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TExES Social Studies Training

EC-6 TExES Social Studies TrainingDion Dubois, Ed.D.Instructional CoachStevens Park ElementaryNational Board Certified [email protected]

190 Second IntroductionPurpose of Social StudiesThe basic purpose of social studies is to produce good citizensMike Moses, Texas Commissioner of Education2000help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world

National Council for Social Studies1994

2In 2000, Mikes Moses, then the Texas Commission of Education, the general superintendent for DISD from 2001 until 2005, defined it very simply the basic purpose of social studies is to produce good citizens. And that instruction can not wait until students are in the high school, middle school, or even upper elementary levels. Childrens basic attitudes and concepts are formed by then. Big Ideas in Social StudiesCitizens have both right and responsibilitiesHistory is about REAL events that have happened to REAL people, but written from the authors perspective and may be influenced by the authors bias.Major events have causes and effectsPeople organize themselves into governmental systems and the government plays a critical role in resolving conflictsRules provide order, security and safety and how they are made depends on what people value.Places have both physical and human characteristicsPeoples wants often exceed their resources so people must make choices.Economies are interdependent upon each other and economic decisions are often global.

3The National Council for Social Studies established a Task Force on Social Studies Standards in 1994 and defined the purpose of social studies as: the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence The primary purpose of social studies is to. help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent worldSocial Studies DisciplinesSocialStudiesCitizenshipEconomicsGovernmentScienceTechnologySocietyHistoryGeographyCulture4For many years, most students were taught only history and geography as part of the social studies curriculum. Most of the focus was on learning facts, dates, and key concepts in history and capitals and locations in geography. But social studies has evolved and now incorporates other disciplines and content areas that can help a student become a more productive citizen.TEKS for Social Studies

5The TEKS for Social Studies divides the Social Studies content into five general disciplines: History, Geography, Economics, Government, and Culture. There are two themes that are interspersed through the five disciplines: Citizenship and Science, Technology, and Society. The ultimate goal of social studies is to become productive citizens in an evolving and growing society. The focus on local society of the early 20th century and the national society of the later 20th century has been expanded to a global society of the 21st century. Everything that happens in the world impacts in a more direct way than it did in previous years. Communications, for example, are now instantaneous. Whereas in the 1940s, we did not know what was going on during the wars because of a lack of communication has tremendously changed in 2006 where technology has given us emails and instant messaging.

The specific skills that we are trying to teach this new generation of learners has also changed. Whereas the focus was on learning facts about history and geography, the new focus in social studies is to develop CRITICAL reading and writing skills. The new generation of learners need to be able to locate and analyze information and to solve problems and make decisions. The new generation of learners need to be knowledgeable of current events and what is going on not only on the local, state, and national level, but also in our global economy. Traditional means of communication, such as newspapers, faxes and telephones, has been replaced by the internet, emails, and instant messaging. This new generation of learners need to be able to know how to access the information that they need, using Technology, in order to solve problems and make decisions.

The Goals: prepare our students to be citizens of the 21st century. Give them some basic information, show them how to access the rest of the information, so that they can make intellectual and informed decisions and help them demonstrate basic democratic values.Social StudiesContentCognitive CharacteristicsLearningStrategiesTExES6The TExES exam will test you on three big areas: your knowledge of the social studies content, your knowledge of children as learners (cognitive characteristics) and your knowledge of effective learning strategies that are tied to the content and the characteristics of those children that you are teaching.Social Studies ContentConceptsBig IdeasGeneralizationsBroad StatementsPrinciplesAlways TrueContentNote whats missing: Facts and Dates7The TExES exam will test you on three big areas: your knowledge of the social studies content, your knowledge of children as learners (cognitive characteristics) and your knowledge of effective learning strategies that are tied to the content and the characteristics of those children that you are teaching.Curriculum Content OrganizationPK/K Self, Home, Family, Classroom1st Classroom, School, and Community2nd Local Community and the Impact of Individuals and Events on the Community, State and Nation3rd How Individuals have Changed their Community and the World4th Texas Studies5th United States History6th People and Places of the Contemporary World8The Social Studies Curriculum is influenced by the Cognitive Development of Students. Its called an outwardly expanding environments curriculum, meaning that younger children who are still in preoperational stages are focused on those things around them. Eventually the curriculum expands to the local community, individual people, and finally the state. As students enter middle school, the curriculum will expand to the USA and the world.

BREAK TIME!Student Growth & DevelopmentSocialization is a process by which humans learn the expectations society has for their behavior in order for them to successfully function within that society

Through socialization, a person gains a sense of belonging with common ideals and behaviorSocialization primarily occurs in childhood9See Handout

Teacher TechniquesSocial Studies for Elementary StudentsSix-year-olds are active learners and demonstrate considerable verbal ability. They are interested in games and rules and develop concepts and problem-solving skills from these experiences. Hands-on activity and experimentation are necessary for this age group.Seven-year-olds become increasingly able to reason, listen to others, and show social give-and-take. Spatial relationships and time concepts are difficult for them to perceive. Flexibility, open-mindedness, and tolerance of unfamiliar ideas essential in social studies are formed to a remarkable extent by the interactions of the four- to eight-year-olds. 10See Handout

Teacher TechniquesSocial Studies for Elementary StudentsEight-year-olds combine great curiosity with increased social interest. They are able to learn about people who live elsewhere in the world. During these early grades, children can learn from the symbolic experiences of reading books and listening to stories; however, their understanding of what they read is based on their ability to relate the written word to their own experience.Nine-year-olds may be somewhat self-conscious and prefer group activities to working alone. They are beginning to understand abstractions as well as cause-and-effect relationships. Most are operating at a concrete level but need real experiences of society and social institutions such as those provided in social studies. 11See Handout

Teacher TechniquesSocial Studies for Elementary StudentsTen-year-olds may be experiencing bodily changes and rapid growth spurts. These changes cause periods of frustration and anger. Generally, ten-year-olds are interested in and enthusiastic about places and problems in the news. They want to know what events caused these problems, where they occurred, and the reasons for them. Most of the skills for learning social studies have been introduced by this time and they are able to apply them to new situations.Eleven-year-olds are generally in a period of transition between childhood and adolescence. More decision making is required of them. They tend to be sociable and need opportunities to express feelings and opinions. The developmental research suggests that children at this age do not have the ability to view issues from the perspective of a whole society (Selman 1975), but need to be confronted with the types of analytical questions about history, society, and social and political behavior so important in social studies learning.12See Handout

Teacher TechniquesSocial Development from K to 5th Awareness of Peers but a lack of concern for their presenceIntense Interest in their PeersProductive, Positive Social and Working Relationships with One AnotherAbility to Work and Relate Effectively with Peer Contributes to a Childs Sense of Competence

13See HandoutClassification: oceans, lakes, streamsVenn DiagramsCause/EffectSequencing

Learning StrategiesSmall-Group Cooperative Learning ActivitiesDevelop Cognitive AbilityPromote Peer Interaction

Simulations14See Handout

PS/Scientific Reasoning Inquiry ApproachC19-Social Science InstructionThe teacher uses social scienceknowledge and skills toplan, organize, andimplement instruction andassess learningSocial Science ConceptsCausality-Basic Category of Human ThinkingConflict Ideas, Principles, Values or ClaimsBias Prejudice or PredispositionInterdependence-Relying on one anotherIdentity Self Understanding of GroupsNation-state-Political EntityCulture Customs of a GroupSocialization- how we learn expectationsBasic Social Studies SkillsAcquire InformationOrganize and Use InformationCommunicate InformationSocial ParticipationDevelop Content-Area Vocabulary17See Pages 174-175 for a description of these strategiesHigher Social Studies SkillsFact and OpinionReading Visual RepresentationsCause and EffectCompare/ContrastMaking InferencesPersonal Decision-MakingUsing Statistics18See Pages 174-175 for a description of these strategiesCritical Thinking-Social StudiesRecognizing a Frame of ReferenceRecognizing BiasRecognizing a Point of ViewRecognizing Propaganda19The ultimate goal of all curricular instruction is critical thinking, problem solving, and the ability to make informed decisions. In social studies, certain critical thinking skills are emphasized: Cause and EffectRecognizing a Frame of Reference (Putting yourself in someone elses shoes)Recognizing BiasRecognizing a Point of ViewRecognizing Propaganda Instructional StrategiesLearner-CenteredWidening Circles of ExperienceSharing Interest and EnthusiasmAdditional Thinking SkillsCritical ThinkingHigh-Order Thinking Skills

20See Handout

PS/Scientific Reasoning Inquiry ApproachInstructional StrategiesInquiry ApproachRole Playing/SimulationsCooperative LearningOral Histories/DebatesConflict ResolutionPolitical CartoonsTime LinesUse of TechnologyInquiry-Based learning is student-centered and based on John Deweys philosophy that education begins with the curiosity of the learner.

It is an approach to learning whereby students find and use a variety of sources of information and ideas to increase their understandingof a problem, topic, or issue.

It promotes investigation, exploration, research, pursuit, and study.Inquiry-Based LearningInquiry-Based LearningInstructional StrategiesInquiry ApproachRole Playing/SimulationsCooperative LearningOral Histories/DebatesConflict ResolutionPolitical CartoonsTime LinesUse of TechnologyCooperative LearningCooperative Learning refers to a variety of means of restructuring instruction and the organization of the classroom so that students can learn the content in small mixed-ability learning teams.Small Heterogeneous GroupsCommon GoalOpen-EndedHigher-Ordered Thinking

Instructional StrategiesInquiry ApproachRole Playing/SimulationsCooperative LearningOral Histories/DebatesConflict ResolutionPolitical CartoonsTime LinesUse of TechnologyGraphic OrganizersSemantic WebTree DiagramsTime LinesFlow ChartsVenn Diagrams

Graphic RepresentationsGraphsPictorial GraphsBar GraphsPie GraphsLine GraphsChartsData Retrieval ChartsNarrative ChartsOrganizational Charts

Instructional TechnologyA GOOD textbook used effectivelyAudiovisual PresentationsLibrary ProjectsPrimary and Secondary SourcesEncyclopedias, almanacs and atlasesGovernment DocumentsArtifacts and Oral HistoriesComputerResearchGames, Puzzles, Presentation SoftwareField TripsWebcasts

Use of Computer TechnologyTutorial and Problem Solving SoftwareWhere in the World is Carmen San Diego?Simulation SoftwareOregon TrailWP, DB, and SS SoftwareHypermedia Presentation SoftwareHyperstudioInformation Gathering SoftwareGoogle, Microsoft, InfoTrac

30Google EarthOrganized Use of TechnologyPurpose of the ResearchObjective should be ClearPreparation and OrganizationProcedural List or RubricVisuals or Artifacts to Support The Purpose and Objective

31Google EarthAssessmentInformalFormalFormativeSummativeFormativeSummativeAssessmentIdentify the Objectives (TEKS)Use Effective Teaching PracticesGather Data on Student PerformanceMake Judgments about the Individuals Performance Based upon the Data Gathered.Use of Rubrics

C020-HistoryThe teacher understands and applies knowledge of significant historical events and developments, multiple historical interpretations and ideas, and relationships between the past, the present, and the future as defined by the TEKS.

World History Five PeriodsAncient World (4,000,000 BCE-500)Ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia, Sumer, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, the Indus Valley, megalith Europe, ancient China, Phoenicia, ancient America, ancient Greece, the Celts, the Romans and the empires of Africa and IndiaWorld History Five PeriodsAncient World Timeline4000 BC Homo Sapiens appear3500 BC Sumerians invent writing and the wheel2800 BCE Buildings begin in Stonehenge1200 BCE Olmecs civilization flourishes in western Mexico753 BC Foundation of Rome600 BC City of Babylon400 BC Golden Age of Athens300 BC Alexander the Great rules the world27-14 BC Augustus rules as first Roman emperor476 Western Roman Empire fallsWorld History Five PeriodsMiddle Ages (500-1400)Byzantine civilization, rise of Islam, civilizations of the Americas, the Vikings, the feudal system, the Crusades, Genghis Khan and China, the African kingdoms and the Hundred Years WarWorld History Five PeriodsMiddle Ages - Timeline600- Teotihuacan civilization in Mexico600- Rise of Islam700 Mayan civilization in Central Mexico700 Feudal system begins in Europe800 Charlemagne-Holy Roman Empire1000- Vikings land in North America1215 Genghis Kahn/Mongols invade China1217 Marco Polo travels to China from Italy1300 Renaissance begins in Europe1368 Ming Dynasty in China1453 Fall of the eastern Roman Empire1454 Gutenberg invents the printing machine1500 Inca Empire at its peak in PeruWorld History Five PeriodsAge of Discovery (1400-1700)This period includes the Renaissance, the development of the Aztec and Inca civilizations, voyages from Spain and Portugal, African empires, the Reformation, the Ottoman Empire, and the Ming dynasty in the slave tradeWorld History Five PeriodsAge of Discovery 1448 Portuguese explorers reach the southern part of Africa1492 Columbus sails from Spain to America1497 Portuguese reach India1517 Martin Luther begins Reformation in Europe1522 Magellan travels around the world1535 - Spain conquers the Aztecs and Incas1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada and becomes the worlds greatest naval power1607 English begins colonization of America1609 Galileo uses the telescope to study the universe1618 Thirty Years War beginsWorld History Five PeriodsRevolution and Industry (1700-1900)This period includes the Russian Empire, the Manchu dynasty in China, the period of Enlightenment in Europe, the growth of Austria and Prussia, the birth of the U.S., the French Revolution, the Napoleanic era, the Industrial Revolution, the British Empire, the American Civil War and the unification of Italy and Germany.World History Five PeriodsRevolution and Industry 1682 Peter the Great rules Russia1740 Frederick the Great becomes King of Prussia1768 James Cook visits the Pacific regions1776 Declaration of Independence1789 French Revolution begins1791 Thomas Paine publishes The Rights of Man1804 Napoleon declares himself Emperor of France1837-1901 England at its peak Queen Victoria1861-1865 American Civil War1869- Union Pacific Railroad links the East and West coasts of the U.S.

World History Five PeriodsThe Modern World(1900-present)This period includes the struggle for equal rights for women, World War I, the Russian Revolution, the Great Depression, the rise of fascism, revolution in China, World War II, Israel versus Palestine, the Cold War, the space race, the Korean and Vietnam wars and globalizationWorld History Five PeriodsModern World1914-1918 World War I1917 Russian Revolution1929 - Great Depression1933 Adolf Hitler achieves power in Germany1936-39 Spanish Civil War Francisco Franco1939 1945 - World War II1947 Pakistan and India obtain independence from Great Britain1959 Cuban Revolution1965-1972 Vietnam War1990 Germany is reunited1991 Soviet Union collapsesUS History in a NutshellOverview of US HistoryNative Americans prior to ColonizationEnglish, French, Spanish ColonizationAmerican RevolutionAmerican Independence and IncorporationWar of 1812 (England and France)Monroe Doctrine Stay away from Europe/Each OtherMexican War and Manifest DestinyMissouri (and Maine) CompromiseCivil WarReconstructionEducation, Labor and Temperance MovementsWomens RightWorld War I, Roaring 20s, DepressionWorld War II and Cold WarKorean and Vietnam WarsCivil RightsTechnology and Communications Revolutions

4722 MinutesOverview of U.S. History48Press F11 for full screen

American History Overview

Do Graphic Organizer on Sequencing F11 for full screen

American History Overview

Do Graphic Organizer on SequencingOverview of Texas HistoryNative Americans prior to Colonization1528-Cabeza de Vaca explores Texas1529-De Pineda maps the Texas coast1685-LaSalle explores Gulf Coast1700s-Catholic Missions1762-French gives Texas to SpainStephen Austin Old Three Hundred Brazos River1835-Texas RevolutionBattle of the Alamo Santa Anna & Sam Houston1836-Texas Declaration of IndependenceTreaty of Velasco1845-Texas becomes a State1861-Texas joins the Confederacy1900-Hurricane Audrey destroys Galveston1901-Lucas Gusher begins the Texas Oil Boom

5022 MinutesOverview of Texas History5122 MinutesC021-GeographyThe teacher demonstrates knowledge of geographic relationships involving people, places, and environments in Texas, the U.S. and the worldThe teacher understands and applies knowledge of cultural development, adaptation, diversity, and interactions among science, technology, and society as defined by the TEKS52NEW Pair Share with Objectives on Page 193Physical/Cultural GeographyLocating Places and Regions on a MapPrime Meridian and the Grid SystemGeographic SymbolsTime and Latitude ZonesRegions of the World, US and TexasHuman-Environmental Interactions

Maps and GlobesSymbolic Representation poses a problem for K-4 and some 5-6 children. Maps and globes are tools for representing space symbolically.The main purpose for using globes is to familiarize children with the basic roundness of the earth and to begin developing a global perspective.It is also used to study the proportion of land and water. Latitude and LongitudeGenerally covered in fourth grade and up.Possible Difficulties:The sizes of the meridians of longitude and the parallels of latitude on a globe and Mercator projection look different.The meridians of longitude have a consistent size, but the parallels of latitude vary in size, becoming smaller as they move away from the equator.Mercator Projection

Regions of Texas

Political Maps

Political Map58Political Maps show the government entities of a country or a state. For example, the map on the left shows the 50 states of the USA. The map on the right shows the 254 counties of the state of Texas.Elevation Maps

Elevation Map59Elevation Maps show the higher and lower points of a country or state.Population Map

60Population MapRegional Map

61Regional MapRiversWorldNile (North and East Africa)Amazon (South America)Yangtze (China)United StatesMississippi-Minnesota to the GulfOhio starts in PittsburghRio Grande-Colorado to Gulf of MexicoColorado Rocky Mts to CaliforniaMissouri Rocky Mts to Mississippi RiverMountainsTallest Mountains in the world are located in the Himalayas (Everest)Tallest Mountains in USA are in Alaska - Mt McKinleyAmerican Indians Map

C022-EconomicsThe teacher understands the concepts and processes of government and the responsibilities of citizenshipKnows how people organize economic systems to produce, distribute, and consume goods and servicesApplies social science skills to information, ideas, and issues related to government and economics.EconomicsEconomics is about how people meet needs food, shelter, etc. Historically people have done this in a variety of ways: farming, bartering, factory production, etc. Traditional EconomiesThis is when one does what his/her father did. This system was the basis for Neolithic societies and most pre-industrial countries. Today, this system is found in developing countries where subsistence agriculture (producing just enough for personal survival.) dominates.Market EconomiesThis is synonymous with capitalism and free enterprise. In this system the market (consumers and producers) determine prices and what is produced.Command EconomiesCommand Economic System this is associated with communism. In this system the government determines prices and what is produced. Karl Marx is most associated with this system. Cuba, China, and North Korea are the worlds last true communist countries.

Changing EconomiesWhy did some societies change their economic systems? Different historical factors account for economic changes. For example, the industrial revolution led most countries to turn from their traditional economic systems of agriculture to a market economy based upon factory production.Basic Economic ConceptsWant: an item we desireNeed: something necessary for survivalGoods: things made to be soldServices: work or labor performed for someoneEconomic VocabularyEconomics is the study of how goods, services, and property is produced, distributed, and consumed. Scarcity is the basis of economics. The scarcer something is, normally the more it is worth. Supply and demand are very important economic concepts. Supply is how much a producer is willing to produce at a given price. Demand is how much consumers are willing to buy at a certain price. The key for producers and consumers is to find the equilibrium price that will bring in the most consumers at a level that will be beneficial to producers.

Factors of ProductionLandLaborCapital: human or physicalSurplusScarcityLimited ResourceProducerConsumerMass Production: Assembly Line, Division of Labor, and Interchangeable PartsFactors of ProductionThere are four factors of production that are required for successful production. Land refers to all the raw materials, gifts of nature or natural resources used in production. Labor refers to all aspects of human energy that is put into production. This includes not just physical labor, but also intellectual and creative aspects of production. Capital includes all the materials, tools, money, and equipment. Entrepreneurship refers to the businessmen and women who have a vision and are willing to take the risks and organize land, labor, and capital into production.

Leading Industries in the Texas EconomyLate 1800sCottonseed oil, flour milling, timber, meat packing and mining1940sCottonseed oil, petroleum refining and related industries, meat packing and flour millingCurrentAgribusiness, petrochemical, biomedical, defense, and information technologyRole of Economics on HistoryThe TexES expects you to recognize that many historical events were shaped by economics. You should be aware of the following:Exploration and colonization were primarily economic-inspired events. Europeans wanted a cheaper way to access goods from Asia when they began searching for a new route to Asia. Once they landed in the Americas they then began to search for gold and other resources. Individuals who wanted land and governments who wanted people to secure natural resources led colonization. The economic concept of mercantilism was also important in that in this system colonies exist solely for the benefit of the mother country.

More Economics in HistoryImperialism was also an economic pursuit. European and Asian countries took over other lands in order to control the economics and resources of the territory or country.Most countries have followed a similar pattern of economic growth. First, subsistence farming dominated. Then technological advances came along to increase agricultural output and begin commercial agriculture (selling surplus). Then many countries turned to industrialization. The rate that societies have industrialized have largely determined whether they are developed or developing countries.

Supply and DemandThese rules are not always absolute. For example, if the price of insulin goes down, demand is not going to go up since the demand is pretty much fixed due to the nature of insulin. Another thing to understand is that these are immediate reactions and one can see that supply goes up then demand goes down, but once demand goes down then supply will go down. Supply and demand is a constantly changing cycle.

Free EnterpriseAdam Smiths 1776 book The Wealth of Nations explored what made some countries more economically successful than others. One of his major findings was that the countries that were most successful had limited government involvement in basic economic decisions. This lack of government decision-making was coined, laissez faire and remains a fundamental principal in most western economies. MonopoliesA problem that Adam Smith addressed and that many governments recognize is that there are times when monopolies develop. A monopoly is one producer or business that emerges to control an entire market. Under capitalism, a lack of other producers undermines the competition aspect and threatens the market system. MonopoliesSome monopolies are accepted, such as local water utilities. Governments control prices in these situations to ensure that the monopoly does not charge unfair high prices. Other monopolies, such as Standard Oil Company and AT&T were broken up by government action. In the case of Standard Oil, the company was accused of intimidating other companies and then charging unfair prices for oil. Monetary PolicyA major modern economic capitalist philosopher was John Maynard Keynes. Keynesian Economics is the driving factor behind United States monetary policy. Through monetary policy the government controls the supply of money through determining interest rates. When the government believes that more money should be in the economy, then interest rates are reduced (through the FED) and banks loan more money to businesses and individuals. If the government determines that less money should be in circulation (such as during inflation when money losses value) then the FED will raise interest rates so that fewer loans will be made and less money will be circulated. As the level of money in circulation decreases, then the value of money increases.

Fiscal PolicyAnother way to increase or decrease the money in circulation is through fiscal policy. Fiscal policy is determined by Congress and the President and concerns the level of taxes and spending by the federal government. Unfortunately, fiscal policy is more politically motivated than monetary policy (theres no election process for members of the FED) and fiscal policy takes longer than monetary policy to carry out, so fiscal policy is normally considered less stable than monetary policy in controlling the money supply.

Economic IndicatorsThe government and other business interests measure the health of the economy through various economic indicators. These include:Consumer Price Index measures the prices of the most commonly used items. These include food, housing, clothing, and food. If the value of these items increases, then the cost of living goes up. If the value of these items decreases, then the cost of living goes down. This leads to the next indicatorInflation a dollar doesnt buy what it used do because of inflation. As prices increase and wages stay the same, inflation occurs. The value of the currency decreases as the price of items increase. Gross Domestic Product is the value of all final goods and services produced within a countrys borders during a year. This is one of the best indicators as to how a country is doing. A strong GDP indicates a strong economy. A low GDP indicates a weak economy.Economic IndicatorsPer Capita Income is computed when we take all the reported income (wages, stock dividends, other investments, etc.) and divide it by the total number of workers. Although this is a good indicator as to income levels it can be misleading. For example, the PCI for 2002 was $22,794 (U.S. Census). This was the average of all moneys earned divided by the number all those who received it. So this includes part time workers and those just earning dividends from a savings account, etc. The Medium Household Income for the same period was 43,527.00, but once again, this can be misleading as it includes households led by schoolteachers and Bill Gates household equally.

Economic IndicatorsUnemployment rate is measured by determining how many people are unemployed but are actively looking for work.

This figure does not include those who are underemployed working a part-time or lower paying job while looking for a full-time or a higher paying job.

Consumer EconomicsThe role of consumers in a free enterprise system is vital. Consumers obviously purchase goods; however, it is because consumers purchase certain goods that businesses make the decisions that they do. Because of these decisions, companies increase or decrease production, buy or sell factories, or increase or decrease international trade. Consumers normally put their money into financial institutions. These institutions include banks and credit unions. Credit unions are different than banks in that all members (account holders) of a credit union own the credit union and they receive loans at lower interest rates and they earn higher interest of their accounts.

Consumer EconomicsThrough banks and credit unions individuals and businesses can save, invest, and borrow money. All of these functions are vital to our free enterprise system. There are different ways money can be invested. Investments include:Savings Accounts these accounts are most secure, with the government insuring most accounts up to $100,000, but these investments yield the lowest rate of return (normally less than 1%).

Consumer EconomicsBonds these are investments where individuals loan government entities (school districts, local and state governments, and the federal treasury) money. Most bonds are very secure (very few governments go bankrupt) and the interest rates are higher than most savings accounts, but most bonds dont mature (pay back) until several years.

Stocks these are actual investments in publicly traded corporations (think Wall Street). Stock investments can be very risky (companies can go bankrupt and investors can lose money) but the return can be high (you might invest in the next Microsoft). Role of GovernmentThe United States government does have a prominent role in the economy. The government sets rules and regulations for companies, restricts some types of businesses, regulates the Stock Market and banking institutions, recognizes the roles of labor unions, inspects the safety of work places, and controls the supply of money.

Anti-Trust LegislationThe government has historically sought to limit and restrict monopolies and trusts. There are several major pieces of Anti-trust legislation. These include:1890 - Sherman Antitrust Act said that to hinder competition was illegal law against monopolies that hindered competition or made competition impossible.1914 - Clayton Antitrust Act outlawed price discrimination - charging different customers different prices for the same product.TariffsTariffs are taxes on goods that are imported. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is an international set of guidelines that are used to encourage trade between countries. GATT sets guidelines for tariffs. The U.S. has used tariff policies to help protect domestic businesses. For example if an American company can sell a bike for $100.00 and a Japanese company can sell a bike for $75.00 the U.S. can help protect the American bike company by imposing a $25.00 tariff on the Japanese bikes. The Japanese company then charges $100.00 for the bike.

International TradeAll countries today are involved in some international trade. Countries are very interdependent upon each other and agreements are made between governments to encourage trade. Some basic terminology in international trade includes: Exchange rates refers to how much one countrys currency is worth in relation to another countrys currency. Countries that have a lower exchange rate can normally export more goods. Free trade refers to when goods can be exported and imported without tariffs. Tariffs are taxes on imported goods and often are used to protect domestic businesses. When countries have free trade agreements, goods are exchanged without tariffs. This is the case in NAFTA the free trade agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

American Economic SystemAlthough some aspects of socialism do exist (social security, unemployment, Medicare, etc.) the American economy is based upon the profit motive (people want to make money), voluntary exchange (consumers choose to buy and sell), private property rights, and competition. These concepts form the foundation of our capitalistic/free enterprise system.InterdependenceOne more basic understanding of international trade is that the United States and Texas are both interdependent with other countries and states. This means that we cannot and do not produce everything we need within our own borders. We must import items in and then we export items that other people and places need to them. With this interdependence comes some risk. For example, Texas oil economy is far more dependent upon the events in the Middle East than on any U.S. factor.

Business OwnershipThere are three types of businesses. Each has benefits and disadvantages. These are:Sole proprietorship is where one individual owns a business (think a small non-franchise diner). One person is responsible for financing and managing the business. A disadvantage is that the only capital (money for the business) available is what one person can secure. Another disadvantage is that a sole proprietor can be sued personally for such things as accidents in his/her business. Partnership is when two or three people join to open a business together. A benefit to this type of business is that all in the partnership can share the financial resources and risks. Disadvantages include loss of autonomy (one has to get partner to agree) and the fact that the partners could still be held personally liable for accidents in the business. Corporation A corporation normally has several initial investors and organizes a formal organization. They choose a name and the business really becomes a second entity. Corporations have to be registered with the state and the owners of the corporation cannot be held personally liable in civil cases.

Economic Effects of WarWhen a country goes to war, it normally vastly increases the economic output of the country. The government finances the mass production of war-related materials. Men go off to war (more men historically than women) and women, who in some cases were stay at home mothers, move into the workforce. C023-Government/CitizenshipThe teacher understands the concepts and processes of government and the responsibilities of citizenshipThe teacher knows how people organize economic systems to produce, distribute, and consume goods and servicesThe teacher applies social science skills to information, ideas, and issues related to government and economicsGovernment and CitizenshipRules, Laws, Rights, Responsibilities of CitizensBasic Concepts of a Democratic SocietyInterrelationship-Local, State, and National GovernmentsKey Political DocumentsBasic Economic Concepts and InterdependenceFree Enterprise SystemWork and Economic ActivitiesEffective Research MethodsGood Citizenship Skills(negotiation, persuasion, compromise, debate, conflict resolution)Purpose of GovernmentTo maintain social orderTo provide public servicesTo provide national security and public defenseTo provide for an economic system Types of GovernmentDemocracy political control is exercised by all people either directly or indirectlyOligarchy only a few powerful individual hold the powerTotalitarianism one political group maintains complete control under a dictatorshipMonarchy single person is head of the stateThree Branches of Government

102Checks and Balances

The U.S. ConstitutionPreambleArticlesAdvice and Content (Check and Balance)Coinage make moneyCommerce regulate commerceCopyright authors and inventorsElastic power to pass all lawsFull Faith and Credit states must recognize the laws of other statesSupremacy Law of the LandAmendments A Four Minute VideoBill of RightsAmendment I Freedom of Speech & ReligionAmendment II Right to Bear ArmsAmendment III Limits Quartering of SoldiersAmendment IV Search and SeizureAmendment V Right to Trial (Miranda Act)Amendment VI Right to Speedy TrialAmendment VII Right to Trial by Jury Amendment VIII Cruel and Unusual PunishmentAmendment IX Other Rights Not SpecifiedAmendment X States Rights105EMPHASIZE: Protection of the Minority against the Tyranny of the MajorityBill of RightsBill of RightsAmendment XIII Forbids SlaveryAmendment XIV CitizenshipAmendment XV Right to Vote: Black MenAmendment XIX Right to Vote: Women

107EMPHASIZE: Protection of the Minority against the Tyranny of the MajorityLandmark Supreme Court CasesMarbury vs Madison (1803)Declaration of Unconstitutionality

Dred Scott vs Sandford (1857)Blacks/Slaves are not protected by the Constitution

Plessy vs Ferguson (1896)Separate but Equal Racial Segregation

Brown vs Topeka Board of Education (1954)Segregation in Education Creates Inequality108EMPHASIZE: Protection of the Minority against the Tyranny of the MajorityLandmark Supreme Court CasesMapp vs Ohio (1961)Evidence obtained Illegally is Inadmissible

Gideon Vs Wainwright (1963)Right to an Attorney

Mirando vs. Arizona (1966)Right to Remain Silent

Roe vs Wade (1973)Laws Restricting Abortions are Unconstitutional109EMPHASIZE: Protection of the Minority against the Tyranny of the MajoritySymbolsAmerican Bald EagleGreat SealAmerican FlagState of LibertyNational AnthemAmerica the BeautifulLiberty BellPledge of AllegianceUncle Sam