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Educational Psychology C83EDP 2nd semester 2008 Slide 2 2 Purpose To introduce students to the professional practice of Educational Psychology by considering a range of relevant theoretical and practical issues Slide 3 3 Lecturers: Prof Andy Miller - Group Director Nathan Lambert - APT Anthea Gulliford - DAEP Co-director Victoria Lewis - APT Neil Ryrie - APT Nick Durbin - DAEP Co-director All working as practitioner EPs in Local Authority settings. Slide 4 4 Office Hours Each lecturer will offer an office contact time, usually about 2 or 3 weeks after their lecture. Details will be posted on the website. Slide 5 5 Lectures Slide 6 6 Examination The module will be assessed by one two-hour examination at the end of the second semester. You will be asked to answer two questions out of six. Slide 7 7 General References Frederickson & Cline (2002) Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity. Buckingham: Open University Press Beaver, R (1996) Educational Psychology casework. London: Jessica Kingsley Frederickson, Miller & Cline (in press) Educational Psychology: Topics in Applied Psychology Journals: Educational Psychology in Practice Educational & Child Psychology Journal of School Psychology Slide 8 History and development of the role and function of the educational psychologist Slide 9 9 Educational Psychology is Slide 10 10 Terminology Educational Psychology? Or School Psychology? Slide 11 11 Relevant theory? Slide 12 12 Domains of interest Problem-solving Individual child Whole class Whole school Local authority DfEE 2000 Slide 13 13 Historical landmarks Cyril Burt, the first EP (1913) Assessment of childrens ability and advice on the placement of children in special education Development of mental tests. Researching into causes of learning difficulties. Slide 14 14 Historical landmarks Summerfield Report(1968) To consider role and training of EPs and to advise on numbers Individual diagnostic and therapeutic work with children No serious consideration of other possible functions Central core of activities seen as: the identification and treatment of learning and adjustment difficulties. Slide 15 15 Historical landmarks The Reconstructing developments (Gillham 1978) Challenged the central position of assessment of difficulties. Moved the focus onto alternative ways of working: Research and project work Working with schools as systems Criticisms of the relevance of psychometrics Slide 16 16 Historical landmarks Special needs legislation (1981 & 1996) Gave EPs a statutory responsibility in the assessment and reviewing of childrens special educational needs Every child in receipt of special educational provision would have a Statement of SEN based on formal Advice from, inter alia, EPs. Gave EPs increasing involvement with Early Years and with parents Slide 17 17 Historical landmarks DfEE working party report (2000) 4 levels of work: Individual child Groups of children Schools LEAs Other agencies Recommendations about service delivery Slide 18 18 The future? Extended training Every Child Matters Review of role and function (DfES 2006). Integrated Childrens Services Slide 19 EPs and Assessment Slide 20 20 Debates in assessment? Assessment vs Testing? Purpose Informs action Tests hypotheses Rigour Slide 21 21 Over-riding principles Applied science Slide 22 22 Debates in assessment? Normative vs Ipsative? Normative assessment: Compares a sample of behaviour with the same behaviour in a sample of the population. Generalises from that sample Requires validity Requires reliability Issues about relevance & equity Slide 23 23 Debates in assessment? Normative vs Ipsative? Normative assessment: In the UK, typically involves: Wechsler Scales: WISC IV, WPPSI III British Ability Scales (BAS) A range of attainment tests Produces norm-referenced scores, typically IQ (or Standard) scores or percentile rankings Slide 24 24 Debates in assessment? Normative vs Ipsative? Ipsative assessment: Compares a child with themselves Can include normative assumptions Can allow a focus on the learning / behaviour issues themselves. Slide 25 25 Debates in assessment? Static vs dynamic? Static assessment: Looks at what a child has achieved; Analyses strengths and difficulties; Deals in snap-shots of behaviour/learning Emphasises reliability and validity Slide 26 26 Debates in assessment? Static vs dynamic? dynamic assessment: Based on Vygotskys work, developed by Feuerstein; Looks at a childs response to teaching Focuses on modifiability and adaptability - therefore looks at change Slide 27 27 Alternative methods Curriculum-based assessment Ipsative by nature Based on (social) learning theories Looks at the child in context Attempts to lead directly to action Requires careful monitoring, evaluation and review Slide 28 28 Challenges to practice Keep the psychology To maintain relevance to teachers To understand the difficulties in terms of the interaction between the child and their environment. To maintain an objective stance To collect data rigorously and to transform that understanding of the childs circumstances Slide 29 29 Further Reading Anastasi, A. and Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th Edn). Upper Saddle River, NJ., Prentice Hall. Deno, S.L. (1989) Curriculum based measurement: the emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52(3): 219- 32 Dessent, T. (1978). The historical development of School Psychological Services. In: Reconstructing Educational Psychology. B. Gillham. London, Croom Helm. DfEE (2000). Educational Psychology Services (England): Current Role, Good Practice and Future Directions. Nottingham: DfEE. DfES (2006). A Review of the Functions and Contributions of Educational Psychologists in the Light of Every Child Matters: Change for Children Nottingham: DfES Research Report 792 http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR792.pdf http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR792.pdf Slide 30 30 Further Reading Gersch, I. S. (2004). "Educational Psychology in an age of uncertainty." The Psychologist 17(3): 142-145. Gillham, B., (Ed.) (1978). Reconstructing Educational Psychology. London, Croom Helm. Leyden, G. (1999). "Time for change: the reformulation of applied psychology for LEAs and schools." Educational Psychology in Practice 14(4): 222-228. Mellor, N. J. (1999). From exploring practice to exploring inquiry: a practitioner researchers experience. University of Northumbria at Newcastle. PhD. (Chapter 2) http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/nigel.mellor/thesis/chap2.html http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/nigel.mellor/thesis/chap2.html Slide 31 31 Further Reading Miller, A. and Leyden, G. (1999). "A coherent framework for the application of psychology in schools." British Educational Research Journal 25(3): 389-400. Solity, J. and Bull, S. (1987). Special Needs: Bridging the Curriculum Gap. Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Sternberg, R. J. and Grigorenko, E. L. (2002). "Difference scores in the identification of children with learning disabilities. It's time to use a different method." Journal of School Psychology 40(1): 65-83.