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<p>Climate, catchments &amp; CrittersLake Cave - Primary Student Pack, Years 4-6</p> <p>Educational outdoor activities for kids that invoke wonder and respect for our amazing natural landscape.</p> <p>Contents3 Overview4 Curriculum Links5 Topic Web6 Teachers Notes on Lake Cave7 Lake Cave Primary Program11 Sentence Race12 Caves of the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge13 KWL Chart14 Climate Change Cycle15 Shifting Sands16 How Caves Form17 Cave Chemistry18 Cave Simulation19 Whats in a Cave20 DIY Stalactites and Stalagmites21 Catchment if You Can22 Glorious Groundwater23 Karst Connections25 Cave Critters26 Meet the Family27 Food Chains28 Final Notes29 Answer Page31 Books n Bytes</p> <p>Booking Your Lake Cave Field TripTo book your tour of Lake Cave or request a copy of our Teacher Guide contact us on the details below:</p> <p>P. +61 (8) 9755 2152E. education@margaretriver.com</p> <p>OverviewAim: This package is designed to support an excursion to Lake Cave in the Margaret River Region for Years 4-6 students. It has been developed to accompany classroom investigation as per the ACARA Australian Curriculum.</p> <p>Upon completion of this package students will: have knowledge about the settlement of the Southwest, discovery of the caves, and the development of tourism in the region</p> <p> be able to identify the common cave decorations and understand the geological and chemical forces which influence the growth of caves and cave formations</p> <p> have identified and examined the fauna which exist in the unique cave environment</p> <p> have examined the biological adaptations of cave fauna to suit their environment</p> <p> be able to identify how weather conditions and human interaction can change the cave environment</p> <p> appreciate the importance of the environment to animals and people, and different views on how it can be protected</p> <p>3</p> <p>Curriculum LinksCurriculum Framework LinksThe following chart summarises key curriculum achievement standards covered by this unit of work. The resource materials and activities have been developed to achieve a range of outcomes and be relevant to the new ACARA Australian Curriculum.</p> <p>Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority - The Australian Curriculum</p> <p>Science Humanities and Social Sciences Cross Curriculum PrioritiesScience Understanding Biological sciencesThe growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment.</p> <p>Living things have structural features and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment.</p> <p>Chemical sciencesSolids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways.</p> <p>Earth and space sciencesSudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earths surface.</p> <p>Science as Human Endeavour Nature and development of scienceScience involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena.</p> <p>Use and influence of scienceScientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community decisions.</p> <p>GeographyConcepts for developing understanding</p> <p>The importance of environments to animals and people, and different views on how it can be protected.</p> <p>The use and management of natural resources and waste, and the different views on how to do this sustainably.</p> <p>Sustainability The biosphere, including all life forms, relies on the interdependence of social, economic and ecological systems. We recognise that by valuing and actioning sustainable practices as individuals and communities, we are preserving our environment for the future.</p> <p>Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures The Wadandi people of the Southwest maintain a special relationship with the land, sea, sky and waterways. Their knowledge of the local area is extensive and they have lived in this area for tens of thousands of years. Their language and history are intrinsically linked to local flora, fauna and landscapes.</p> <p>4</p> <p>Topic WebYour visit to Lake Cave can be used as a springboard to explore a range of topics surrounding caves. You might like to consider the following:</p> <p>Your Lake Cave </p> <p>Experience</p> <p>Cave Biologyfauna </p> <p>adaptations stygofauna</p> <p>subterranean fauna</p> <p>Conservationeco tourism</p> <p>cave managementregulations</p> <p>Historyindigenous </p> <p>links to caves Wadandi people</p> <p>European settlementfossils</p> <p>Human Interaction</p> <p>tourismfarming</p> <p>water managementforestry</p> <p>Earth Scienceslimestone </p> <p>lithificationkarst</p> <p>Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridgeclimate change glacial periods plate tectonicsearthquakes</p> <p>Chemistrychemical processes in </p> <p>formation of calcitecarbon dioxide </p> <p>equilibriumcalcium carbonate </p> <p>solution</p> <p>5</p> <p>Teacher Notes on Lake CaveHere are a few points for teachers to know about Lake Cave before studying this topic...</p> <p> Lake Cave is one of over 100 caves located in the south west of Western Australia. It has been open for tourism since 1901 and features a stunning underground lake with an array of pristine cave formations decorating its walls, floors and ceilings.</p> <p> Lake Cave is part of the Leeuwin Naturaliste Ridge, which is a geological structure comprised of very hard and old granite-gniess bedrock, which is covered with a porous layer of limestone made from consolidated sand dunes.</p> <p> It is believed these sand dunes formed during cold, glacial periods when more ice on the poles meant sea levels were lower. During this time strong winds carried sediment and deposited it along the coastline, forming dunes. Later, these dunes became consolidated during warmer, wetter periods.</p> <p> The cave systems in the base of the limestone are formed by underground waterways eroding through the porous rock. This water is sourced from inland streams and catchments, and is often able to pass rather easily through this highly interconnected system of caves, sink holes, solution pipes and fractures. This type of landscape is commonly known as Karst. </p> <p> These cave systems play an integral part in transporting water and nutrients to the trees and plants in the forest, which in turn supports the ecosystems on the surface. In addition to this, the caves and groundwater support a unique set of cave fauna, some of which have completely adapted to suit the dark, energy-poor, underground environment.</p> <p> These troglofauna and water dependent stygofauna as they are known, have in some cases been isolated underground for potentially millions of years, evolving and adapting to suit their environment. Some Western Australian species closest relatives are found on the other side of the world and are possibly related from 100 million years ago before the separation of the Gondwanan continent.</p> <p> Because these species have been living in isolation and in such a stable yet energy-poor environment, they are particularly sensitive to change, such as pollution, floods, droughts and changes in temperature or humidity. In 2000, Lake Cave supported 23 species of aquatic cave fauna, collectively known as stygofauna. In 2010, due to falling water levels, only six of these species were observed.</p> <p> Groundwater is a valuable commodity in such a dry and arid country as Australia. A large amount of water for industry, agriculture and consumption comes from groundwater reserves. It is important we educate people to look after their waterways and manage these groundwater aquifers to preserve them for the future.</p> <p>6</p> <p>Lake Cave Primary Program Years 4-6Outcomes Descriptions Activities ResourcesScience UnderstandingEarth and space sciences Earths surface changes over time as a </p> <p>result of natural processes and human activity.</p> <p>Science as Human EndeavourNature and development of science Science involves testing predictions </p> <p>by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena.</p> <p>Use and influence of science Scientific knowledge </p> <p>is used to inform personal and community decisions.</p> <p> Collecting evidence of change from local landforms, rocks or fossils.</p> <p> Exploring a local area that has changed as a result of natural processes, such as an eroded gully, sand dunes or river banks.</p> <p> Considering how gathering evidence helps scientists to predict the effect of major geological or climatic events.</p> <p>Vocabulary - Use this activity as a refresher or to familiarise students with the vocabulary for this unit using the Sentence Race activity sheet.</p> <p>To introduce students to the topic of the LNR and the limestone cave system use the Caves of the LNR activity sheet.</p> <p>Use the KWL chart to identify prior knowledge and develop questions focussing on the formation of limestone, caves and the karst environment.</p> <p>Explore the effects of climate change on the development of the LNR using the Slow Climate Change and the Shifting Sands activity sheets as the starting point of your investigation.</p> <p>Take a trip to Conto Beach near Lake Cave to examine the coastal structure of granite-gniess and limestone.</p> <p>Extension activities</p> <p>You might like to further your study by looking into the following;</p> <p> The factors influencing climate change; greenhouse gases and the carbon cycle.</p> <p> Weathering and erosion. Sea level changes around the globe in </p> <p>past times, such as when Australia was land linked to Papua New Guinea.</p> <p> Geological naming periods eg. Cenozoic, Quaternary, Neogene, Holocene.</p> <p>Text:</p> <p>Beneath the Surface: A Natural History of Australian Caves, Finlayson, B. &amp; Hamilton-Smith, E. 2003, University of New South Wales.</p> <p>Online:</p> <p>Weathering and Erosion http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/rocks-minerals-landforms/weathering-and-erosion.htm</p> <p>Quaternary Period http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/quaternary/</p> <p>The Carbon Cycle http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/ecosystems/carbon-cycle.htm</p> <p>Sea Floor Map https://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/marine_geology/</p> <p>Pages 10 - 14 in the Lake Cave Education Program</p> <p>7</p> <p>http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/rocks-minerals-landforms/weathering-and-erosion.htmhttp://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/quaternary/http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/ecosystems/carbon-cycle.htmhttps://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/marine_geology/</p> <p>Lake Cave Primary Program Years 4-6Outcomes Descriptions Activities ResourcesScience UnderstandingChemical sciences Solids, liquids and gases have different </p> <p>observable properties and behave in different ways.</p> <p> Changes to materials can be reversible or irreversible.</p> <p>Earth and space sciences Earths surface changes over time as a </p> <p>result of natural processes and human activity.</p> <p> Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earths surface.</p> <p>Science as Human EndeavourNature and development of science Science involves testing predictions </p> <p>by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena.</p> <p> Exploring the way solids, liquids and gases change under different situations.</p> <p> Investigating the solubility of common materials in water by collecting evidence of change from local landforms, rocks or fossils.</p> <p> Exploring a local area that has changed as a result of natural processes, such as an eroded gully, sand dunes or river banks.</p> <p>Explore the processes of weathering (physical, chemical, biological) and erosion in the formation of caves and karst systems using the How Caves Form activity sheet to illustrate the processes of lithification.</p> <p>Examine chemical weathering in the cave using the Cave Chemistry activity sheet to illustrate the chemical processes which occur in the formation of calcite crystal.</p> <p>Carry out your own cave formation experiment with our Cave Simulation activity sheet.</p> <p>Use the Whats in a Cave activity sheet to familiarise students with the formations they are likely to see on their tour of Lake Cave.</p> <p>Grow your own crystals with our DIY Stalactites and Stalagmites activity sheet.</p> <p>Revisit the KWL chart to consolidate knowledge and present information to the class or teacher.</p> <p>Extension activities</p> <p>You might like to further your study by looking into the following;</p> <p> How common are karst landscapes around the world? There are some amazing and beautiful landscapes!</p> <p> Research the worlds largest, longest caves.</p> <p> Investigate weathering and erosion and how they shape a landscape.</p> <p>Text:</p> <p>Beneath the Surface: A Natural History of Australian Caves, Finlayson, B. &amp; Hamilton-Smith, E. 2003, University of New South Wales.</p> <p>Online:</p> <p>Weathering and Erosion http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/rocks-minerals-landforms/weathering-and-erosion.htm</p> <p>Pages 12 &amp; 15 - 19 in the Lake Cave Education Program</p> <p>8</p> <p>http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/rocks-minerals-landforms/weathering-and-erosion.htm</p> <p>Lake Cave Primary Program Years 4-6Outcomes Descriptions Activities ResourcesScience UnderstandingBiological sciences Living things have structural features </p> <p>and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment.</p> <p> The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment.</p> <p>Earth and space sciences Earths surface changes over time as a </p> <p>result of natural processes and human activity.</p> <p> Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earths surface.</p> <p>Science as Human EndeavourUse and influence of science Scientific knowledge is used to inform </p> <p>personal and community decisions.GeographyConcepts for developing understanding The importance of environments to </p> <p>animals and people, and different views on how they can be protected.</p> <p> The use and management of natural resources and waste and the different views on how to do this sustainably.</p> <p> The environmental and human influences on the location and characteristics of a place and the management of spaces within them.</p> <p> Collecting evidence of change from local landforms, rocks or fossils.</p> <p> Exploring a local area that has changed as a result of natural processes, such as an eroded gully, sand dunes or river banks.</p> <p> Considering the effects of drought on living and non-living aspects of the environment.</p> <p> Exploring how science has contributed to a discussion about an issue such as loss of habitat for living things or how human activity has changed the local environment.</p> <p> Exploring strategies to protect particular environments that provide habitats for animals.</p> <p> Identifying some of the resources produced by the environment and where they come from.</p> <p> Exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time and the impact of change on ecosystems.</p> <p> Investigating a current local planning issue (for example, redevelopment of a site, protection of a unique species), exploring why people have different views on the issue, and developing a class response to it.</p> <p>Discuss the statement below and int...</p>