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  • Applied mathematics in Engineering, Management and Technology 2 (5) 2014:120-127

    www.amiemt-journal.com

    120

    Abstract

    Educational management has become more varied and complex in terms of

    the theory than ever. Theorists in educational management area currently

    attempt to give an identity to educational management as an independent

    field and promote status of this field in comparison with other fields in

    management area. In the current work, Tony Bush's classification for

    educational management theories, conceptual pluralism, leadership abilities,

    leadership and roles, transformational leadership and transactional

    leadership are addressed. Leithwood's theories in educational leadership,

    transformational leadership, leadership traits influence on learning and

    leadership culture and theory are also discussed. Finally, Kowalski's views,

    Distributed leadership and conflict management in distributed leadership are

    investigated.

    Keywords: Educational Leadership, Educational Management, Theory

    1.Introduction

    Educational management is a social process which coordinates and organizes all human resources by

    application of technical, scientific, and artistic skills and helps achieving educational goals by fulfillment of

    logical personal and collective needs of the teachers, students, and the staffs .according to Alaghemand,

    management is developing and preserving such environment in which individuals are able act effectively and

    efficiently to achieve specific goals. CambleWilner considers educational management and leadership as a

    process aiding improvement of education and calls any action which steps forward the teacher as educational

    leadership. Management is a science and utilizes scientific theories, knowledge, and principles. Management is

    a technique; i.e. it includes practical abilities which mainly refer for occupational environmental and

    professional aspects. Generally speaking, management skill means gaining sophistication required to apply

    knowledge, the art and technique of management which is acquired throughrepetition and practice and training.

    What is management skill in the school as an educational organization? What are goals of an educational

    organization? Educational organization's goals enerally include development of self-leadership, cognitive and

    personality development of the student, creating a continuous learning and application of knowledge to serve

    society and reform.

    Aiding achievement of education goals, establishing coordination among all resources and activities of the

    educational organization and helping improvement and modification of the education flow, helping

    organization members in better understanding of the goals, guiding and supporting organization's members,

    creating opportunity for creativity, understanding the needs and problem solving, aiding discovery and

    occurrence of talents of the students are among basic goals of educational management in school.

    Education organization's goals are wide with various aspects. It does not bring in quick outcome and

    result.Sense of responsibility, duty, work ethics, etc. is highly important in the organization and lead to more

    competition. Education is associated to the beliefs and values and it is regarded as a social activity. Its working

    ground is a social, educational, and cultural affair. In a social activity it is not possible to recognize the

    deficiencies properly and it needs time. For example, if you give a directive to the principal or teachers, they

    can act according to their own standards. In this case, the task of principal is heavier because the shortcomings

    cannot be properly identified.

    2.Theory and Practice in Educational Management in Bush's Perspective

    Educational Management and Leadership

    Azam Ashouri*1

    1Administration of Sherafate Eftekhar Guidance School, District 1 of Arak's Ministry of Education, Arak, Iran.

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    Educational management is a theoretical and practical area related to the educational organizations. Of course,

    considering various logical perspectives in this regard, there is no single comprehensive definition. Instead of

    defining educational management, Bush (2003) refers to five major functions of educational management:

    - Setting goals (direction, goals, objectives) - Planning for achievement of the position - Organizing resources (staff, time, facilities, equipment) - Inhibiting the process (assessment of success and the selection and planning reform) - Adjusting and improving organizational measures Bush's Classification of Educational Management Theories

    Bush (2003) classified management theories and leadership theories into five major models. As observed in

    Table 1, management models are classified into five classes; formal, political, collegial, subjective and

    ambiguity- cultural models, and classified leadership models into five models, managerial, participative,

    transactional, postmodern and contingency - moral.

    Table 1. Bush's Classification of educational management and leadership theories

    Management Model Leadership Model

    Formal Managerial

    Collegial Participative

    Political Transactional

    Subjective Postmodern

    ambiguity- cultural contingency moral

    These models will be described in the following.

    2.1.Formal Models

    These models include theories which emphasize formal and structural elements of the organizations. Formal

    models assume that the organizations are hierarchies in which managers are the rational tools for realization of

    predetermined organizational goals. In these models, the managers obtain their authorities through formal

    positions. The major features of these models include:

    - They tend to treat organizations as systems. - They adhere to the formal structures and hierarchies. - Managerial decision making is done through the logical processes (Bush, 2003; Bush, 2007).

    2.2.Collegial Models

    These models cover the theories which emphasize participatory and collaborative power and decision making.

    In these models, the organization adopts policies and decisions through discussion which leads to collective

    agreement (Bush, 2003; Bush, 2007).

    2.3.Political Models

    Political models include theories which describe decision making as a bargaining process. The main emphasis

    in these models is on distribution of power, influence, bargaining and negotiation between interest groups.

    Thus, conflict is inevitable. These models assume that the policy and decision making emerges through Process

    of negotiation and bargaining. In addition that conflict and differences are considered as natural, the power is in

    hands of the stakeholder parties rather than formal leaders (Bush 2003; Bush, 2007).

    2.4.Subjective Models

    Subjective models mostly emphasize individuals rather than the whole organization or its units. This approach

    suggests that each individual has selective mentality and perception about the organization. There are different

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    meanings for situations and events for the individuals in the organizations. Organizations are regarded as

    complex units in this theory which contain various meaning and perceptions of the individuals. In this theory,

    organizations are social constructions which are developed from interaction of the individuals. They reflect

    individuals' values and beliefs rather than reflecting realities presented in the formal models (Bush, 2003; Bush,

    2007).

    2.5.Ambiguity Model/Cultural Model

    Ambiguity models emphasize uncertainty and unpredictability in the organization. These theories assume that

    organizational goals are problematic and these organizations have problem in prioritizing the goals. Decision

    making is done in an unpredictable environment and assumption of the ambiguity models is that

    unpredictability and turmoil is dominant in the organizations. There is no transparency in the field of

    organizational goals and their processes are incomprehensible. Ambiguity models were mostly emerged by

    American theorists of the 1970s. (Bush, 2008).

    Leadership models which are corresponding to the managerial models are discussed in this section:

    2.6.Managerial Leadership

    This type of leadership theories are most similar to the formal models, in which functions, tasks, and behaviors

    are emphasized. In addition, it is assumed that behavior of the organization's members is subject to the logic and

    rationality. Authority in this type of leadership originates from formal and hierarchical positions (Bush, 2008;

    Bush, 2007).

    2.7.Participative Leadership

    Participative leadership provides participation and collaboration opportunities for the individuals and receive

    input from the organization's members. These models encourage group members to participation. Such

    approach causes that group members feel they are involved in the working process leading to increasing their

    motivation and creativity.

    2.8.Transactional Leadership

    The main focus in this type of leadership is on the process of transaction between the leader and follower.

    Leader and follower may influence each other according to the benefit they receive from mutual transaction. In

    other words, leaders give what the followers want and they expect their followers fulfill their demands.

    2.9.Postmodern Leadership

    Bush (2007) refers to main features of the postmodernism school in educational management:

    1- In postmodernism, beliefs and perceptions of the organization's members are mainly focused rather than organizational or group level interests. Dealing with the individuals instead of the organization itself is the main

    difference between this school and other ones.

    2- Postmodernism is focused on various meanings of the different phenomena and events for the individuals present in the organization. Thus, it stresses interpretation of the individuals' personal behaviors

    rather than the situations and phenomena.

    3- Different meanings of the individuals from different situations are influenced by the individuals' values, experiences, and background. Hence, interpretations of a specific situation are influenced by the beliefs of the

    individuals in the organization.

    4- In this school, the structure is mainly constructed by the human interactions rather than being a fixed and predetermined phenomenon. Organizational charts which may be salient feature of the other schools, is

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    considered a fake thing in this school which lacks capability of predicting individuals' behavior. Thus, instead

    of focus on the structure, behaviors and their processes are focused in this school.

    5- This school emphasizes personal goals and denies organizational goals. The organizations are constructed by the members' interactions which naturally create an assumption. Thus, individuals are the

    ultimate goal, not the organizations and their goals.

    3.Educational Leadership in Leithwood's Perspective

    The most common conceptualization about educational leadership is related to Hollinger (2003) which suggests

    three aspects for this type of leadership: Defining the school's mission, curriculum management, and

    strengthening the positive atmosphere of learning at the school level. Hollinger shows ten functions of an

    educational manager. Findings indicate a few number of the managers in real world achieve educational

    leadership. The problem with educational leadership is that the manager is not an educational expert in most

    schools. In addition, there are managers who consider their role as an administrative role and thus they distance

    from the class environment deliberately. In most cases, the managers are less specialized than the teachers

    under their supervision. Considering the fact that administrative authority of the managers is very limited due to

    having intermediate management position, this concept gets more complex. The final authority and power is in

    the hand of regional and district top management in most educational systems. The reality in the educational

    systems is that managers are put in between expectations of the teachers, parents and top management team and

    social members in terms of policy. The main challenge for most managers is dealing with numerous

    stakeholders of the educational system so that they have to create a balance among diverse and often conflicting

    demands of different social groups. Delegation of authority and decentralization deviates management attention

    away from the technical core of schools. Many school managers have been so soaked in the daily managerial

    and administrative tasks of the schools which rarely have time for leadership in the field of teaching and

    learning.

    Although the main leadership functions are leading and ability to influence, different application of these

    functions leads to success or failure of the leadership in schools. Differences between successful and

    unsuccessful managers depend on the leadership preferences or styles, organizational environment conditions,

    internal processes of the leaders (cognitive processes, attitudes, values and beliefs), cultural norms and

    expectations of the leader. Many scholars attempt to depict successful and effective aspects within the models

    (Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins, 2008). Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins (2008) classify main activities of the

    educational leadership in three classes including:

    - Setting Directions The major aspect of educational leadership is helping members of the group to develop a shared understanding

    about the organization and its goals which promotes sense of purposefulness and having ideals for them.

    Significance of setting necessary and consecutive directions by the leaders is often stressed in the goal-oriented

    theories in the field of human motivation. According to these theories, individuals are stimulated for goals

    which are compelling, challenging but achievable (Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins, 2008).

    - Developing People Although clear and compelling organizational directions cause arousal of people for fulfillment, these directions

    are not the sufficient condition for determining the duties and job description and eventually achieving

    organizational goals. Nurturing the capabilities is the prerequisite of the staff productivity and motivation for

    realization of the goals (Leithwood, Harris and Hopkins, 2008).

    - Redesigning the Organization Successful educational managers continuously develop their school as an effective organization so that they

    improve performance of the teachers, students, and managers. This group of activities of the educational leaders

    was developed under influence of organizational learning and professional learning theory to help students'

    learning and professional promotion of the teachers. This group of tasks fo...

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