Educators' Perceptions of Twitter for Educational Technology Professional Development: A Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model

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<ol><li> 1. Educators Perceptions of Twitter for Educational Technology Professional Development: A Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model Douglas C. Strahler Dissertation Defense Doctoral Program in Instructional Technology and Leadership Duquesne University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania October 23, 2014 </li><li> 2. In an era of school reform, many consider the education and professional development of teachers as the keystone to educational improvement. -Chris Dede, taken from Online Professional Development for Teachers </li><li> 3. Perception of failing school systems Lack of quality teachers Need to meet student achievement goals No Child Left Behind Act A variety of professional development programs have been created to address major changes in education. INTRODUCTION Reasons for School Reform </li><li> 4. Statement of the Problem Substantial growth in the number of PD programs, but some lack quality or are not continuous Traditional formats and online Resistance to change Fullan (1991), Sparks &amp; Hirsh (1997), Guskey (2000) and other researchers identify a variety of reasons from personal habits to a lack of motivation and benefits Growing need for just-in-time assistance and continuous support (Dede, 2006) INTRODUCTION </li><li> 5. Twitter &amp; Online Professional Development Social Networking service that is a fusion of IM (Instant messaging) and an SMS-based (short messaging service) communications platform 140-character limit Hashtags (#) = categories @ replies = usernames OPD programs has allowed the experience to be more customizable, real-time, and provides an outlet for ongoing support (Whitehouse et. al, 2006) Anderson (1976) asserts there is continuing need for aids to making decisions about mediawhat to use, when, and why (p. 3) based on the characteristics on a specific media. INTRODUCTION </li><li> 6. The role of communication in the learning process is critical which may influence students learning experience. </li><li> 7. Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT) An audience based theoretical framework, grounded on the assumption that individuals select media and content to fulfill felt needs or wants. Students/Adult Learners select a medium to satisfy their learning needs These needs are expressed as motives for adopting particular medium use, and are connected to the social and psychological makeup of the individual (Papacharissi, 1996). REVIEW OF LITERATURE </li><li> 8. UGT Assumptions Active Audience Media effects are limited to attitude and behavior Media compete with other sources Media users are able to identify their own needs and possess the ability to report their needs/motives REVIEW OF LITERATURE </li><li> 9. UGT Criticisms &amp; Extensions One of the primary criticisms of UGT is the lack of a common theoretical base leading to many researchers referring to at as an approach. Extensions Expectancy-value theory (EVT) applies that the gratifications you seek from media are determined by your attitudes toward the mediayour beliefs about what a particular medium can give you and your evaluations of this material (Littlejohn &amp; Foss, 2011, p. 351). Dependency theory examines the relationship among social systems, media systems, and audiences, and how each of these interacts and affects one another (Rosenberry &amp; Vicker, 2009, p. 127). REVIEW OF LITERATURE </li><li> 10. Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model Mondi, Woods, &amp; Rafi (2008) Study investigated communication behaviors on how and why students Uses and Gratification Expectancy (UGE) for e-learning resources influenced their Perceived e- Learning Experience Secondary-school level in Malaysia Developed the Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Questionnaire (UGEQ) REVIEW OF LITERATURE </li><li> 11. Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas (1973) Five Communicative Attributes Dropping the entertainment needs for my study REVIEW OF LITERATURE </li><li> 12. The purpose of this study was to examine how educators uses and gratifications expectancy of Twitter for professional development influenced their perceived e-learning experience Focus in educational technology professional development REVIEW OF LITERATURE Research Purpose </li><li> 13. Research Design Two-part survey Part One: Demographics &amp; Twitter Usage Part Two: Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Questionnaire (UGEQ) Web-based survey using Survey Monkey Survey will be administered to educators who use or follow #edtechchat on Twitter Survey link will be posted to Twitter once per day for four weeks METHODOLOGY </li><li> 14. Example Tweets METHODOLOGY </li><li> 15. Research Question &amp; Null Hypothesis #1 RQ1: Are educators cognitive uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H1: Educators cognitive uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY </li><li> 16. Cognitive UGE CUGE1. I use Twitter to help me know many things CUGE2. I use Twitter to search for new information CUGE3. I carry out Twitter searches to answer questions CUGE4. I post questions to Twitter for answers CUGE5. I use Twitter to explore topics of interest, beyond my normal content area Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 1 Measurement-Items </li><li> 17. Research Question &amp; Null Hypothesis #2 RQ2: Are educators affective uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H2: Educators affective uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY </li><li> 18. Affective UGE AUGE1. I like to talk to others about Twitter AUGE2. I like showing others how to use Twitter in different ways AUGE3. I enjoy working with Twitter Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 2 Measurement-Items </li><li> 19. Research Question &amp; Null Hypothesis #3 RQ3: Are educators personal integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H3: Educators personal integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY </li><li> 20. Personal Integrative UGE PUGE1. Using Twitter is easy for me PUGE2. Using Twitter allows me to be virtually anywhere at any time PUGE3. I can search and navigate through Twitter content easily Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 3 Measurement-Items </li><li> 21. Research Question &amp; Null Hypothesis #4 RQ4: Are educators social integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H4: Educators social integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY </li><li> 22. Social Integrative UGE SUGE1. Using Twitter gives me feedback I need from others SUGE2. I use Twitter to interact with other educators SUGE3. Using Twitter prepares me to join the extended learning community in the world SUGE4. Using Twitter improves my ability to communicate with other people SUGE5. Using Twitter keeps me from feeling lonely Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 4 Measurement-Items </li><li> 23. Data Analysis SPSS Version 22 Descriptive Statistics for Demographic &amp; Twitter Usage data Pearson Correlation Analysis Stepwise Multiple Regression RESULTS </li><li> 24. Respondent Demographics Gender: 23.1% Male; 76.9% Female FINDINGS </li><li> 25. Respondent Demographics FINDINGS </li><li> 26. Respondent Demographics FINDINGS </li><li> 27. Respondent Twitter Usage FINDINGS </li><li> 28. Instrumentation &amp; Reliability Analysis Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbachs Alpha scores at a level of .05 exceed .70 min (Hair, et al., 1998) Appropriate sample size (N=39) Summated Scales created for each construct FINDINGS Constructs Items Alpha CUGE CUGE1, CUGE2, CUGE3, CUGE4, CUGE5 .862 AUGE AUGE1, AUGE2, AUGE3 .856 PUGE PUGE1, PUGE2, PUGE3 .791 SUGE SUGE1, SUGE2, SUGE3, SUGE4, SUGE5 .773 PLEUGE PLEUGE1, PLEUGE2, PLEUGE, PLEUGE4, PLEUGE5 .901 </li><li> 29. Pearson Correlation Analysis FINDINGS </li><li> 30. Stepwise Multiple Regression Takes the independent variable that significantly contributes to the variance and adds it to the first model, then the next variable is tested until the best set of predictor variables is determined (Hair, et al., 1998) Assumptions tested and met Outliers [Mahalanobis Distance &amp; Cooks Distance] Multicollinearity [Tolerance &amp; VIF] Independence of the Residuals [Durbin-Watson] Normality [Histogram] Linearity [P-P plot] &amp; Homoscedasticity [Scatterplot] FINDINGS </li><li> 31. Stepwise Regression Analysis Results FINDINGS </li><li> 32. Cognitive UGE significantly predicted perceived e-learning experience Affective UGE, Personal UGE, &amp; Social UGE did not significantly predict perceived e-learning experience Interpretation of Regression Model FINDINGS </li><li> 33. Participants in the #edtechchat primary need is cognitive - related to strengthening information, knowledge, and understanding (Katz, Gurevitch, &amp; Haas, 1973) OPD through Twitter is satisfying the need for knowledge Similar to previous UGT studies Johnson and Yang (2009) information motives significant, but not social motives Liu, Cheung, and Lee (2010) content &amp; technology gratifications were factors; not social gratifications Veletsianos (2011) scholars primary activity on Twitter was sharing information, media, and resources CONCLUSION Key Study Findings </li><li> 34. Professional Development Provides results for perceived learning experience through Twitter Provides insight into designing/developing OPD through Twitter Contribution to the field of adult learning by beginning to understand learners perceptions UGT Continue to extend the research in the field of UGT For UGEM, provided an opportunity to further expand this model Twitter Provides results on how Twitter is being used for OPD CONCLUSION Contributions to the Field </li><li> 35. With OPD, need to further understand uses and gratifications of electronic media for learning Anderson (1976) asserts there is continuing need for aids to making decisions about mediawhat to use, when, and why (p. 3) based on the characteristics on a specific media. The findings: provide insights into why educators continue to use Twitter as a professional development tool, despite the negative perceptions that typically surround PD; and begin to provide insights into how and why Twitter provides an environment conducive to learning. CONCLUSION Significance of Study </li><li> 36. Distribution of survey online Low response rate/small sample size Summer time Users only clicked/viewed link primarily on Sunday- Tuesday Focused on one content area (educational technology) Respondents self-reported their perceptions CONCLUSION Study Limitations </li><li> 37. A study could be conducted to develop a deeper understanding of which measurement-items within each uses and gratifications expectancy (UGE) construct relate to educators perceived e-learning experience through Partial Least Squares or SEM analysis Could provide valuable insights into which items play a role in the perceived e-learning experience A study could be conducted to investigate demographic differences and how they contribute to the perceived e- learning experience through Twitter Increase the sample size to provide a stronger representation of the larger population CONCLUSION Future Research </li><li> 38. A study could be conducted to examine different content areas of Twitter chats A study could be conducted by adopting a qualitative research design to examine the complexity of the social interactions (Marshall &amp; Rossman, 2011) and the culture of Twitter as a professional development tool Content Analysis of Twitter chat archives could be conducted, which would provide more directly how individual-level cognitive processes and effects relate to message characteristics (Riffe, Lacy, &amp; Fico, 2014) A study could be conducted to evaluate Guskeys (2000) second critical level of PD evaluation Participants learning Did participants acquired the intended knowledge or skill? Assist in improving Twitter chat content, format, and organization CONCLUSION Future Research </li><li> 39. Conclusion This exploratory study found that while all four uses and gratification expectancy constructs were found to be statistically significant, a deeper analysis using a stepwise regression uncovered that cognitive uses and gratification expectancy to be the only significant predictor towards their perceived e-learning experience. OPD through Twitter is satisfying the need for strengthening information, knowledge, and understanding </li><li> 40. Thank You Special Thanks to my Committee: Dr. David Carbonara, Chair Dr. Rose Mary Mautino Dr. Valerie Swarts </li><li> 41. References Anderson, R. H. (1976). Selecting and developing media for instruction. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Dede, C. (Ed.). (2006). Online professional development for teachers: Emerging models and methods. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., &amp; Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle Riv...</li></ol>

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