earth's moon

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  • 1.SMART-1 Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology

2. The Moon A look at our nearest neighbor in Space! 3. What is the Moon? A natural satellite One of more than 96 moons in our Solar System The only moon of the planet Earth 4. Moons Location from Earth About 384,000 km (240,000 miles) from Earth 3,468 km (2,155 miles) in diameter (about the size of Earth) 5. A Brief History of Lunar Exploration 1959: Soviet Lunas 1, 2, 3 orbited around Moon 1960s: US Ranger - flyby mission - first space pictures - many TV cameras 1966-67: Lunar Orbiter - 5 orbiting spacecraft - full coverage of pictures 1966-68: Lunar Surveyor - surveying for landing sites - testing the soil (sink?) 6. Highlights from Apollo 11 mission launch: July 16th 1969 arrival at Moon: July 20th 1969 first humans to land on the MoonCommand Module (CM): Columbia 7. On July 20, 1969, after a four day trip, the Apollo astronauts arrived at the Moon. This photo of Earthrise over the lunar horizon is one of the most famous images returned from the space program, although even the astronauts themselves cannot remember who actually took it.13 Oct 2003Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang7 8. First steps on the Moon July 20th 1969 - Neil Armstrong - Buzz Aldrin13 Oct 2003Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang8 9. Touchdown of Moon astronauts near the coast of Hawaii on July 26th 1969 10. EarthMoonActive wind/water erosionNO Active wind/water erosionImpactsImpactsActive volcanoesNO active volcanoesEarthquakesSmall moonquakesActive magnetic fieldNO active magnetic fieldFew cratersBuckets of cratersGeologically Active!Geologically Inactive! 11. EarthPlate tectonics!MoonNO plate tectonics 12. EarthMoonHOT!Not so hot!Why so different? 13. 3 Layers of the Moon 1) Crust - average thickness of about 70 kilometers 2) Mantle 3) Core - radius is between 300 and 425 kilometers 14. The Moons Surface No atmosphere No liquid water Extreme temperatures Daytime = 130C Nighttime = -190C 1/6 Earths gravity 15. Lunar FeaturesHighlands Mountains up to 7500 m (25,000 ft) tall Rilles (trenchlike valleys) 16. Lunar FeaturesCraters Up to 2500 km (1,553 miles) across Most formed by meteorite impact on the Moon Some formed by volcanic action inside the Moon 17. Lunar FeaturesMaria Originally thought to be seas by early astronomers Darkest parts of lunar landscape Filled by lava after crash of huge meteorites on lunar surface 3-4 billion years ago Mostly basalt rock 18. Craters Can you see the rays?Maria 19. Movements of the Moon Revolution Moon orbits the Earth every 27 1/3 days Rotation Moon turns on its axis every 27 days 20. Movements of the Moon The moon rises in the east and sets in the west The moon rises and sets 50 minutes later each day Same side of Moon always faces Earth 21. Far Side of the Moon First seen by Luna 3 Russian space probe in 1959 Surface features different from near side More craters Very few maria Thicker crust 22. Lunar Formation Models The moon is a sister world that formed in orbit around Earth as the Earth formed. The moon formed somewhere else in the solar system then was captured into orbit around Earth. Early Earth spun so fast that it spun off the moon. 23. Impact by Mars-sized protoplanet 4.5 billion years ago 24. Copyrighted, LPI 25. Copyrighted, LPI 26. Copyrighted, LPI 27. Copyrighted, LPI 28. Copyrighted, LPI 29. Lunar Geologic History 30. Lunar Geologic History4.5 billion years ago, our Moon forms (lunar rocks and meteorites)Copyrighted, LPI 31. Copyrighted, LPI 32. Magma Ocean Rocks 76535 Troctolite 4.2-4.3 Ga60025 Anorthosite 4.44-4.51 Ga 95% Plag Feld (anorthite) Magma Ocean! No Water! 33. Lunar Geologic History Highlands - light, rough (Terrae) Mostly anorthosite (plagioclase feldspars lots of calcium and aluminum) In place rocks are 4.5 to 4.3 billion years old BIG Dark areas? 34. Lunar Impact BasinsImbrium RimBig, frequent impacts until 3.8 billion years ago Impact events continue on all moons and planets todayOrientale Basin 35. RaysEjectaFloorWallTycho Crater RimCentral PeakYoung 100 MY 85 kilometers across Fresh (rays) = young 36. Impacts the most fundamental process on the terrestrial planets Eugene and Carolyn Shoemaker 37. Breccias and Impact Melts 15445 Impact melt + clasts67016 Polymict Breccia 38. Lunar Geologic History Mare VolcanismMare Imbrium Volcanism after impacts most before 3 Ga (to 1 Ga)SW Mare Imbrium 39. Lunar VolcanismAristarchus PlateauMarius Hills 40. Lava TubesApollo 17 41. Lunar Basalts 155553.3 Ga15016 42. Lunar Geologic HistoryLowlands dark, smooth Maria (16%)Basalt fine grained dark igneous rock rich in iron and magnesium (stuff that sank in magma ocean) Few hundred meters thick Rocks are 4.3 to 3.1 billion years old volcanic flows as recently as 1 billion years ago!! 43. And then .All was quiet. 44. Except for impacts...7 November; ~30 lb TNT 3 m-wide crater (estimate) 45. No Wind No Flowing Water No Erosion 46. Except for impacts... 47. Return to the Moon! 2012 Develop and test technologies for resource utilization, communicati ons, power 2014 CEV, Ares launch vehicle 48. 2018 Humans for week-long stays Next: 45-day stays at outposts 49. Free powerpoints at http://www.worldofteaching.com