Earth, Sun, and Moon

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Earth, Sun, and Moon. Pgs. 23-28 What you need to know. Radiation (or light) is a tool scientists use to study the objects in our solar system. There are different types of radiation: radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, UV light, x-rays, and gamma rays. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>Earth, Sun, and MoonPgs. 23-28What you need to know.Tools of AstronomyRadiation (or light) is a tool scientists use to study the objects in our solar system.There are different types of radiation: radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, UV light, x-rays, and gamma rays.Scientists use telescopes: Refracting and reflectingInterferometry is linking telescopes together so they act as one.Because Earths atmosphere blocks infrared, UV, X and gamma rays scientists have to send satellites and probes to spaceThe MoonSoviet Union launched first satellite to the moon (Sputnik I)Albedo is the amount of sunlight the moon reflectsNo erosion because no atmosphereHighlands-light, mountainous regionsMaria- dark, smooth plainsAll craters that have hit the moon are impact cratersEjecta- material blasted out after an impact craterRilles- valley like structures in the MariaHistory of the MoonAge of moon between 3.8 and 4.6 billion yearsBelieve that Moon was heavily bombarded first 800 million yearsRegolith- loose, ground up rock that built up after the multiple impactsMoon has layered structure (Crust, mantle, and core) so it can have moonquakes</p> <p>Formation TheoriesFirst theory-rock got caught in Earths pull and formed into the moon (capture theory)Problem- compositions of earth and moon too similarSecond Theory-simultaneous theory says that earth and moon formed around same timeThird theory- impact theory says Earth hit a Mars sized object and the ejecta from that impact formed the moon Sun-Earth-Moon System Annual MotionsEcliptic-the plane in which Earth orbits about the Sun.Earths axis is tilted 23.5 degreesSumer solstice-sun is directly ahead of the tropic of cancer (June 21)Winter solstice- sun is directly over the tropic of Capricorn (December 21)Equinoxes- autumnal and vernal. Days are of equal length to nights</p> <p>Phases of the MoonYou should have a chart that looks similar to the one below:</p> <p>Motions of the MoonTides-bulges of ocean water on near and far sides of surfaceNeap tides-lower that normal tides; moon is at a right angle to the sunSpring tides-Earth nearest the Sun and Moon is nearest the EarthEclipses-alignment of Earth, Sun, and MoonSolar eclipse-moon passes directly between the sun and earthLunar eclipse-Earth passes between Sun and MoonOpen PageYou need to have several illustrations in your notebook. The first is an illustration of the phases of the moon. You also need to have an illustration that depicts the solstices and equinoxes. The last is an illustration of each type of eclipse.Our Solar SystemPg. 29Early IdeasEarly astronomers assumed that the Sun, planets, and stars orbited a stationary Earth.Called the geocentric modelMeans Earth centered</p> <p>New ModelScientists couldnt account for why most planets moved to the east but one would move toward the west.Called that phenomenon retrograde motion.Nicolaus Copernicus suggested the Sun was in the middle of the solar systemHeliocentric modelExplained retrograde motion (inner planets move faster than outer planets)Keplers LawsSaid each planet orbits the Sun in a plane called an ellipse (first law).Ellipse is centered on two points (called foci) instead of one like a circle.The major axis passes through the foci of the ellipse.The semi-major axis is half the length of the major axis.Semi-major axis is the average distance between the sun and a planet. Average distance is measured in astronomical units or AU (1.496 x 108 km)</p> <p>Major Axis</p> <p>EccentricityWhen a planet is closest to the sun, it is at perihelionWhen a planet is farthest away, it is at aphelion</p> <p>Eccentricity is the ratio of the distance between the foci to the length of the major axis.Eccentricity ranges between 0 and 1. 0 is a perfect circle, 1 is a very elongated oval.Most planets have an orbit that arent very eccentric.</p> <p>Mini Lab Pg. 777Put on pg. 30 in notebookYou will need a sheet of paper, push pins, cardboard, a ruler, and a pencil.</p>