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Page 1: EDITORIAL BOARD - intra.lipi.go.id
Page 2: EDITORIAL BOARD - intra.lipi.go.id

EDITORIAL BOARD

Chief Editor

Vivian New Chia Yeung

Malaysia

Assistant Editor

Kimberley Rinai

Malaysia

Associate Editors

Prem Narayan Paudel

Kathmandu University

Nepal

Nasreldin Elhadi

University of Dammam

Saudi Arabia

Nikos Tzortzakis

Cyprus University of Technology

Cyprus

Pin Kar Yong

Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)

Malaysia

Chim Chay

University of Agriculture

Cambodia

Le Van Viet Man

Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology

Viet Nam

Oscar Herrera-Calderon

Universidad Nacional Mayor de San

Marcos

Peru

Hasmadi Mamat

University Malaysia Sabah

Malaysia

Regiane Ribeiro dos Santos

Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro

Brazil

Koh Soo Peng

Malaysian Agricultural Research and

Development Institute (MARDI)

Malaysia

Dinko Hristov Dinko

Trakia University

Bulgaria

Giuseppe Sortino

University of Palermo

Italy

Associate Editors

Borarin Buntong

Royal University of Agriculture

Cambodia

Dwaipayan Sikdar

University of Chittagong

Bangladesh

Saisamorn Lumyong

Chiang Mai University

Thailand

Hanifah Nuryani Lioe

Bogor Agricultural University

Indonesia

Michelle Galindo de Oliveira

Federal University of Pernambuco

Brazil

Alper Sener

Onzekiz Mart University

Turkey

Angelo Maria Giuffrè

Mediterranea University of Reggio

Calabria

Italy

Javier Garcia-Lomillo

University of Burgos

Spain

Laura Marcela Zárate Polanco

National University of Colombia-Bogotá

Colombia

Swapan K. Banerjee

HPFB Health Canada,

Canada

Adel Abu Bakr Abd El-Hamid Shatta

Suez Canal University

Egypt

Iddya Karunsagar

Nitte University

India

Associate Editors

Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi

Ishikawa Prefectural University

Japan

Rungsinee Sothornvit

Kasetsart University,

Thailand

Ekachai Chukeatirote

Mae Fah Luang University

Thailand

Saroat Rawdkuen

Mae Fah Luang University

Thailand

Giovanna Giacalone

Università di Torino

Italy

Lorina Acilo Galvez

Visavas State University

Philippines

Sergio Soto Simental

Universidad Autónoma del Estado de

Hidalgo

Mexico

Fernando Cebola Lidon

Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Portugal

Linda Lim Biaw Leng

Universiti Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam

J.M. Krishanti Jayarukshi Kumari

Premarathne

Wayamba University of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Katherine Ann T. Castillo-Israel

University of the Philippines Los Banos

Philippines

Steve Flint

Massey University

New Zealand

COPYRIGHT © 2016 - 2021 RYNNYE LYAN RESOURCES

HOME VIEW ARTICLES VIEW ISSUES FOR AUTHORS FOR REFEREES ABOUT THE JOURNAL

Page 3: EDITORIAL BOARD - intra.lipi.go.id

2

FOOD RESEARCHVolume 5, Issue 2

April 2021 (In progress)

Search

Review

Abbas reviewed the antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of (L.) Urb. for the treatment of

Alzheimer's disease.

Mini Review

Cortes-Sanchez reviewed and its association in food, fish and tilapia.

Rohini reviewed on polysaccharide as wound healing agents.

Romulo reviewed the impact of high-pressure processing treatment of microbial inactivation of seafood.

Tay developed flaked breakfast cereal incorporated with banana pulp and peel and optimized the processing parameters and

formulation using response surface methodology

Wulan studied the sensitivity of enrichment-PCR method for serovar Typhimurium and

serovar Enteritidiz analysis in chicken carcasses.

Song studied on the antioxidant effects of green tea extracts on the lipid oxidation of half-dried eels.

Dewi studied on the potentiality of corncobs ( ) fraction as tyrosinase inhibitor and natural antioxidant in vitro.

The assessment of major requirements for accessing credit among paddy farmers in Jigawa state, Nigeria was studied by Datti .

Salbi . optimized flavonoid-rich Quranic Mixed Food (QMF) formulation with simplex-centroid mixture design.

The antibacterial activity of taro ( a L.) leaves extracts and the application of the microbial population on sardine

( s Val.) was studied by Padzil

Latchumaya . assessed the bacteriological quality and O157: H7 in ready-to-eat street food.

The drying kinetics and quality of tray dried peanut milk residue was studied by Sanika

The eating behaviours of normal and overweight female undergraduate students in positive and negative emotions were studied by

Sidek

Anati studied the specific activity and molecular weight of African catfish ( ) visceral protease purified at

different stages

The effect of different levels of ozone and ozonized water on the biogenic amines in broiler chicken meat analysed using HPLC was

studied by Zakeri

Winarsi studied the possibility of polyphenol rich mung bean ( ) yogurt for obesity prevention.

Khairil-Shazmin . evaluated the somatype, dietary intake and blood pressure among female students in Universiti Malaysia

Terengganu (UMT) Malaysia.

The biochemical and molecular characterization of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mart. Sap in

Burkina Faso were studied by Zongo

The physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of ciku fruit ( ) pastilles were studied by Hashim

Minweyelet studied the effects of extrusion operating conditions and blend proportion on the physico-chemical and sensory

properties of -rice blend extruded products

Irnawati studied the adulteration of Gabus ( ) fish oil with corn oil and palm oil using FTIR spectra and chemometrics

Al-Kuraieef studied on the effect of incorporation of irradiated sunflower flour on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of

biscuits during the storage period.

Tang optimized the response surface methodology on corncob pretreatment to reduce the usage of sodium hydroxide and

enhance HC biobleaching efficiency pulpzyme.

The effect of mono and diglyceride medium chain fatty acid on the stability of flavour emulsion was studied by Jadhav

Matamane evaluated the phytochemical analysis, total flavonoid, total phenolic contents and ferric reducing power of extracts

from leaves and stem bark of .

The physicochemical characterics of resistant starch type V (RSV) of manggu cassava starch ( ) was studied by

Faridah

Mpopo studied the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging activity of the extracts from roots and leaves of

Rahman developed a novel practice to produce safe and healthy dry fish using irradiated chitosan coating

The analysis of candlenut oil as an adulternat in a quarternary mixture system of functional oils using FTIR spectroscopy and

chemometrics was studied by Riyanta

Kurniadi . studied the chemical characteristics of mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grain varieties from the effects of

different urea fertilizer dose

The organic acid composition and consumer acceptability of fermented fish from black tilapia ( ) and

Javanese carp ( ) using natural and acid-assisted fermentation were studide by Ezzat

Mustafidah performed an analysis to authenticate milkfish oil using the combination of FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

Al Zhrani studied the protective effect of moringa-based beverages against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in type 2

diabetes-induced rats.

The quantitation and optimization of β-carotene and α-tocopherol in emulsion prototype with reversed-phase chromatography was

studied by Rohmah

Rahajeng studied on the colchicine-induced mutation for new line development of tropical maize ( L.)

Ivanova . studied the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cow's milk Kashkaval cheese ripened at

different temperatures.

Anandito . modified an ingredient to improve nutrition of Indonesian made of nile and soy as a source of protein.

Vuletić . determined the spectrophotometry of caffeine in teas, soft and energy drinks available in the Croatian market.

Peralta studied on the microbial and metabolite profiles of spontaneous and adjunct-inoculated cacao ( L.)

fermentation.

A review of antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of (L.) Urb. for

the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Abbas, S., Latif, M.S., Shafie, N.S., Ghazali, M.I., Abidin, N.A.Z., Mustafa, M.K. and Kormin, F.

Available Online: 27 DECEMBER 2020

Centella asiatica PDF (536KB)

Download File

et al. Centella asiatica

food, fish and tilapia

Cortés-Sánchez, A.D.J.

Available Online: 31 JANUARY 2021

Helicobacter pylori, PDF (432KB)

Download File

Helicobacter pylori

Polysaccharides as wound healing agent: a mini review

Rohini J., Wan Ezumi M.F. and Rabeta M.S.

Available Online: 13 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (367KB)

Download File

et al.

The impact of high-pressure processing treatment on microbial inactivation of seafood – a

review

Romulo, A.

Available Online: 13 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (352KB)

Download File

et al.

Development and optimization of flaked breakfast cereal processing parameters and

formulation, incorporated with banana pulp and peel, using response surface methodology

Tay, H.X., Kuan, C.H., Chong, G.H., New, C.Y. and Son, R.

Available Online: 21 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (601KB)

Download File

et al.

Sensitivity of enrichment-PCR method for serovar Typhimurium and

serovar Enteritidis analysis in chicken carcasses

Wulan, H.A., Nurjanah, S. and Rahayu, W.P.

Available Online: 21 FEBRUARY 2021

Salmonella enterica

Salmonella enterica

PDF (457KB)

Download File

et al. Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica

Antioxidant effects of green tea extracts on lipid oxidation of half-dried eels

Song, H.S.

Available Online: 21 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (328KB)

Download File

Potential of corncobs ( ) fraction as tyrosinase inhibitor and natural antioxidant in

vitro

Dewi, I.K., Pramono, S., Rohman, A. and Martien, R.

Available Online: 27 FEBRUARY 2021

Zea mays PDF (766KB)

Download File

et al. Zea mays

Assessment of major requirements for accessing credit among paddy farmers in Jigawa state,

Nigeria

Datti, M.I., Said, R., Ismail, N.W. and Abd. Rahman, A.

Available Online: 27 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (390KB)

Download File

et al

Optimizing flavonoid-rich Quranic Mixed Food (QMF) formulation with simplex-centroid

mixture design

Salbi, N.M., Muhammad, N. and Abdullah, N.

Available Online: 27 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (555KB)

Download File

et al

Antibacterial activity of taro ( L.) leaves extracts against

and and its effect on microbial population in sardine (

Val.)

Padzil, K.N.M, Ayob, N.M, Alzabt, A.M. and Rukayadi, Y.

Available Online: 27 FEBRUARY 2021

Colocasia esculenta Staphylococcus

aureus Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sardinella

longiceps

PDF (421KB)

Download File

Colocasia esculent

Sardinella longicep et al.

Assessment of bacteriological quality and O157: H7 in the ready-to-eat street

food

Latchumaya, S.R., Hameed, M.N.S.S., Arkappan, P., Sreedharam, R.J. and Sandrasaigaran, P.

Available Online: 27 FEBRUARY 2021

Escherichia coli PDF (328KB)

Download File

et al Escherichia coli

Drying kinetics and quality of tray dried peanut milk residue

Sanika, B., Poojitha, P., Gurumoorthi, P. and Athmaselvi, K.A.

Available Online: 21 FEBRUARY 2021

PDF (697KB)

Download File

et al.

Eating behaviours of normal and overweight female undergraduate students in positive and

negative emotions

Sidek, S., Mat Hassan, N.A.A., Hamirudin, A.H., Mohd. Abu Bakar, W.A. and Irfan Unal, T.

Available Online: 7 MARCH 2021

PDF (352KB)

Download File

et al.

African catfish ( ) visceral protease: its specific activity and molecular weight

at different purification stages

Anati, N.J., Siti Roha, A.M. and Normah, I.

Available Online: 7 MARCH 2021

Clarias gariepinus PDF (463KB)

Download File

et al. Clarias gariepinus

The effect of different levels of ozone and ozonized water on biogenic amines in broiler

chicken meat by HPLC

Zakeri, A., Farzalipour, O., Kamyar Hidarnejad, K., Ahangar Parvin, P. and Sadeghpour, S.H.

Available Online: 7 MARCH 2021

PDF (337KB)

Download File

et al.

Polyphenol rich mung bean ( ) yogurt for obesity prevention

Winarsi, H., Agustia, F.C., Ramadhan, G.R., Zaki, I., Putri, W.A.K., Sulistyaning, A.R., Farida, F. and

Sari, H.P.

Available Online: 7 MARCH 2021

Vigna radiata PDF (371KB)

Download File

et al. Vigna radiata

Evaluation of somatotype, dietary intake and blood pressure among female students in

Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Malaysia

Khairil-Shazmin, K., Siti Hajar, R., Asma, A., Hayati, M.Y. and Wan Manan, W.M.

Available Online: 7 MARCH 2021

PDF (449KB)

Download File

et al

Biochemical and molecular characterization of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria isolated from

Mart. sap in Burkina Faso

Zongo, O., Zongo, U., Cissé, H., Kagambèga, B., Tarnagda, B., Muandze Nzambe, J.U., Sawadogo, A.,

Tapsoba, F., Zongo, C., Traoré, Y. and Savadogo, A.

Available Online: 7 MARCH 2021

Borassus aethiopum

PDF (702KB)

Download File

Borassus aethiopum

et al.

Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of ciku fruit (Manilkara zapota)

pastilles

Hashim, N.H., Mohd Zin, Z., Zamri, A.I., Rusli, N.D., Smedley, K.L. and Zainol, M.K.

Available Online: 14 MARCH 2021

PDF (401KB)

Download File

Manilkara zapota et al.

Effects of extrusion operating conditions and blend proportion on the physico-chemical and

sensory properties of -rice blend extruded products

Minweyelet, M., Solomon, W.K. and Bultosa, G.

Available Online: 14 MARCH 2021

teff

PDF (861KB)

Download File

et al.

teff

Adulteration of Gabus ( ) fish oil with corn oil and palm oil: the use of FTIR spectra

and chemometrics

Irnawati, Riyanto, S. and Rohman, A.

Available Online:14 MARCH 2021

Channa striata PDF (609KB)

Download File

Channa striata

Study on the effect of incorporation of irradiated sunflower flour on the physico-chemical and

sensory properties of biscuits during the storage period

Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

Available Online: 14 MARCH 2021

PDF (533KB)

Download File

Response surface methodology optimization study on corncob pretreatment: reduction of

sodium hydroxide usage and enhancement in pulpzyme HC biobleaching efficiency

Tang, T.-K., Lee, Y.-Y., Phuah, E.-T., Tan, C.-P., Kanagaratnam, S., Wang, Y., Cheong, L.-Z., Jamalullail,

N.A., Yap, K.-L., Lee, C.-M., Tan, J.S. and Lai, O.-M.

Available Online: 14 MARCH 2021

PDF (575KB)

Download File

et al.

Effect of mono and diglyceride of medium chain fatty acid on the stability of flavour emulsion

Jadhav, H., Waghmare, J. and Annapure, U.

Available Online: 14 MARCH 2021

PDF (414KB)

Download File

et al.

Phytochemical analysis, total flavonoid, total phenolic contents and ferric reducing power of

extracts from leaves and stem bark of

Matamane, R.P., Magama, S., Pillai, M.K. and Mekbib, S.B.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

Buddleja salviifolia

PDF (367KB)

Download File

et al.

Buddleja salviifolia

Physicochemical characterization of resistant starch type V (RSV) from manggu cassava starch

( )

Faridah, D.N., Andriani, I., Talitha Z.A. and Budi, F.S.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

Manihot esculenta

PDF (937KB)

Download File

Manihot esculenta

et al.

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging activity of extracts from roots and leaves of

Mpopo, M.S., Pillai, M.K. and Mekbib, S.B.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

Searsia burchellii

PDF (300KB)

Download File

et al. Searsia

burchellii.

Novel practice to produce safe and healthy dry fish using irradiated chitosan coating

Rahman, M.L., Barua, R., Jubayer, A.A., Islam, J.M.M., Kamal, A.H.M., Ali, M., Hossain, M.S.,

Rahaman, M.S., Rahaman, M.S., Hossain, M.A., Huque, R. and Khan, M.A.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

PDF (735KB)

Download File

et al.

Analysis of candlenut oil as oil adulterant in three functional oils of soybean oil, sunflower oil

and grapeseed oil in quaternary mixture systems using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

Riyanta, A.B., Riyanto, S., Lukitaningsih, E. and Rohman, A.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

PDF (481KB)

Download File

et al.

The effect of urea fertilizer doses on the chemical characteristics of the Samurai-1, Samurai-2,

and Pahat mutant sorghum ( L.) grain varieties

Kurniadi, M., Nurcholis, M., Roeslan, M., Widodo, R.A, Wiyono, T., Rosyida, V.T, Nurhayati, R.,

Kusumaningrum, A. and Human, S.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

Sorghum bicolor

PDF (494KB)

Download File

et al

Organic acid composition and consumer acceptability of fermented fish produced from black

tilapia ( ) and Javanese carp ( ) using natural and

acid-assisted fermentation

Ezzat, M.A., Ghazali, M.H., Roselina, K. and Zare, D.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

Oreochromis mossambicus Puntius gonionotus

PDF (624KB)

Download File

Oreochromis mossambicus

Puntius gonionotus et al.

Authentication analysis of milkfish fish oil using the combination of FTIR spectroscopy and

chemometrics

Mustafidah, M., Irnawati, I., Lukitaningsih, E. and Rohman, A.

Available Online: 28 MARCH 2021

PDF (986KB)

Download File

et al.

Protective effect of moringa-based beverages against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in

type 2 diabetes-induced rats

Al Zhrani, M.M, Althwab, S.A., Aljutaily, T., Alfheeaid, H.A., Ashoush, I.S. and Barakat, H.

Available Online: 28 MARCH 2021

PDF (638KB)

Download File

et al.

Quantitation and optimization of β-carotene and α-tocopherol in emulsion prototype with

reversed-phase chromatography

Rohmah, M., Rahmadi, A., Yanti, I., Jannah S.M., Bohari and Supratman, U.

Available Online: 3 APRIL 2021

PDF (554KB)

Download File

et al.

Colchicine-induced mutation for new line development of tropical maize ( L.)

Rahajeng, S.M., Sugiharto, A.N. and Wardyati, T.

Available Online: 11 APRIL 2021

Zea mays PDF (604KB)

Download File

et al. Zea mays

Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cow’s milk Kashkaval cheese

ripened at different temperatures

Ivanova, M., Markova, A. and Ivanov, G.

Available Online: 3 APRIL 2021

PDF (420KB)

Download File

et al

Ingredient modification to improve nutrition of Indonesian made of nile and soy as a

source of protein

Anandito, R.B.K., Kawiji., Purnamayati, L. and Maghfira, L.L

Available Online: 11 APRIL 2021

Koya PDF (402KB)

Download File

et al Koya

Spectrophotometric determining of caffeine content in the selection of teas, soft and energy

drinks available on the Croatian market

Vuletić, N., Bardić, L. and Odžak, R.

Available Online: 3 APRIL 2021

PDF (322KB)

Download File

et al

Microbial and metabolite profiles of spontaneous and adjunct-inoculated cacao (

L.) fermentation

Peralta, J.G.B., Elegado, F.B., Simbahan, J.F., Pajares, I.G. and Dizon, E.I.

Available Online: 21 MARCH 2021

Theobroma

cacao

PDF (707KB)

Download File

et al. Theobroma cacao

COPYRIGHT © 2016 - 2021 RYNNYE LYAN RESOURCES

HOME VIEW ARTICLES VIEW ISSUES FOR AUTHORS FOR REFEREES ABOUT THE JOURNAL

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*Corresponding author. Email: [email protected]

eISSN: 2550-2166 / © 2021 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources

FULL PA

PER Food Research 5 (2) : 254 - 261 (April 2021)

Journal homepage: http://www.myfoodresearch.com

The effect of urea fertilizer doses on the chemical characteristics of the Samurai-1, Samurai-2, and Pahat mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grain varieties

1,*Kurniadi, M., 2Nurcholis, M., 2Roeslan, M., 2Widodo, R.A., 1Wiyono, T., 1Rosyida, V.T, 1Nurhayati, R., 1Kusumaningrum, A. and 3Human, S.

Research Unit for Natural Product Technology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (BPTBA LIPI) 1

Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 2The Agriculture faculty of the University of National Development of "Veteran" Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3Center for the application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Jakarta, Indonesia

Article history: Received: 1 September 2020 Received in revised form: 15 October 2020 Accepted: 30 November 2020 Available Online: 21 March 2021 Keywords: Sorghum, Mutant variety, Urea fertilizer, Chemical characteristics DOI: https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.5(2).475

Abstract

This research aimed to determine the influence of various doses of urea fertilizer on the chemical characteristics of mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grain varieties Samurai-1, Samurai-2, and Pahat. A Fully Randomized Factorial Design was used by employing two factors and three replications. The three varieties of mutant sorghum grain served as the first factor while four doses (i.e., 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg/ha) of urea fertilizer administration served as the second factor. The parameters in the chemical test on the sorghum grain include ash, total protein, amylum, reducing sugar, dissolved protein, and tannin contents. The administration of urea fertilizer significantly influenced the increase in the ash, amylum, reducing sugar, and dissolved protein contents of Samurai-1 but did not significantly do so to such contents of Samurai-2 and Pahat. The urea fertilizer dose of 90 kg/ha gave the best results of the chemical composition of the three types of mutant sorghum grain. Chemically, mutant sorghum flour of the three varieties is qualified as a quality food ingredient with Samurai-1 being the best of the three varieties, in that case, possessing total protein content of 7.90%, amylum (or starch) content of 14.51%, dissolved protein content of 2.38%, reducing sugar content of 2.88%, and tannin content of 0.70%.

1. Introduction

Sorghum (also known as Sorghum bicolor L.) has great potential for being grown in Indonesia because of its wide adaptability and high productivity. Sorghum is not a native Indonesian plant species so that its genetic variability in Indonesia is low and the development of programs for its improvement, in that case, is required to support the development of national sorghum (Human, 2010).

Research on the use of sorghum as food has been considerably done by many scientists (Suarni and Singgih, 2002; Sirappa, 2003; Awika and Rooney, 2004; Earp et al., 2004; Awadalkareem et al., 2008; Setiarto and Widhyastuti, 2016; Kurniadi et al., 2019). But specific research on the usage of mutant sorghum as a food ingredient was still little done. Suarni (2017) reports the nutritional content and the tannins in the seeds and flour of several varieties of sorghum. Human (2010) report several chemical characteristics of mutant

sorghum and conventional sorghum.

Some of the main nutrients in sorghum seeds as food ingredients are protein, total carbohydrate, fiber, and fat. Other elements that must be known are starch, dissolved protein, and reducing sugar. Starch (or amylum) is a complex carbohydrate that does not dissolve in water. It is composed of amylose and amylopectin in diverse compositions. Amylose gives it its hard quality while amylopectin causes its sticky quality. A dissolved protein is an oligopeptide or amino acid that is easily absorbed by the digestive system whereas total protein is a measurement of the nitrogen (or N) content in the material. Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose belong to a class of carbohydrates that can reduce electron-accepting compounds, for example. All monosaccharides (such as glucose, fructose, and galactose) and disaccharides (such as lactose and maltose) except sucrose and starch are included as reducing sugars (Winarno, 2008).

Page 5: EDITORIAL BOARD - intra.lipi.go.id

255 Kurniadi et al. / Food Research 5 (2) (2021) 254 - 261

eISSN: 2550-2166 © 2021 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources

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PA

PER

Setiarto et al. (2016) reported that sorghum seeds

could be processed into flour and become beneficial as a material to substitute for wheat flour. Sorghum is known to have no gluten so that sorghum flour is appropriate for consumption by gluten-allergic consumers or celiac sufferers (Schober et al., 2007). The constraint faced in the utilization of sorghum is the low digestibility of the protein in it and the presence of tannin compounds that affect the sensory aspect (sorghum being unpleasant in smell and taste) so that it is uncomfortable to consume. Sorghum protein is considered having a low quality food material because it does not contain lysine amino acid and has little threonine and tryptophan amino acids. Sorghum protein also difficult to digest because the protein is stored in protein bodies that remain intact during cooking (Suarni and Singgih, 2002; Sirappa, 2003).

Some efforts to improve the productivity of sorghum plants have already been done. They are such efforts as using superior varieties, fertilization and setting an optimum planting distance. One of the initiatives that need to be done is giving a supply of nitrogen fertilizer. All this time, urea (or NH2CONH2) is a source of N of the highest level in solid form and is the most important N fertilizer. This fertilizer can also increase the magnitude of protein content in plants and it can be also used for almost all types of plants, starting from food crops through to horticulture and plantation crops (Patola, 2008). Amujoyegbe et al. (2007) reported the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on sorghum chlorophyll content. Keskin et al. (2005) state that the addition of urea and urea molasses could improve the quality of sorghum plant silage.

The standard for sorghum flour quality is not yet available in Indonesia so that anyone concerned still refers to the Codex Standard 173-1989 (FAO, 1995). Working together with the Ministry of Agriculture, The National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (also known as Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional or BATAN, for short) has released three superior sorghum varieties given respectively the names of Pahat (short for Pangan Sehat, which means ‘Healthy Food’), Samurai-1, and Samurai-2 (with Samurai being somehow abbreviated from Sorghum Mutan Radiasi, which means ‘Radiation Mutant Sorghum’). Samurai-1 and Samurai-2 come from the seeds of the Pahat variety which are irradiated at a dose of 300 Gy. The Pahat variety has the advantages, among others, of being able to adapt to the environment on dry land and marginal land (tolerating, in being grown, land with high soil acidity), of being low in tannin content (which is 0.012% in concentration), of the plant having semi-short stems (158 cm long), and of

being potential as a food and animal feed resource. The Samurai-1 plant has a high sugar concentration in the trunk so that it is recommended as a source of bioenergy. Meanwhile, the Samurai-2 plant has the potential of being developed in the food field and its leaves are also good for livestock feed (Wahyono et al., 2014; BATAN, 2016).

Based on the above reasoning, the purpose of the research was to determine the influence of various doses of urea fertilizer administration on the chemical characteristics (ash, total protein, amylum, dissolved protein, reducing sugar, and tannin contents) of mutant sorghum grain varieties called Samurai-1, Samurai-2, and Pahat as food ingredients. It was expected that from this research information about the potential of mutant sorghum seed as a food ingredient would be obtained.

2. Materials and methods 2.1 Location

This research was conducted at the Experimental Garden of the Research Unit for Natural Product Technology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (also known as Balai Penelitian Teknologi Bahan Alam Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia or BPTBA LIPI, for short), Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta, located at the coordinates of 07⁰ 55' 17.3'' South Latitude and 110⁰ 34' 35.7'' East Longitude and having a tropical climate with 2,198 rainfalls/year with an average of 187 days/year of rainfalls.

2.2 Materials

The materials used consisted of mutant sorghum seed varieties of Pahat, Samurai-1, and Samurai-2, urea fertilizer. CuSO4, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), glucose, sodium sulphate, sodium potassium tartrate (also known as Rochelle salt), ammonium molybdate, disodium hydrogen arsenate, bovine serum albumin (or BSA, for short), tannic acid, Folin Ciocalteau reagent, and aquadest (distilled water).

2.3 Land preparation and planting

The preparation includes land excavation and demolition and making planting plots. The planting was done by first digging suitable planting holes in the soil, each of which was then filled with four sorghum seeds and then filled back in with soil. The distance between any two planting holes nearest each other was according to a 40 x 40 cm rectangular planting grid (Figure 1). The doses of urea fertilizer were 0 kg/ha, 30 kg/ha, 60 kg/ha, and 90 kg/ha, given to ten days old plants in accordance with treatment. The urea fertilizer was given at a distance

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of +5 cm from any nearest planting hole. Plant thinning was done when the plants were ten days old, leaving only the two best plants in each planting hole. Plant watering was done every day until the plants reached field capacity. Weeding was done for weed control. The care given during the study included weeding of weeds and replanting when there were plants from the stock of seeds that stopped growing. The ripe sorghum panicles were covered with a plastic bag to prevent bird attacks. The sorghum seed harvest was carried out at the age of 100 days (Winata et al., 2014).

2.4 Sample preparation

The sorghum panicles were dried after harvest in the open air under the sun and then threshing was done. The sorghum seeds were separated from the debris and other foreign matter and then dried in an oven at a temperature of 60°C for 16 hrs. Then grinding with a pin disk mill was done to the dried seeds until we get an 80-mesh size of sorghum flour sample (Setiarto and Widhyastuti, 2016).

2.5 Nutritional value of sorghum flour

The parameters for testing the nutritional value of sorghum flour include the moisture content, measured by using the thermogravimetric method, the ash content, measured by using the dry ashing method, the total protein content, measured by using the Kjeldahl method, the starch content, measured by using the Luff Schoorl method (Latimer, 2016; Abe-Inge et al., 2018), the reducing sugar content, measured by using the Nelson-Samogy method, the dissolved protein content, measured by using the Lowry method (Sudarmadji et al., 1997), and the tannin levels, measured by using the Folin Ciocalteu method (Chaovanalikit and Wrolstad, 2004).

2.6 Design of the experiment

The research concerned here was organized by using

the completely randomized factorial design employing two factors with three replications. The first factor was mutant sorghum variety (represented by V) which was divided into three, namely, V1 representing Samurai-1, V2 representing Samurai-2, and V3 representing Pahat. The second factor is the dose of urea fertilizer which was divided into one control and three treatments, namely, N1 representing a urea dose of 0 kg/ha, N2 representing a urea dose of 30 kg/ha, N3 representing a urea dose of 60 kg/ha, and N4 representing a urea dose of 90 kg/ha. The data obtained were analyzed by using analysis of variance (also known as ANOVA) and, when there was a real influence, continuing with Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test with α of 5% (Kurniadi et al., 2019).

3. Results and discussion 3.1 The effect of urea on ash content

The ash from a food material shows the extent of minerals contained in food ingredients such as calcium, phosphorus, and iron. The results of the test of the ash content are presented in Table 1.

Based on Table 1, it is shown that there is a significant effect on the three varieties at the time of each application of urea fertilizer for each different dose. Sorghum flour contains such minerals as calcium, phosphorus, and iron (Suarni and Singgih, 2002). USDA (2020) states that the maximum ash content of sorghum flour is 1.98%; the test results show that the ash content of the flour made from the three varieties for each application of urea fertilizer and without urea fertilizer is still below 1.98%. Codex Alimentarious (2007) requires a maximum ash content of 3.5%. This shows that the three sorghum flour varieties meet the requirements for good sorghum flour. The ash content is a parameter of the purity of the products, influenced by elements of minerals in the food ingredients. In addition, ash is an oily residue from the combustion process of organic material and each component is generally a smooth and white particle (Winarno, 2008).

Figure 1. Cultivation of mutant sorghum varieties Samurai-1, Samurai-2 and Pahat at the BPTBA LIPI Experimental Garden in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta

Urea dose (kg/Ha)

Sorghum Variety Samurai-1 Samurai-2 Pahat

0 1.73±0.25aA 1.33±0.06aA 1.7±0.1aA

30 1.65±0.26aA 1.25±0.17aA 1.64±0.05aA

60 1.69±0.27aA 1.32±0.01aA 1.87±0.06aA

90 2±0.08aB 1.03±0.05aA 1.42±0.03aAB

Table 1. The analysis result of mutant sorghum flour ash content (%)

Values are expressed as mean±SD. Values with different lowercase superscript within the same column and different uppercase superscript within the same row indicate significant difference using Duncan’s standard test at α = 5%.

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3.2 The effect of urea on protein content

The compounds that have a role in the formation of protein in sorghum are the nutrients Nitrogen (N) and Potassium (K). Nitrogen is a component of DNA and RNA in every plant cell. Nitrogen is mostly needed by plants and is often more efficient than other nutrients. Potassium has a role in the activity of plant biochemical functions by, for example, activating various enzymes and co-enzymes, forming protein, and regulating the opening and closing of stomata so that plants can avoid the effects of drought as well as increase resistance to pests and diseases and do not easily collapse (Syafrudin, 2013). The results of testing the effect of urea on total protein content are presented in Table 2.

Based on Table 2, it is seen that the highest protein content (i.e., 7.9%) is in the Samurai-1 variety with a urea fertilizer dose of 90 kg/ha. The higher the urea dose, the more significant the protein content. Meanwhile, the lowest (i.e., 4.29%) is in the Samurai-2 variety. In the Samurai-1 and Samurai-2 varieties, there is a significant effect of urea use on protein content but it is different for the Pahat variety. These results differ from those reported by Human (2010). The mutant sorghum of the Samurai-1, Samurai-2, and Pahat varieties cultivated in the Banyuwangi and Merauke areas of Papua have a higher protein content, i.e., 12.80%, 12.55%, and 12.07%, respectively. This difference is likely to be due to several different factors, such as soil condition and rainfall.

According to Susila (2005), protein levels are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The protein content of sorghum varies considerably. The fluctuation in sorghum protein content, in general, also affects the composition of its essential amino acids. According to the quality requirements of the Codex Standard 173-1989, the protein content for sorghum with an N minimum value of 25 is 8.5%. From the results of the data in Table 3, it can be said that the protein contents of the three varieties of sorghum have not met

the requirements because the levels are below 8.5%.

Ruan et al. (2016) explained that the final product of urea is in the form of NH4

+ and NO3- ions for absorption

by plants. The more N available to plants, the higher the production of sorghum protein. Althwab et al. (2015) have reported that the protein content of sorghum of several varieties in Indonesia ranges from 7% to 15%. The protein content of sorghum seed flour can be increased by the fermentation process using L. plantarum and S. cereviseae microbes so that it can become a source of functional protein (Setiarto and Widhyastuti, 2016; Kurniadi et al., 2019).

3.3 The effect of urea on amylum content

The level of amylum (or starch) is an important parameter in flour products because it influences the determination of the structure, texture, consistency, and appearance of food products. According to Palavecino et al. (2016), amylum is a form of the main carbohydrate deposit in sorghum, consisting of amylose, which is a glucose polymer of the straight-chain (i.e., without branches) and amylopectin, which is a glucose polymer that has branches. The digestive process of amylum shows the ability of hydrolysis by pancreatic enzymes and determines the energy content available in Cerealia. The test results of the level of amylum are presented in Table 3.

Based on Table 3, the highest starch content was found in the mutant sorghum of the Samurai-1 variety with a urea fertilizer dose of 90 kg/ha and the lowest was in the mutant sorghum of the Pahat variety with a urea fertilizer dose of 0 kg/ha. The effect of urea fertilizer doses was significantly different on the starch content of the Pahat variety but not on that of the Samurai-1 and Samurai-2 varieties. Too low a starch content is not expected in flour-starch products. Carbohydrates consist of monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, and oligosaccharides. Starch is included as a polysaccharide if the starch content that has been analyzed ranges from 8.68% to 12.26%, the remaining 56.4% is another type

Urea dose (kg/Ha)

Sorghum Variety Samurai-1 Samurai-2 Pahat

0 6.67±0.03aA 5.38±0.03aA 7.53±0.85aA 30 7.34±0.05aA 5.4±0.05aA 6.63±0.17aA 60 7.71±0.03aA 5.46±0.05aA 6.68±0.07aA 90 7.9±0.08aA 4.29±0.04aB 6.43±0.58aAB

Table 2. Analysis results of total protein content from mutant sorghum grain (%)

Values are expressed as mean±SD. Values with different lowercase superscript within the same column and different uppercase superscript within the same row indicate significant difference using Duncan’s standard test at α = 5%.

Urea dose (kg/Ha)

Sorghum Variety Samurai-1 Samurai-2 Pahat

0 13.26±0.01aA 11.4±1.08aAB 6.42±0.46aB 30 13.14±0.05aA 12.62±0.44aA 8.11±0.01aA 60 13.11±0.02aA 12.39±0.52aA 10.08±0.12aA 90 14.52±0.07aA 8.86±0.18bA 10.18±0.1aA

Table 3. Analysis results of amylum content from mutant sorghum grain (%)

Values are expressed as mean±SD. Values with different lowercase superscript within the same column and different uppercase superscript within the same row indicate significant difference using Duncan’s standard test at α = 5%.

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of carbohydrate. Sorghum has lower digestibility of starch; steaming, pressure processing, flaking, puffing, or size reduction could increase the digestibility (Susila, 2005; Palavecino et al., 2016). Sorghum is a food source that has a starch content ranging from 65% to 80% (Althwab et al., 2015).

Low levels of starch in sorghum plants can be caused by the absence of additional fertilizers. According to Gardner et al. (2005), if the fertilizer dose is added accordingly, it will affect the vegetative growth of sorghum well so that the food reserves produced will be high in level and can be allocated for seed filling. In addition, the starch content in sorghum can be influenced by environmental factors such as soil, air, sunlight, and genetics (Suarni and Subagio, 2013).

3.4 The effect of urea on reducing sugar content

Included in the group of reducing sugars are glucose, mannose, fructose, lactose, and maltose. The reduced sugars in sorghum are glucose and maltose. The results of testing the effect of urea fertilizer on reducing sugar levels are presented in Table 4.

Based on Table 4, the highest-level content of reducing sugar is of the Samurai-1 variety with the dose of urea fertilizer being 60 kg/ha and the lowest is of the Samurai-2 variety with the dose of urea fertilizer being 60 kg/ha. There is no significant influence from the addition of urea dose on the reducing sugar content of the Samurai-2 and Pahat varieties but there is significant influence from the addition of urea fertilizer doses of 30, 60, and 90 kg/Ha on the reducing sugar content of the Samurai-1 variety.

Urea was known as a nitrogen source for plants. During the utilization of nitrogen-rich material, the plant needs to build nodules on its root. Gibson (1966) reported that the formation of nodules need more carbohydrate. Rufty et al. (1988) also revealed that nitrogen exposure increased leaf dry weight and starch production.

3.5 The effect of urea on dissolved protein content

The value of the dissolved protein content is lower than that of the total protein content. The results of the dissolved protein content test are presented in Table 5.

Based on Table 5, the highest dissolved protein content, namely, 2.38%, was in the Samurai-1 sorghum variety with the urea fertilizer dose of 90 kg/ha and the lowest, namely, 0.39%, was in the Samurai-2 sorghum variety with the urea fertilizer dose of 30 kg/ha. In the Samurai-1 variety, the higher the urea dose, the greater the dissolved protein content; a significant difference in effect was seen among the urea doses of 30, 60, and 90 kg/ha. In the Samurai-2 and Pahat varieties, urea addition was not significantly different in effect on the dissolved protein content.

The difference in dissolved protein content can occur because the solubility of protein is influenced by several factors such as raw material, processing condition, pH, ionic strength, and the presence of other ingredients (Kurniadi et al., 2013). Losing the N element is the same as being without the addition of fertilizer—this condition is due to the addition of urea fertilizer, which contains N, into sorghum plants. The N element in plant tissue is a constituent component of many essential compounds, such as amino acids, proteins, and an enzyme builder (Ruan et al., 2016).

3.6 The effect of urea on tannin levels

Tannins are very complex organic substances that are widely available in various plants and consist of phenolic compounds. Generally, tannins are found in such plant parts as the bark, stems, leaves, and fruit (Pizzi, 2008). The results of the sorghum flour tannin content test are presented in Table 6.

Based on Table 6, overall, there is no significant effect of urea fertilization on the tannin content of sorghum flour. The lowest tannin content, which was between 0.30 and 0.34%, was of the Pahat variety and the highest, which was between 0.55 and 0.70%, was of the Samurai-1 variety. However, in relation to a certain

Urea dose (kg/Ha)

Sorghum Variety Samurai-1 Samurai-2 Pahat

0 2.14±0.08aA 0.98±0.02aA 1.41±0.13aA 30 2.02±0.06aA 0.83±0.01aA 1.53±0.04aA 60 2.49±0.04aB 0.44±0.03aA 1.53±0.09aAB 90 1.82±0.02aA 0.72±0.01aA 1.51±0.21aA

Table 4. Analysis results of reducing sugar content from mutant sorghum grain (%)

Values are expressed as mean±SD. Values with different lowercase superscript within the same column and different uppercase superscript within the same row indicate significant difference using Duncan’s standard test at α = 5%.

Urea dose (kg/Ha)

Sorghum Variety Samurai-1 Samurai-2 Pahat

0 1.66±0.09aA 0.76±0.13aA 1.26±0.11aA 30 1.68±0.08aA 0.39±0.18aA 1.36±0.02aA 60 2.19±0.41aA 0.41±0.23aA 1.31±0.08aA 90 2.38±0.28aA 0.61±0.09aA 1.29±0.07aA

Table 5. Analysis results of dissolved protein from mutant sorghum grain (%)

Values are expressed as mean±SD. Values with different lowercase superscript within the same column and different uppercase superscript within the same row indicate significant difference using Duncan’s standard test at α = 5%.

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case, Human (2010) reported as follows: the tannin contents in the mutant sorghum varieties of Samurai-1, Samurai-2, and Pahat are, respectively, 0.030%, 0.016%, and 0.012%. According to the Codex Standard 173-1989, among the quality requirements for sorghum flour is that the maximum tannin content is 0.3%. At low levels, sorghum tannins react as antioxidants but in high concentrations, they react as antinutrients. Widowati (2010) states that the tannin content of whole sorghum seeds is 3.11% and, after being processed into sorghum flour, the tannin content can decrease to 0.66%.

Red to brown sorghum seeds contain higher tannins than white sorghum ones (Suarni and Singgih, 2002). The tannin content in sorghum is concentrated in the outermost layer of skin; it is proven that the sorghum fusion stage reduces the tannin content by 75%, from the range of 1.82-3.98% to that of 0.36-1.72%, depending on the variety (Suarni and Patong, 2002). Based on the results and discussion above, the sorghum seed flour of the three varieties has met the standard quality parameters determined by the Codex Standard 173-1989 (WHO and FAO, 2007) as the food with the best quality is the Samurai-1 variety.

4. Conclusion

The use of urea fertilizer significantly influences the levels of ash, amylum, reducing sugar, and dissolved protein in the mutant sorghum bean flour variety named Samurai-1 but it does not significantly influence those in the varieties named Samurai-2 and Pahat. The urea fertilizer dose of 90 kg/Ha gives the best results concerning the chemical composition of the three varieties of mutant sorghum grain. Chemically, the three varieties of mutant sorghum flour qualify as quality food with materials of the best quality. The very best of the three, however, is the Samurai-1 variety with total protein content of 7.90%, starch content of 14.51%, dissolved protein content of 2.38%, reducing sugar content of 2.88%, and tannin content of 0.70%.

Conflict of interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of

interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments The research concerned here is a result of

cooperation between the Faculty of Agriculture of UPN “Veteran" Yogyakarta and the Research Unit for Natural Product Technology of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (also known as BPTBA LIPI). The authors express their appreciation of the Faculty of Agriculture of UPN “Veteran" Yogyakarta and BPTBA LIPI, Yogyakarta, for the cooperation.

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Winata, N.A.S., Lukiwati, D.R. and Purbajanti, E.D. (2014). Kualitas Biji Sorgum Manis Varietas Numbu Dengan Pemberian Pupuk Sumber Fosfat yang Berbeda. Agrovivor, 7(1), 63-70. [In Bahasa Indonesia].

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Surat pernyataan status kontribusi penulis

Kami yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, berdasarkan kesepahaman dan kesepakatan atas nilai kontribusi masing-masing terhadap karya tulis yang telah kami buat bersama dengan judul :

“ The effect of urea fertilizer doses on the chemical characteristics of the Samurai-1, Samurai-2, and Pahat mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grain varieties” Yang dipublikasikan pada Food Research Journal 5 (2) : 254 - 261 (April 2021) , terbit pada bulan April 2021 , eISSN: 2550-2166 / © 2021 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.5(2).475. Journal homepage: http://www.myfoodresearch.com Kami secara sadar tanpa paksaan apapun, menyatakan bahwa kontribusi masing-masing terhadap pembuatan karya tulis tersebut di atas adalah sebagai berikut :

No. Nama Penulis Institusi Status Kontributor

1 Muhamad Kurniadi BPTBA LIPI Kontributor Utama 2 M.Nurcholis Fakultas Pertanian UPN “Veteran”

Yogyakarta Kontributor Utama

3. Rifa Nurhayati BPTBA LIPI Kontributor Utama 4. Miseri Roeslan Afany Fakultas Pertanian UPN “Veteran”

Yogyakarta Kontributor Anggota

5. R.A.Widodo Fakultas Pertanian UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta

Kontributor Anggota

6. Tri Wiyono BPTBA LIPI Kontributor Anggota 7. Vita Taufika Rosyida BPTBA LIPI Kontributor Anggota 8. Annisa

Kusumaningrum BPTBA-LIPI Kontributor Anggota

9. S.Human BATAN Kontributor Anggota Demikian pernyataan ini kami buat untuk diketahui oleh semua pihak yang berkepentingan. Yogyakarta, 10 April 2021 Kami yang membuat pernyataan,

No. Nama Penulis Tandatangan

1 Muhamad Kurniadi :

2 M.Nurcholis :

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3. Rifa Nurhayati

:

4. Miseri.Roeslan Afany :

5. R.A.Widodo :

6. Tri Wiyono :

7. Vita Taufika Rosyida

:

8. Annisa Kusumaningrum

:

9. S.Human :