Educational Psychology by Mostafa Ewees

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<ul><li> 1. by Mostafa Kh, Ewees </li> <li> 2. Educational Psychology: A Tool for Effective Teaching </li> <li> 3. <ul><li>Describe some basic ideas about the field of educational psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the attitudes and skills of an effective teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss why research is important to effective teaching and how educational psychologists and teachers can conduct and evaluate research. </li></ul></li> <li> 4. Exploring Educational Psychology Teaching: Art and Science Historical Background </li> <li> 5. <ul><li>is a branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings. </li></ul></li> <li> 6. 1850 1875 1950 1925 1900 William James John Dewey E. L. Thorndike </li> <li> 7. <ul><li>Emphasized the importance of observing teaching and learning in the classroom for improving education </li></ul></li> <li> 8. <ul><li>Viewed the child as an active learner </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized the childs adaptation to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed for competent education for all children </li></ul></li> <li> 9. <ul><li>Initiated an emphasis on assessment and measurement of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted the idea that educational psychology must have a scientific base and that measurement should be a central focus </li></ul></li> <li> 10. Leta Hollingworth ( 1916) - First to use the term gifted to describe students who scored exceptionally high on IQ tests. George Sanchez ( 1932) - Researcher who demonstrated that intelligence tests were culturally biased against minority children. Mamie and Kenneth Clark ( 1939) - Pioneering researchers who studied African American childrens self-conceptions and identity. </li> <li> 11. <ul><li>B.F. Skinner (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology as the science of observable behavior and controlling conditions </li></ul><ul><li>1950s programmed learning </li></ul></li> <li> 12. <ul><li>1950s Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills </li></ul><ul><li>1980s Cognitive Psychology memory, thinking, reasoning to help student learn </li></ul></li> <li> 13. <ul><li>How is teaching both art and science? </li></ul></li> <li> 14. Effective Teaching Commitment and Motivation Professional Knowledge and Skills </li> <li> 15. <ul><li>Reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>What were the characteristics of the most effective teachers in your educational experience? </li></ul></li> <li> 16. <ul><li>Effective Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Exhibit subject matter competence </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Implement appropriate instructional strategies </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Set high goals for themselves and students and plan for instruction </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Create developmentally appropriate instructional materials and activities </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Manage classrooms for optimal learning </li></ul></li></ul>Cont </li> <li> 17. <ul><li>Effective Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Use effective strategies to promote students motivation to learn </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Communicate well with students and parents </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Pay more than lip service to individual variations </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Work effectively with students from culturally diverse backgrounds </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Have good assessment skills </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Integrate technology into the curriculum </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 18. <ul><li>Effective Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Have a good attitude </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Care about students </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Invest time and effort </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Bring a positive attitude and enthusiasm to the classroom </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 19. Characteristics of Best Teachers </li> <li> 20. Characteristics of Worst Teachers </li> <li> 21. Research in Educational Psychology Why Research Is Important Program Evaluation Research, Action Research, and the Teacher-as- Researcher Research Methods </li> <li> 22. </li> <li> 23. <ul><li>The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testable. </li></ul>STEP 1 Conceptualize the Problem STEP 2 Collect Information STEP 3 Draw Conclusions STEP 4 Revise Research Conclusions &amp; Theory </li> <li> 24. <ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Naturalistic observation </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Interviews and questionnaires </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Standardized tests </li></ul></li></ul>Cont </li> <li> 25. <ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Ethnographic Studies </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Personal Journals and Diaries </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 26. <ul><li>Correlational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the strength </li></ul><ul><li>of a relation between </li></ul><ul><li>two variables </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT establish causal relation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Research </li></ul><ul><li>Random assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental vs. control groups </li></ul><ul><li>Independent vs. dependent variables </li></ul></li> <li> 27. Observed correlation Possible explanations for this correlation As permissive teaching increases, childrens self-control decreases Permissive teaching Childrens lack of self-control Childrens lack of self-control Permissive teaching causes causes Other factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, or sociohistorical circumstances Permissive teaching cause both Childrens lack of self-control and </li> <li> 28. <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Independent variable: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>The manipulated, influential experimental factor. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Dependent variable: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>The factor that is measured in an experiment. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Control group: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>A comparison group, no manipulation. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Experimental group: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>The group whose experience is manipulated. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Random assignment: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Participants are assigned by chance. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 29. A study of the effects of time management on students grades Participants randomly assigned to experimental and control groups Students grades in school Experimental Group (time management program) Control Group (no time management program) </li> <li> 30. <ul><li>Studying groups of people at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher doesnt have to wait until subjects grow older </li></ul><ul><li>Provides no information about the stability of data over time </li></ul><ul><li>Studying the same individuals over time </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates how children change over time </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming and costly </li></ul>Cross-sectional Longitudinal </li> <li> 31. <ul><li>Program Evaluation: Designed to make decisions about a particular program. </li></ul><ul><li>Action Research: Used to solve a particular classroom or school problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-As-Researcher: Teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teaching. </li></ul></li> <li> 32. <ul><li>Should teachers conduct research using their students as subjects? </li></ul>YES NO </li> <li> 33. <ul><li>What issues would need to be considered in conducting such a study? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of research would be most appropriate? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the independent variable be? </li></ul>Cont... </li> <li> 34. <ul><li>If she compared the two different curricula and their outcomes, what would the dependent variable be? </li></ul><ul><li>How should Ms. Huang go about conducting her study? </li></ul></li> </ul>