Earth, Moon, & Sun System

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Earth, Moon, & Sun System. Earth (Physical Characteristic). Approximately 149,597,890 km (92,955,820 miles) or 1 AU from the Sun Diameter at the equator is 12,756 km (7,926 miles), and its circumference is 40,075 km (24,901 miles) Mass is 5.9737 x 10 24 kg ( 6.58 x 10 21 tons) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>Galaxies and the Universe</p> <p>Earth, Moon, &amp; Sun SystemEarth(Physical Characteristic)Approximately 149,597,890 km (92,955,820 miles) or 1 AU from the SunDiameter at the equator is 12,756 km (7,926 miles), and its circumference is 40,075 km (24,901 miles) Mass is 5.9737 x 1024 kg (6.58 x 1021 tons) Gravity is 9.8 m/s2 Density is 5.515 g/cm3The average temperature is 14oC (57oF) and ranges from -89oC 58oC (-128oF 136oF)Atmosphere consists of 78% Nitrogen (N2), 21% Oxygen (O2) and 1% of other gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Orbits the Sun in 365.24 Earth daysRotates in 24 hoursTilted 23 on its axis reason for the seasonsHas three layers - crust, mantle, and core</p> <p>Earth(Special Features)Ideally situated away from the sun life can existHas oceans that help maintain a stable temperatureHas a molten iron core that generates a magnetic field around the planet helps protect the planet from the harmful effects of solar winds and cosmic raysHas oxygen which is essential for lifeHas an ozone layer (composed of O3) that resides in the stratosphere absorbs harmful UV light</p> <p>WinterDecember SolsticeSpringMarch EquinoxSummerJune SolsticeFall September EquinoxEarth(Seasons)Patterns of temperature changes and other weather trends over the course of a year are known as seasonsResults from Earths 23 tilt on its axis and its orbit relative to the Sun Equinox sunlight shines equally on the northern and southern hemispheresSolstice sunlight is at its maximum in one hemisphere and a minimum in the other hemisphere</p> <p>153,000,000 km148,000,000 km</p> <p>OctoberNovemberJanuaryFebruaryAprilMayJulyAugustWhich hemispherewould have theseparticular seasons?Not to scaleMoon(Physical Characteristic)Approximately 384,400 km (239,000 miles) from the EarthDiameter is 3479 kilometers (2162 miles), which is about 1/4 the diameter of the EarthMass is 7.35 x 1022 kilograms (8.1 x 1019 tons), which is about 1/80 the mass of the Earth. Gravity is 1.6 m/s2, which is about 1/6 the gravity of EarthDensity is 3.340 g/cm3 Does not have an atmosphereThe average temperature on the surface of the Moon during the day is 107C and during the night, the average temperature drops to 153C Orbits the Earth in 27.3 Earth daysRotates in 27.3 Earth daysTilted 70 on its axisOrbit is tilted 50 Has three layers - crust, mantle, and core</p> <p>Image taken from: http://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancients/02files/Moon_Images.html Moon(Special Features)Has impact craters that are the result of small objects from space striking the Moons surface Has mare (maria - pl.) which are large, dark plains of solidified lavaThe same side of the Moon always faces the Earth; this is because of tidal locking Is thought to have formed after a giant collision between early Earth and a smaller space bodyIs moving away from the Earth at a rate of 3.8 cm/yearMoon(Phases)The lunar phases result from the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun. Waxing the phase after the new moon when the amount of reflected light increasesWaning the phase when the full moon has passed and the amount of reflected light decreases</p> <p>What we seeNew Moon</p> <p>Moon viewer</p> <p>Waxing Crescent</p> <p>Waxing Gibbous</p> <p>Full Moon</p> <p>1st Quarter</p> <p>Waning Gibbous</p> <p>Third Quarter</p> <p>Waning CrescentNew Moon (Again)Moon(Eclipses)An eclipse occurs when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in line with each other and a shadow makes the Sun or Moon seem to grow dark. Lunar eclipse the phase after the new moon when the amount of reflected light increasesSolar eclipse the phase when the full moon has passed and the amount of reflected light decreases</p> <p>What we seeNew Moon</p> <p>Moon viewerMoon(Tides)Tides occur because the Moons gravity changes the shape of Earths oceansLunar eclipse the phase after the new moon when the amount of reflected light increases</p> <p>What do you think happens to the tides when the Sun and Moon are on directly in line with Earth?Sun(Physical Characteristic)Approximately 149,600,000 km (92 million miles) from the EarthApproximately 1,390,000 km in diameter which is over 100 times the diameter of the Earth Mass is about 2 x 1030 kilograms, which is is over 300,000 times the mass of EarthHas an atmosphere Consists of about 70% Hydrogen, 28% Helium and 2% of metals such as iron. The surface at the equator rotates once every 25.4 Earth days. The rotation near the poles is around 36 Earth days. Also the surface swirls in high and low pressure areas, similar to those that occur on Earth. Its temperature is extremely hot, with the surface being about 5000C (9032oF) and the center core at about 15,600,000 C (28,080,032oF) Has three layers - core, radiative zone, and convection zone Rotates every 25.38 Earth days</p> <p>Image taken from: http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/23oct_superstorm.htm Sun(Features)continually emits a stream of charged particles consisting mostly of electrons and protons called solar windsshoots out streams of high energy particles called solar flares aurora borealis Contains sunspots which are spots on the photosphere that are cooler than surrounding areasProminences are huge loops of glowing gas that extend into the corona Atmosphere photosphere, chromosphere, and corona</p>