ece 659 fundamentals of semiconductor fabrication (may,sze-2004)

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Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication

Fundamentals of Semiconductor FabricationGARY S. M Y AAlsc.~mlnF~ntta1ri7~1tion d u c r s :also ..~- n -~~~~ tlw m e n f used for nicli nvitcltinr! olwmtion. Tltc r n r r dissipntcd pcr Io*c cntc h a ~ .. . clccrr.lsed I)? over on? million limes sinn. 19%. r?imsro 1 (icl,n\\r l l cmnllmti;~ inerras? oftllr ;tciusl DHA>I rlrrlsih%mas ~ lhr !ria ..&,... ...... . .~~~ "ffint pmlndio,l fWnl ] 9 i i t o 2000. nlr rlrnsi~~incrcscs a factor o f ? c\m. IS ~nontls. by [ftrentk mnti,~,,c, DR,\\I dc~~sit).\~iill incn.:~sc lo 8 Gb in tllr!'car20(Li ;ulrl to 64 Ch nrmllld 1IIe 2012. l?iymrc, s l l m t~l ~eWnentiid incw:se ofnlicmpmswr mlllpat*io~;~l 1.7 r tm,Tr, ~ ~ ~ pP.cr ~ in~n.;srs?, a fador o f ? c, S % yIS nlollt~ls. ~ I, ~ ~ i Cltmnt!\: 3 ~ ~ ~.,.;.,.-1.,1 ,.Y.N,,,,:~I mlnnl,t(.r 1,;~s SB~IPmntpatntionnl p w r : tlut of *ICR4Y I the s~

132 Technology TrendsSinw htv Ixyinninenftl~r tnicrns!rdmnics e n . tllr smallest linmvirlth (or the minimun f-.shlrr i~n?lll' nf:al intrgalrd c i m i l Ilas I w n r e d ~ ~ m da lilt? ofahlnt 13% per year' nt

1.4 Basic Fabrication Steps 4 I 1

Fieurc 1.8 illoshtes the emnth ntmes fordiflewnl lecl~nnlamdriven:" A Ute hnin1 ning of tlw nuo~l#m~I t ~ lem ~ ~ n ~ ~ . tlw bnpl~tr r ~ ~ ~ ~ s u:tst otltc twlt~nol. ~ r ~1950-lCI:O t is r om.~lri%r.r. I.'rnn~ 10711to I!J!XI. tllr DR,\.\l and llw nlivnrnmn. i(SJMS) trcllniql~e. c rvhich me:lrl!rrs thr total inlporih profilr. In the SIhlS trchniqllr, an ion beam splltten n ~ a t c r ioff t h r s ~ ~ r f aofra sen~icnnductor. t l ~ ion cnmp,nent is detected anrl mas ~l c ant\ c analynl. This t ~ h n i < ~ ha.$ hie11 msili\ily to many elrmcnts. sllch a n is linrarl? pmpllrilrptl~ tionnl to tlw S I I ~ ~ . I c P n c ~ .I 1't r ~ ~ n son.

,r.l~010.05% ~ O T B . n 4

b 6.5 SUMMARYDiffusion is a key method of impnrity doping. This chapter fint considerctl the baicdiffusion rqustion for constant difi~nivit):T l ~ ~nmplemrntar).emr e function (edc)and the Ga,;-rian function \\,ere obtainctl for the constant surface concentration case and Nlnstant total dopant cares. respecti\rly. T l ~ e res~tltr f a diffusion p r w s s can l r r\.aluatrd o by mea-~lrementsof tile junction deptl~, sheet resistance. ant1 tile clopant prnfile. the

w h ~ w is the c h a q e state. # is the mohilih of the impurity and E is the electric field. Z, The ~st~bscript i indicatm t l ~ c SUPREhI girl location. The second relationship is the mntinuih rrluiltinn. \vhirb is $wn hy

- .~. . . - ~ . s ~.., -, -.

...~T.~ reEep.zn--..7..

. ~.

Data from twOOiS3Boron l f c r n j ) Phosphorus l / c N: Wping (/cm3) e

,

3

.

\vl:rre G, is tile genentionlrrmmhination rate of the impurih The fi~ral relationship key is Poinons equation. which in one dinlensinn is given by

wlierr E, i the pennitti\ih: n and p arr the electron ant1 hole concentrations. and h'l; s and S; are the (oncentntions of ionizer1 donors and a m p t o n . respectively. SUPREM over solves Eqs. 26 to 25 sirnultan~nt~sl~ a one-dimenrional grid specified hv the user. The diffosi\ih \allies 11sed hy SUPREXI are bawd on t11r varanc). ~ n ~ lof Fair." The rl talues of E* and D, for 8. Sh. ant1 As are inclllclcd in a look-up table. E ~ ~ ~ p i r imodels cal nrr 11sm1 a m l l n t for field-aided. oxidation-enlmnmd. and oddation-whded diffusion. to EXAMPLE 3 Sl3pp-e w *ant la simulate lhc pnrlcposition olhomn intn an n-hpe clM> silicon wafer a1 8501C h,r l i minnt-. lfthcsilimn nllntntr i-clnpnl ~ i t h phrnpllnnaat r l o ~ l o10''.cm-'. ttu: SUPREXI f lo dcltmttin*.the h m n dopinc:pn~filr thr junnirtar drpth. andSOLUTION The SIIPREXI input listing ir n follm\rn: q0

0.1

0.6

0.1

1

1.2

1.

~lstancr. l l o ~ glimn

ih,tn nri Figure 6.13 Pht of.lx,rnu ~ ~ , n c l . n t ~ ~at itlscticnn of ith 10" h m n atomx/emlat a tcnipcraturc of 900'C lor 3 hrnm. abal is the find distrilrtrtion oiarrcnir i f the r7rrl.d'~ cuncvntrntion is held firrd at 4 X 10"1lomslcm'? \\Inat is tltc jundion depthaAs~t~me the follm\ing:

3. 1 . R. Aun9n aed I;. E. k u 8 . Sonin,sdt,nor I n h g m t d Cimrif I ' r n r ~ ~ i T~ g t n d ~~ d.d i a ~ - \ \ ' c 1 r rd ~ ' Rtitnn. I%nI, Cb. 5 .

4. It. C. Clqv mcl G.L R a r u n . 'Dimorion in Srmimndacton.~ J. It. Cn\donl and L \ in . I Firnr Drfid, ,n Cdidr.

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