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  • BIG IDEA 1

    1

    EVT AP01.130109

    EDVO-Kit: AP01

    Artifi cial Selection

    See Page 3 for storage instructions.

    EXPERIMENT OBJECTIVE:

    In this experiment, students will grow one generation of Quick Plants from seeds. They will then perform artifi cial selection by cross-pollinating only selected plants, examining the second-generation population, and recording the differencesand/or similarities between two generations due toartifi cial selection.

  • 2 Duplication of any part of this document is permitted for non-profi t educational purposes only. Copyright 1989-2013 EDVOTEK, Inc., all rights reserved. EVT AP01.130109

    Artifi cial SelectionAP01EXPERIMENT

    The Biotechnology Education Company 1-800-EDVOTEK www.edvotek.com

    The Advanced Placement (AP) Program is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. These laboratory materials have been prepared by EDVOTEK, Inc. which bears sole responsibility for their contents.

    All components are intended for educational research only. They are not to be used for diagnostic or drug pur-poses, nor administered to or consumed by humans or animals.

    THIS EXPERIMENT DOES NOT CONTAIN HUMAN DNA. None of the experiment components are derived from human sources.

    EDVOTEK and The Biotechnology Education Company are registered trademarks of EDVOTEK, Inc. Quick Plant is a trademark of EDVOTEK, Inc.

    Page

    Experiment Components 3 Experiment Requirements 3Background Information 4 Experiment Procedures Experiment Overview 6 Investigation I: Growing First-Generation Plants 8 Investigation II: Growing Second-Generation Plants 14 Study Questions 19

    Instructors Guidelines Notes to the Instructor 21 Pre-Lab Preparations 23 Experiment Results and Analysis 24 Study Questions and Answers 31

    Table of Contents

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  • 3Duplication of any part of this document is permitted for non-profi t educational purposes only. Copyright 1989-2013 EDVOTEK, Inc., all rights reserved. EVT AP01.130109

    The Biotechnology Education Company 1-800-EDVOTEK www.edvotek.com

    AP01EXPERIMENT

    Artifi cial Selection

    Quick Plant seeds Nylon mason twine Potting Mix Miracle-Gro Fertilizer Vermiculite Bees and sticks for making bee sticks for pollination Plastic magnifi ers

    Store the entire experiment at room temperature.

    This experiment is designed for 10 lab groups.

    Experiment Components

    Requirements

    Growing system: reused plastic soda or water bottles (500 ml) Lighting: light box system Digital cameras to record the investigation Laboratory notebook Water Tape Razor

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  • 4 Duplication of any part of this document is permitted for non-profi t educational purposes only. Copyright 1989-2013 EDVOTEK, Inc., all rights reserved. EVT AP01.130109

    Artifi cial SelectionAP01EXPERIMENT

    The Biotechnology Education Company 1-800-EDVOTEK www.edvotek.com

    Background Information

    NATURAL SELECTION VERSUS ARTIFICIAL SELECTION

    Evolution has existed and given rise to a diverse population of organisms, from cellular components to plants and animals, over the course of a billion years. Nat-ural selection is defi ned as a gradual process in which certain traits become either favorable or unfavorable in a population. It occurs because of random mutations, and is the driving force of evolution. It is believed to be the process in nature by which only the most adapted organism to their environment survive, produce offspring, and pass on their genetic heredity to the next generation. Over time, natural selection can eventually result in the emergence of new species.

    In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species, in which he discussed about natural selection versus artifi cial selection in cats, dogs, pi-geons and cattle. As opposed to natural selection, artifi cial selection is a selective breeding process in which certain traits are intentionally favored for breeding. This preference has a profound effect on evolution of a particular population.

    Darwin made observations of the beagle in the Galapagos Islands and discovered a beak variation in the fi nches. Each of the 13 closely related species differs in the shape of their beak, suggesting that beak shape has evolved by natural selection in such a way that ensures each species is best adapted to their environment.

    Such genetic manipulation is being practiced not only today but throughout the past. For thousand of years, humans have artifi cially selected domesticated plants and animals. Farmers and breeders have chosen specially favorable traits for reproduction purposes in plants and animals, so they will be able to pass the favorable characteristics to their offsprings. An example is how we breed dogs with certain traits to obtain the traits we desire.

    QUICK PLANTS

    Brassica are part of a large family of plants called crucifers. Crucifers produce four-petalled fl owers. Numerous plants, such as cabbage, caulifl ower, turnip, and brussels sprouts belong to the Brassica genus. Despite the large variation in leaf structure, size and shape of the vegetables produced, all Brassica plants within a genus share a common ancestor.

    In 1986, Dr. Paul Williams from the University of Wisconsin published his fi nd-ings, in which he discussed the variety of turnip (Brassica rapa) that his group had used. The research took advantage of the short life cycle of Brassica rapa, which could grow from seed to seed in about 40 days. His paper has allowed teachers to be able to introduce this ideal organism as a way to teach plant biology in a classroom setting and research purposes.

    Figure 1 Beak variation of fi nches on the Galapagos Islands

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  • 5Duplication of any part of this document is permitted for non-profi t educational purposes only. Copyright 1989-2013 EDVOTEK, Inc., all rights reserved. EVT AP01.130109

    The Biotechnology Education Company 1-800-EDVOTEK www.edvotek.com

    AP01EXPERIMENT

    Artifi cial Selection

    Background Information

    In this experiment, students will explore how artifi cial selection works on a population of Brassica Quick Plants by identifying selected characteristics and breeding among only selected plants. Students will start by growing the fi rst generation population of Quick Plants in plastic water bottles. The growth medium, consisting of potting mix, fertilizer solution and vermiculite, will provide an adequate environment to the plants. Besides, the plants will be grown under cool white fl uorescent bulbs. Seed pods will be harvested and planted for next generation population. Since Quick Plants do not self-pollinate, they must be cross-pollinated to produce seeds. Students will mimic the natural process of pollination in Quick Plants, which, for many species, relies on bees. Thus, they will pol-linate the Quick Plants with a bee stick made from the thorax of a honeybee. As the second generation develops, students will analyze the data obtained to examine if the second-generation offspring is different from the parent population.

    Seed pods& seeds

    Seed pods& seeds

    Germination& seedling

    First leavesdevelop

    Youngplant

    Matureplant withripe pods.

    Plant with flowers.Bees pollenate &

    fertilize.

    Figure 2 - Life cycle of Quick Plants

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  • 6 Duplication of any part of this document is permitted for non-profi t educational purposes only. Copyright 1989-2013 EDVOTEK, Inc., all rights reserved. EVT AP01.130109

    Artifi cial SelectionAP01EXPERIMENT

    The Biotechnology Education Company 1-800-EDVOTEK www.edvotek.com

    Exp

    erim

    ent

    Pro

    ced

    ure

    Experiment Overview and General Instructions

    EXPERIMENT OBJECTIVE

    In this experiment, students will grow one generation of Quick Plants from seeds. Then they will perform artifi cial selection by cross-pollinating only selected plants, and examin-ing the second-generation population to see if it is different from the previous one, and learn about how selection works.

    LABORATORY SAFETY GUIDELINES

    1. Wear gloves and goggles while working in the laboratory.

    2. Exercise caution when working in the laboratory you will be using equipment that can be dangerous if used incorrectly.

    3. DO NOT MOUTH PIPET REAGENTS - USE PIPET PUMPS.

    4. Always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after working in the laboratory.

    5. If you are unsure of something, ASK YOUR INSTRUCTOR!

    LABORATORY NOTEBOOKS:

    Scientists document everything that happens during an experiment, including experi-mental conditions, thoughts and observations while conducting the experiment, and, of course, any data collected. Today, youll be documenting your experiment in a laboratory notebook or on a separate worksheet.

    Before starting the Experiment: Carefully read the introduction and the protocol. Use this information to form a

    hypothesis for this experiment. Predict the results of your experiment.

    During the Experiment: Record your observations.

    After the Experiment: Interpret the results does your data support or contradict your hypothesis? If you repeated this experiment, what would you change? Revise your hypothesis to

    refl ect this change.

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  • 7Duplication of any part of this document is permitted for non-profi t educational purposes only. Copyright 1989-2013 EDVOTEK, Inc., all rights reserved. EVT AP01.130109

    The Biotechnology Education Company 1-800-EDVOTEK www.edvotek.com

    AP01

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