Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance

Download Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting - Presented by Bob Parks, Smart Outdoor Lighting Alliance

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>The Ecological Impact of Artificial Light at Night (LAN)Bob Parks, Executive DirectorSmart Outdoor Lighting</p> <p>March 5, 2015Anthropogenic or man-madeArtificial; not naturalOccurring during natural dark cycleNatural night brightness varies due to moon phase cycle (0.0001 - 0.3 lux at zenith)</p> <p>What is Light at Night?218.7% of Earths surface is subject to artificial brightness of 10% or more above natural61.8% of the United States75% of US population lives under unnatural levels of LANLAN in major cities is typically 100 to 200 times brighter than a natural night sky</p> <p>Light at Night Statistics</p> <p>3</p> <p>4</p> <p>5</p> <p>6</p> <p>7LAN creates winners and losersAttracts and repels Disrupts:ForagingPredationMigrationReproductionCommunication</p> <p>Ecological Impact of LAN</p> <p>JP Stanley8Disruption of foraging patternsIncreases predation riskIncreases mortality on roadsBats fly farther and use more energy to avoid lightsReduces body weight and reproduction in females</p> <p>Mammals </p> <p>9Disrupts natural cycles of reproductive and migrationBirds fly into lighted buildingsOff-shore drilling platforms &amp; towers lighting causes significant attractionHydrocarbon flares attract and incinerate night flying seabirds</p> <p>Birds </p> <p>10Artificial light contributes to an estimated 10 to 40 million bird deaths annually in the United States alone.</p> <p>Birds </p> <p>Jim Richardson 11Diurnal (day) species extend activity and exploit prey attracted to lightsLight attracts breeding frogs, who stop callingLAN has profound impacts on physiology, behavior and development </p> <p>Reptiles &amp; Amphibians</p> <p>12Reduces nesting habitat Females avoid areas near lighted beachesHatching disorientation Crawl towards area with brightest horizonWhich can often be roads or lighted developmentExhaustion/dehydrationIncreases mortalityIncreases predation</p> <p>Sea Turtles</p> <p>Jelga13Fun Fact:Great White sharks have now learned to hunt seals at night using city lights!</p> <p>Fish</p> <p>14Most attracted to white lightIncreases mortality at street lightsConfuses species that use light for communication (Fireflies)Interferes with normal migrationAquatic invertebrates disrupts behavior and increases predation risk</p> <p>Invertebrates</p> <p>15</p> <p>Plants </p> <p>Affects:GerminationLeaf growthFlower developmentFruit developmentLeaf senescenceAbscissionCessation of leaf production16 Circadian DisruptionLAN disrupts immune system suppresses melatonin affects all species of animals and plants Linked to insomnia, obesity, diabetes, ADD, and cancerPhoto ganglion cells have peak sensitivity ~480nm (Blue)</p> <p>Ecological Impact of LAN</p> <p>Jim Richardson17</p> <p>18 Broad Spectrum White LightWhite LEDs start as blueHighest CCD LED is the most efficacious and have the most blue spectral power distribution (SPD)White light improves visibilityHowever, improvement in visibility drops off above 3500K CCT </p> <p>Ecological Impact of LAN</p> <p>19 Broad Spectrum White LightEfficacy vs. Ecological impactAs LED efficacy improves, compromise will become easierGenerally, use lowest CCD to minimize impact; howeverSPD &amp; melanopic lux is best metricMinimizing total lumens in the environment more important</p> <p>Ecological Impact of LAN</p> <p>20</p> <p>LED Spectrum5500 K CCT</p> <p>21</p> <p>LED Spectrum2700 K CCT</p> <p>22Properly Shielded FixturesDirect light to the task areaReduce skyglow and light trespassLight for VisibilityUse just the illumination levels necessary for the taskEliminate glareReducing uniformity may improve visibility by increasing contrast</p> <p>Best Practices for Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting</p> <p>23 Adaptive Controls:Allows dimming to match pedestrian/vehicle traffic illumination requirementsEmploy timers/switches to turn off lighting when no longer neededIncrease energy savings by 50% +Reduce glare, energy costs and CO2Increase fixture life</p> <p>Best Practices for Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting</p> <p>24</p> <p>Tvilight25</p> <p>Tvilight26 SpectrumNarrow-band true amber and phosphor converted PC amber (~590nm) LEDs provide viable replacement for LPS PC amber LED has greater efficacy 70-80 LPW than true amber LED at 35-40 LPWTurtle friendly turns out to be best all around light source for ecologically sensitive areas</p> <p>Best Practices for Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting</p> <p>27</p> <p>LED SpectrumPC Amber</p> <p>28Dynamic Spectral TuningArrays of different LEDs in fixture allow for programming a variety of correlated color temperature (CCT) over timeLocally or remotely controlledProvide white light during peak activity hours for maximum visibility; smooth transition later to lower CCT</p> <p>Best Practices for Ecologically Responsible Outdoor Lighting</p> <p>2980% of outdoor lighting is used for Commercial &amp; Public Exterior Lighting~750 million Outdoor Lighting Fixtures* Worldwide ~160 million Outdoor Lighting Fixtures* in US*Commercial &amp; Public Exterior (Road, Street, Parking + Buildings)</p> <p>World Outdoor Lighting Facts</p> <p>30Total Wasted Energy is approx. 60-70% overall from:Unwarranted (not needed) = 25%Over-lighting (excessive illumination) = 25%Not dimmed or on curfew = 25%Glare =15%Uplight = 10%</p> <p>World Outdoor Lighting Facts</p> <p>31Approx. Wasted Energy = 1.1 PetaWatt Hours AnnuallyThe equivalent output of 500 power plants running 24/7/365Could power ~ 7,750,000 homesProducing 750 million tons of CO2Cost = approximately $110 billion (US dollars)</p> <p>World Outdoor Lighting Facts</p> <p>32Thank youQuestions?</p>