptian antiquities and

For some yearsvisit to

it

was

my

custom to pay a weekly

Luxor antiquity shops, with the object of examining these and other articles in the dealers' hands and, latterly, scarcely a week has passedthe;

duringbut

my

winter's sojourn

on the banks of the Nilecollector,tourist,

that

someone,

Egyptologist,

or dealer, has consulted

me

as to the genuineness,

vl

PREFACE.etc..

reading,

of Scarabs that they have either pur-

chased or intended to buy.appeals,

The

frequency of these

and the ignorance so generally displayedtravellerinI

by the

speaking of Egyptian Scarabs,could at least advance a step

convinced

me

that

or two on what had been previously written on the

subject

;

so,

after classifying

my

notes and visiting

and studying the principal collections of England and the Continent, I have prepared the following Introduction to the Study of Egyptian Seals, whichwill,I

venture to hope, be useful to Students and

Collectors.

Thatthis

I

have spared no pains

in

order toI

makebe

book as complete as possible

will,

think,

obvious to anyone

who

will

take the trouble to read

the letterpress and examine the plates.

About one

thousand three hundred specimens of Egyptian Seals

and Signet-rings are

figured,

but these have beensev^en thousand,

selected from drawings of

some

and

from an examination of over thirty thousand examples.It

may bein

noticed that the splendid collection prethe

served

National

Museum:

at Cairo has

been

drawn from but sparingly this is due to the fact that M. Maspero had already commissioned me toprepare and publish a separate catalogue of the uniquecollection

which

is

in that

great savant's care.is

Theandit

manuscript of this cataloguewill

now

finished,

be published early

in

the coming year.

PREFACE.I

vii

have

to

thank the Keepers of Public MuseumsofPrivatethat

and

many ownersand

Collections

for

thein

courtesy

kindnessto

they

have

shown

allowing

me

inspect

and draw from the

speci-

mensDr.

in

theirI

possession.

To Prof Erman andto

Schafer

am

indebted for plaster casts of the;

Berlin

Museum

seals

and

Prof

Petrie

I

am

indebted for his generosity in placing atthe magnificent historical series

my

disposal

which he has gathered

together at University College,

London.

To

Mr.

Walter Nash,

F.S.A.,

I

also

wish to express

myin

grateful thanks for

much

kindly help and encourageof thisfriends

ment

in

the1

earlier

stages

work

;

and

conclusionProf.J.

must thank

mythefor

and colleaguesfor

M. Mackay and Mr. John Garstang,proofs

kindly looking through

of thisat

volume,disposal

and to the

latter

also

placing

my

the library of the

Institute

of Archaeology

of the

University of Liverpool, wherein the manuscript has

been completed.

PERCYInstitute of Archeology, University of Liverpool.1905.

E.

NEWBERRY.

CONTENTS.PAGE

PrefaceIntroduction to the Study of Egyptian Seals(i)

v

General Remarks

......:

i

(2) Importance of the Seal in Ancient Times (3) Origin of the Seal

.

.

48

(4)

The(a)(if)

various Uses of the Seal

:

.,

For securing property

.

.

12

For authenticating documents,For transference of authorityOfficials

etc..

.

.

22

(c)

.

.

26

(5)

The Egyptianthe Seal

........concernedin

the use of

29

(6) Seal

Engravers

and

the

Technique

of

Seal

Engraving

40

The

Varieties of Egyptian Seals(i) Cylinder Seals (2)

.....:

435661

Button-shaped Seals and Hemi-Cylinders

(3) Beetle-shaped Seals (Scarabs)

(4) Miscellaneous forms(5) Signet-rings

.... .....

8592

Description of the Specimens illustrated in the Plates I-XLVIndices:

97

Names201 205

To To To

PersonalTitles

Royal Names(a)(d)(c)

:

.. .

Kings

.

QueensPrinces

........211.. .

216217

(d) Princesses

.

.

.

.

.

.

.218

LIST OF PLATESIN

AND ILLUSTRATIONS THE TEXT.

Plate

I.

Some specimens

of rings

Frontispiece.

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.Fig.I, 2.

PAGE

Two

jars of the First Dynasty, to illustrate the ancient

method of3, 4.

sealing

....... .

13

Complete jar neck, bearing the stamp of AmasisJars showing

14

5-7.

paintings in the8.

method of securing contents. tombs at Beni Hasan)jar.

(From16

AA A

mansealed

sealing up a honey

Abusir)9jar.

........(From a

tomb

at

1717 17

(From a painting in a (From apainting in a

tombtomb

at at

Mediim)

10.II.12.

sealed bag.

Meddm)

Sealing of doors

Securing of folding doorsSealing of boxes

13. 14. 15.

..... ......bowdrill.

2021 22

A

papyrus roll, tiedoffice of the

up and sealed

2335

The

Superintendent of the Seal

16.

The working

of the

1718.

A A

Rekhmara) mounted cylinder-seal.Cylinder-seal.

.......(From the(In the Louvre)

tomb of42

45

(Figured in a tomb at Medlam)

45

19.

Cylinder-seal.

(Figured in a tomb at Sakkara)

20.21.

An

early cylinder-seal

......

45 46

A

cylinder-seal bearing the

name

collection of

Mr. Piers)

....

of Mery-ra.

(In the

4647

22.

A

cylinder-seal of

Amenemhat

III

Xll

LIST OF PLATES,

Etc.

FIG.

PAGE

24.

A A

cylinder-seal of

Khyan.

(Cairo)

.

.

.

.

47

cylinder-seal of Sen-Mut.

(Petrie Collection)

47

Impression from a cylinder-seal in the Berlin26.

Museum>>

4950SI

27.28.

Cylinder-seal bearing personal

name

.

Cylinder-seal bearing rude hieroglyphicwritten in vertical

inscriptions

columns

.

29.

Royal

seal of

Narmer, predecessor of Men