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Educating Students Holistically

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2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved

Educating Students HolisticallyRichard Dettling MSHRM, PHRA| February 4, 2012

**Holism in EducationHegels SpiritualityHigher-Eds Pragmatic ProblemFamiliarize ParticipantsStudent development theory Perrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical DevelopmentReflective RecollectionOne-minute papersTeam reflective papersJournalsInterviewsPostersGoals of the Reflective Recollection

University of PhoenixWorkshop GoalsEducating Students Holistically

Page* 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved

Holism in EducationHegels SpiritualityHigher-Eds Pragmatic Problem

**

Hegels Philosophy on SpiritualityGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, notable 18th century philosopher who wrote Phenomenology of SpiritA connectedness to yourself and to others. Spirituality is personal, but it is also rooted in being connected with others and with the world around you. Spirituality can only be achieved a group settingChurch, stadium, classroom, concerts, community events*(Edwards, 1972)*

Holism in EducationAll things are part of an indivisible unity or wholeThere is an intimate connection between the individual's inner or higher self and this unityIn order to see this unity we need to cultivate intuition through contemplation and meditation.*Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)*(Gardner, 2009).

Higher-Eds Pragmatic ProblemIndividualisticcreates competitionfuture ethical and moral issuesResults orientedTell me what I need to know to solve the problemTeaching to the test having a Test-centric mentality

*Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)*

Page* 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved

Familiarize ParticipantsStudent Development TheoryPerrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development

Student Development TheoryStudent development is about becoming a more complex individual

Student development is characterized as the way a student grows, progresses, or increases his or her developmental capabilities as a result of enrollment in an institution of higher education*Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)*(Gardner, 2009).

Perrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development**

Perrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development*University of Phoenix*William Graves Perry Jr. (1913 1998)William Perrys scheme of intellectual development.

This scheme identifies a sequence of approaches to learning.

The Perry positions that we will discuss include: DualismMultiplicityRelativism

Three broad categoriesDualism:There only right & wrong answersTeachers job is to teach them right answers, and the students job is to recall them from memoryMultiplicity:Everyone is entitled to their own opinionThere are right ways and wrong ways to find answers; its the students job is to support opinionsRelativism:Answers are relative to a background context;Most study different contexts, see things from different perspectives and come to a reasoned decision about answers.*(Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)*

Dualism/Received KnowledgeAll knowledge is received from a legitimate authority: Teacher, Parent, PastorDualityThe authority has the answer.There is a right answer to questionTeacher knows right and wrong answer.Students learn the right answer from authority/teacherStudents are the receiver of knowledge and must demonstrate recollection of knowledge

*(Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Chickering, Dalton, & Stamm, 2006)*

Dualism/Received Knowledge*(Rapaport, 2011)*

Multiplicity/Subjective KnowledgeDiversity of opinions and values is recognized as legitimate in areas where right answers are not yet known. There are multiple conflicting answers.MultiplicityTeacher/Authority does not have the answer, but someone is working on finding the answerStudent begin to trust self and explore finding the right answer.Where the teacher/authority doesnt have the answer, everyone has the right to their own opinion. No wrong answer.Teacher/Authority does not want the right answer. Wants the student to think a certain way.Most Freshman should be around this stage**(Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)

Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge*(Rapaport, 2011)*

*(Rapaport, 2011)

*

Relativism/Procedural KnowledgeDiversity of opinion, values and judgment derived from coherent sources, evidences, logics, systems, and patterns allowing for analysis and comparison.RelativismAll proposed solutions must be supported by reasonsthey must be viewed in context and relative to their supportEverything is relative but not equally validThere are no right or wrong answers, it depends on the situation, but some answers might be better than others.All answers must be support and put into context.Peers are legitimate sources of learning if they follow rules of adequacy.**(Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)

**Relativism/Procedural Knowledge(Rapaport, 2011)

Students Make Their Own MeaningWhen A teacher says:Today well learn 4 different ways to gain a competitive advantage in business. A student thinks:Dualist Which is the correct one? Why bother with the wrong ones?Multiplist - Only 4? Gee, I can think of a dozen! Relativist What ethics underlie each of them? Which is the most efficient competitive advantage ?*(Rapaport, 2011)*

*(Furman University, 2012; Goodreads, 2012) *It is not knowledge, but the act of learning, not possession but the act of getting there, which grants the greatest enjoyment.The search for truth is more precious than its possession.Karl Friedrich Gauss, Letter to BolyaiAlbert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions

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Reflective RecollectionIdeas to Encourage Reflective Recollection

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Reflective RecollectionReflective Recollection is a process or a tool used in the classroom at the end of a chapter, unit, or week.Encourages students to think at a higher levelStudents will often see themselves as part of a group, connected with othersNot as an individual Used to move students from Dualistic thinking to Multiplicity thinkingThe more often Reflective Recollection is used the earlier the student becomes a critical thinker / relativism.

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Use a One-Minute AssessmentAllows instructors to ask questions and collect responses on-the-spot.Involves asking students to respond to a couple of questions to help the instructor evaluate the classQuestions should focus on current student learning and how this relates to the world around them.

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Use Team Reflective PapersReflective team papers document students learning processes during a class.Allows students to be part of a group and how their reflections influence each of the students within the groupA summary of common themesIdentify and describe personal insights, moments of critical questioning, and comments or ideasWhat effect do they have and what dilemmas, questions, or possibilities do they raise? How do these issues affect the clarity, order, confusion, or chaos of your thinking? How will you explore these issues further?

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Use JournalsGives the student the opportunity to reflect on their own learning and experiences in the classGreat way to uncover the internal journey of each studentIn some cases, the personal journey of each student may be more significant than the teacher can observe from the outside.

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Use InterviewsConducted with instructor asking questions and the student respondingDevelop a set of questions that covers specific objectivesConsider structured questions requiring a specific response and open-ended questions that allow for detailed answers.

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Use Posterswww.Wordle.comAssess holistic thinking from student individual and group research projects Creation of an individual poster/brochure or team poster/brochure as a weekly assessment to primarily ensure weekly objectives are understood.A poster presentation guides the student through the basics of the study, freeing the presenter to focus on discussion of essential elements of the work. Decisions about poster format and design contribute to efficient and accurate transfer of information using this medium

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

Page* 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved

Goals of Reflective RecollectionSubtitle here

Theory to Practice Understand students development levelLet them try their wingsSupport the journey of self discoveryEngage the students in the process of their own educationFacilitate holistic learning environments **

Theory to Practice Moral development involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standard of right and wrongMoral development consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensionsThe transformations that occur in a persons form or structure of thought with regard to what is viewed as right or necessary

*(Evans et al, 1998 )*

Wrap-UpMany students only think in individualistic and dualistic terms when they graduate high schoolStudents should be holistic and multiplistic thinkers when entering collegeUsing Reflective tools and methods will facilitate students to be holistic and multiplistic thinkers **

**www.slideshare.net/profrichdett

*Page 2011 University of Phoenix | All rights reserved |

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