Egyptian medicine

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<ul><li>1.Prashiddha Dhakal (MBBS,KUSMS)Sunder Chapagain (MBBS,KUSMS)Anjeela Gajurel(BDS,KUSMS)Anu Duwal (MBBS,KUSMS)Manish Dev (MBBS,KUSMS)Nitesh Kandel(BDS,KUSMS)Pintu Kumar Gami (MBBS,KUSMS)Shraddha Joshi(BDS,KUSMS)</li></ul> <p>2. CONTENTS: History Nutrition and Sanitation Medical Practices Diagnosis Of Disease Common Disease Cures and Remedies The Metu and Mummy Papyrus Role of Egyptian Medicine In Modern Times Conclusion 3. INTRODUCTION Egyptian civilization Egyptians, the father of medicine Important personalities 4. EGYPTPopulation: 82,079,636Population growth rate:1.96%Birth rate: 25.43births/1,000 populationDeath rate:4.82deaths/1,000 populationLife expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.4 yearsmale: 69.5 years female: 74.8years 5. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION Dates back to 5200 BC on the bank of Nile river Egyptians, the father of medicine 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids to bury theirPharaohs and worshipped gods who ruled everyaspect of their lives.The goddess Sekhmet was believed to cause orcure diseases and priests played a large part inEgyptian medicine.The Egyptians had doctors who specialized intreating particular parts of the body as well asresearching the properties of herbal medicines.Their detailed records of the symptoms andtreatments of illnesses formed some of the firstmedical text books 7. Egyptologists have found documents, written on a type of paper called papyrus, that describe medical techniques similar to those used today. Imphotep was the physician to King Zozer and lived inabout 2600 BC Imphotep was considered so important that he was, afterhis death, was worshipped as a god of healing. Almost all of our knowledge about Ancient Egyptianmedical knowledge comes from the discoveries of papyrusdocuments, that describe medical techniques similar tothose used today.papyrus 8. As today, the Egyptians suffered from the common cold.Here is a remedy taken from an ancient papyrus: To make them feel better, the patient should be given themilk of a mother who has given birth to a boy. Thefollowing spell was to be made to get rid of the cold:May you flow out, catarrh, son of catarrh, who breaks the bones, whodestroys the skull, who hacks in the marrow, who causes the sevenopenings in the head to ache.Ebers Papyrus 9. Health and God Religious beliefs dominated the ancient Egyptians view ofhealing. Doctors were often priests who were able to communicatewith the gods responsible for the health of different parts ofthe body. Illness was due to the presence of evil spirits or poisonsand removing these from the body with prayers to the godswould cure the disease. Medicines were used to help relieve pain but were notthought to play any other role in the healing process. 10. First pharmacists Ancient Egyptians would be familiar with the idea ofa modern chemist. Their pharmacists prepared prescriptions ofointments, potions, inhalers and pills by processingplant materials that were used to treat specificillnesses. Records show that they used many preparationsincluding opium, cannabis, linseed oil and senna. Many modern drugs have originated from the studyand isolation of active ingredients from plants withhealing properties used in ancient time 11. Imhotep, a physicianwho became a deifiedgod 12. What is Mummy?MummificationSignificance 13. What is Mummy? A mummy, in terms of Ancient Egypt, is body thathas been well preserved for thousands of years. 14. Mummification A Mystery Mummification process of making mummy First mummification Imhotep The body linked to a spiritual existence in theafterlife. Mummification So that the spirit could get thesufficient food and water 15. Natural Mummification Hot &amp; Dryclimate Three basic ways to mummify a body: All internal organs removed Inject Cedar oil from rectum and dry Inject Unknown liquid Dry Wrap 16. SIGNIFICANCE OF MUMMY Idea about conserving a dead body. Idea about Surgery and Dressing. 17. THE METU Heart as key to conceptsof anatomy andphysiology The metu essential tolife and health Imbalances within metu ascause of pain and illness 18. PAPYRUS The first medical texts, date from late 12th Dynasty to20th Dynasty (2000-1090B.C) Has detailed records of the symptoms and treatmentsof illnesses. Describes medical techniques similar to those usedtoday. Seven medical papyri: The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus The Ebers Papyrus The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus The Hearst The Chester The Berlin The London 19. KEY MEDICAL PAPYRI The Kahun (1825 B.C) gynecology The Ebers (1534 B.C) internal medicineEbers papyrus The Edwin Smith Papyrus (1600 B.C) surgical wounds and fractures Edwin Smith Papyrus 20. NUTRITION Aware of importance of diet Main crops emmer wheat &amp; barley Cereal food main backbone Barley beer Linseed plant oil Fish widely used Evidence of prohibition during certain periods against certain types of animal products 21. SANITATION Bathrooms right in their home. Dispose of their garbage the communal dump. Drainage and disposal of waste. Gathering water workable, viable sanitationsystem 22. 3 categories of diseases Treatable Contestable UntreatableSurgical tools:- knives, hooks, drills, forceps, pinehers, scales, spoons, saw and vase with burning incenseCircumcision:-Circum=around; cision=to cutRemoval of some or all the fore skin(prepuce) from penisClinical benefit+ decrease in HIV infection 23. SURGERY TOOLSMedical kitScapels 24. DENTISTRY Independent profession dated from early 3rdmillennium B.C. Poor teeth due to diet with sand leftovers due togrinding rain Improvement of grinding madrine Evidence of forced teeth removal Presumption of extreme dental pain might bemedicated with opium. 25. Egyptian doctors called Waboni Hesy-Ra = earliest recordedphysician who was chief of dentistsand physician to a king namedDjoser Pesehet called first female doctor ranks : specializations like inspector ofdoctors, overseers and chief doctorsophthalmologist,gastroenterologist , proctologist,dentists and different doctors whosupervise butcher and inspectionof liquid 26. PROSTHETICS Artificial device used as extension of missing part ofbody Artificial toes and eyeball used Extensive use of surgery, mummification practices andautopsy Autopsy:- also known as postmortem, necropsy,obduction= is a specialized surgical procedure of acorpse To determine cause and manner of death To evaluate any disease or injury 27. DIAGNOSIS OF THE DISEASES Examination of the pulse Palpation Inguinal hernia Simple bed-tests diagnosis 28. Examination of the pulse It includes probably theexamination of the pulse was oneof the secret teachings theyreferences from passing to theGreek visitors later . It has not developed in our modernmedicine. The process of examination followsthe same steps as we follow in ourmodern medical practice. 29. Palpation It includes the examination ofabdomen, fracture and tumors. you should put your finger on it ,you should then palpate his belly Tumor were well differentiated. Ananeurys described as ahemispherical tumor of the vesselwhich increase in volume beneaththe finger at each pulsation. It is skilled practiced nowadays byphysicians. 30. Inguinal Hernia It is described as a tumor above thegenitalia, which appears oncoughing and could be restored byheat application. Impulse on cough is the firstmanifestation of hernia in modernsurgical teaching Heat application is the method toreduce a strangulated hernia 31. Simple bed-test diagnosis say to the patient : look at the shoulder, thenbreast, then look upward and downwards, if he isnot able to do this: he is suffering from thedislocation of the vertebra of the neck. 32. DISEASES IN ANCIENT EGYPT Mummies are the main source of diagnose the disease prevalent in ancient Egypt. Study of mummies revealed many disease prevalent in ancient Egypt. 33. Acquired disorders: Earliest evidence of TB in the world. 34. Leprosy(Hansens disease) :affected many lives in ancient Egypt. 35. Schistosomiasis : one of the major diseaseprevalent in modern egypt 36. Poliomyelitis: suspected in few mummies 37. Arthritis: most common disease prevalent in ancientand modern Egypt. Mostly prevalent in agriculturalworker and by age 90 almost everyone. Tumors: little evidence of tumors, possibly becausethe life span in that time was so short Vascular disease : blood vessels well preserved inmummies and they provide accurate evidence ofvascular diseases 38. Arteriosclerosis: blood vessels are well preserved inmummies. Provide accurate evidence of vasculardisease Other related disease are disease of aorta and coronaryarteries ,arterioscleroses of kidney and heart bloodvessels. This give the evidence that the degenerative vasculardisease present in modern day highly civilized life wasknown from ancient egypt. 39. HERBAL MEDICINES &amp; ITS APPLICATIONSINCUBATIONMAGIC, SPELLS &amp;INCHANTATIONS 40. HERBAL MEDICINES GARLIC asthma &amp; bronchialpulmonary complains ACACIA skin diseases ONION digestion problem CORIANDER urinary complains The medications were mixed with one or more of the six vehicles : water(dew), honey, milk, oil, wine, beer. 41. APPLICATION OF HERBAL MEDICINEFOR CONSTIPATION Berries of castor oil tree, chew and swallow down withbeer in order to clear out all that is in the body.IF NOT EFFECTIVE, THAN ADD 1/4 leaves of castor oil, 5/6 dates of male palm, 1/16 Cyperus grass, 1/16 stalk of Poppy plant, 1/16 Coriander,1/2 cold beer keep moist, strain, and take for four days 42. FOR DIARRHOEA1/ 8 green onions, 1/8 freshly cooked Gruel, 1/4 oil andhoney, 1/16 wax, 1/3 water, cook and take for four days.FOR COUGHInhalation of honey, cream, milk, carob, colocynth and date kernels.FOR MIGRAINES Fish Siluris (an electric cat fish) in fat and oilFOR JOINT PAINTreated with ointments containing fat, oil bone marrow,gum or honey as a base. Added flour, natron, onion, cumin, flax, frankincense or pine. 43. INCUBATIONA practice whichinvolves sleeping in atemple in order to receiveprophetic dreams of God. 44. MAGIC, SPELLS &amp; INCHANTATIONS INTEGRATION OF GODS OF MEDICINE MAGIC INAND HEALING MEDICINE 45. CONCLUSION The medicinal skills of ancient Egyptians were far beyondtheir time. With the writing of the first medical texts,performance of the first surgical techniques, use of thefirst splints and bandages, the first drug therapies, and thefirst medical dictionary, the ancient Egyptiansrevolutionized the world of medicine and laid a path andframework for the advances in medicine that exist in ourworld today. </p>

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