earth. distances 24,901.55 miles 24,901.55 miles 24,859.82 miles 24,859.82 miles 7,926 miles 7,926...

Earth Earth

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24,901.55 miles24,901.55 miles 24,859.82 miles24,859.82 miles 7,926 miles7,926 miles 3,452 miles3,452 miles

Diameter of EarthDiameter of Earth Distance from the Distance from the

North to South PoleNorth to South Pole Distance across the Distance across the

United StatesUnited States Circumference Circumference

around the equatoraround the equator

Water VolumeWater Volume 50 gallons50 gallons 70 gallons70 gallons 14600 gallons14600 gallons 4 trillion gallons4 trillion gallons 326,000,000,000,000,326,000,000,000,000,

000,000 (million 000,000 (million trillion) gallonstrillion) gallons

Emitted from a tree Emitted from a tree dailydaily

Amount of water in Amount of water in the ocean’s of the the ocean’s of the EarthEarth

An average American An average American uses dailyuses daily

An average human An average human will drink in 80 yearswill drink in 80 years

Falls to Earth each Falls to Earth each dayday


67,000 mph67,000 mph 1,000 mph1,000 mph 4,520 mph4,520 mph

Revolution of Earth Revolution of Earth around the Sunaround the Sun

Speed of Rocket Speed of Rocket Plane (fastest plane)Plane (fastest plane)

Rotation of Earth Rotation of Earth (Day/Night)(Day/Night)

PopulationPopulation 6,692,030,2776,692,030,277 1,325,639,9821,325,639,982 731,000,000731,000,000 680,000,000680,000,000 304,059,724304,059,724 8,682,6618,682,661

New JerseyNew Jersey ChinaChina AfricaAfrica EarthEarth EuropeEurope Unite StatesUnite States

ANSWERS: DistanceANSWERS: Distance

24,901.55 miles: Equatorial Circumference24,901.55 miles: Equatorial Circumference24,859.82 miles: Circumference from 24,859.82 miles: Circumference from

North to South PoleNorth to South Pole7,926 miles: Diameter of Earth7,926 miles: Diameter of Earth3,452 miles: USA3,452 miles: USA

ANSWERS: Water VolumeANSWERS: Water Volume50 gallons: Daily Activities50 gallons: Daily Activities70 gallons: Daily tree emits70 gallons: Daily tree emits14600 gallons: Lifetime human consumes14600 gallons: Lifetime human consumes4 trillion gallons: Daily Earth precipitation4 trillion gallons: Daily Earth precipitation326,000,000,000,000,000,000 (million 326,000,000,000,000,000,000 (million

trillion) gallons: Earth’s Ocean volumetrillion) gallons: Earth’s Ocean volume


67,000 mph: Earth’s revolution around the 67,000 mph: Earth’s revolution around the SunSun

1,000 mph: Earth’s rotation1,000 mph: Earth’s rotation4,520 mph: Rocket Plane4,520 mph: Rocket Plane

ANSWERS: PopulationANSWERS: Population

6,692,030,277: Earth6,692,030,277: Earth1,325,639,982: China1,325,639,982: China731,000,000: Europe731,000,000: Europe680,000,000: Africa680,000,000: Africa304,059,724: USA304,059,724: USA8,682,661: NJ8,682,661: NJ

The GeosphereThe Geosphere

Earth is a SYSTEMEarth is a SYSTEM

GeosphereGeosphere HydrosphereHydrosphere AtmosphereAtmosphere BiosphereBiosphere

Earth InteriorEarth Interior

Seismic waves used Seismic waves used to study interiorto study interior

Seismic waves Seismic waves change is the material change is the material they travel through they travel through changechange

Seismologist measure Seismologist measure the change in speed the change in speed and direction of and direction of seismic wavesseismic waves

Earth’s CompositionEarth’s Composition


CrustCrustOuter layerOuter layerThinnest layerThinnest layer5km to 8km thick beneath 5km to 8km thick beneath

oceansoceans20km to 70km think 20km to 70km think

beneath continentsbeneath continentsMade of light elementsMade of light elements1% of planet’s mass1% of planet’s mass

Mantle Mantle

Beneath crustBeneath crust64% of planet’s 64% of planet’s

massmass2,900km thick2,900km thickMade of rocks of Made of rocks of

medium densitymedium density


Inner most layerInner most layerComposed of Composed of

densest densest elementselements

Radius of Radius of 3,400km thick3,400km thick

Structure of EarthStructure of EarthLithosphereLithosphere

Cool, rigid layerCool, rigid layer15km to 300km thick15km to 300km thick Include crust and upper Include crust and upper

mantlemantleDivided into Divided into tectonic platestectonic plates

AsthenosphereAsthenospherePlastic, solid layer of mantlePlastic, solid layer of mantle250km thick250km thickMade of rock that flows slowlyMade of rock that flows slowlyAllows tectonic plates to moveAllows tectonic plates to move

Structure of EarthStructure of Earth MesosphereMesosphere

Lower part of mantleLower part of mantle 2,550km thick2,550km thick

Outer coreOuter core Outer shell of Earth’s Outer shell of Earth’s

corecore 2,220km thick2,220km thick Made of liquid nickel &Made of liquid nickel &

iron iron Inner coreInner core

1,228 km thick1,228 km thick 4,000-5,0004,000-5,000°°CC Made of solid nickel and ironMade of solid nickel and iron Why solid?Why solid?

Plate TectonicsPlate TectonicsTectonic plates glide on top of Tectonic plates glide on top of

asthenosphereasthenosphereMajor platesMajor plates

North AmericanNorth AmericanSouth AmericanSouth AmericanAfricanAfricanPacific Pacific EurasianEurasianAntarcticAntarctic

Plate BoundariesPlate BoundariesTypes of movement:Types of movement:

CollideCollideSeparateSeparateSlide past one Slide past one

anotheranotherCan form:Can form:

MountainsMountainsEx: Himalayan MntsEx: Himalayan Mnts

50 Million Years ago50 Million Years ago

EarthquakesEarthquakesVolcanoes Volcanoes

EarthquakesEarthquakes FaultFault- break in Earth’s crust - break in Earth’s crust

where blocks of crust slide past where blocks of crust slide past one anotherone another

When block of rocks suddenly When block of rocks suddenly slip under the pressure the slip under the pressure the vibrations felt throughout Earthvibrations felt throughout Earth

Richter Scale measures Richter Scale measures earthquake's earthquake's magnitudemagnitude (energy)(energy) 2.0-9.5 can be felt2.0-9.5 can be felt Scale increases by 31.7Scale increases by 31.7 7.0+ results in widespread 7.0+ results in widespread


Where do Earthquakes Occur?Where do Earthquakes Occur?

Mostly at or near Mostly at or near tectonic plates tectonic plates due to the due to the enormous stressenormous stress

Many Many earthquakes in earthquakes in past 15 to 20 past 15 to 20 million years million years along San along San Andreas faultAndreas fault

Earthquake HazardEarthquake HazardArea’s earthquake Area’s earthquake

hazard level determined hazard level determined by past and present by past and present activityactivity

Not only high risk areas Not only high risk areas in dangerin dangerCharleston, SC 1886Charleston, SC 1886Sandy, loose soil= Sandy, loose soil=

EXTENSIVE damageEXTENSIVE damageEarthquake-resistant Earthquake-resistant

buildings are slightly buildings are slightly flexibleflexible

VolcanoesVolcanoesA mountain built from A mountain built from

magma (melted rock) magma (melted rock) that rises from Earth’s that rises from Earth’s interiorinterior

Usually near plate Usually near plate division or collisiondivision or collision

Can be on land or Can be on land or under waterunder water

Under water may lead Under water may lead to island formationto island formation

Local Effects of EruptionLocal Effects of EruptionClouds of hot ash, dust, and gasses flow down Clouds of hot ash, dust, and gasses flow down

slope up to 200km/hr (124.3 miles/hr!)slope up to 200km/hr (124.3 miles/hr!)Volcanic ash + water = mudflowVolcanic ash + water = mudflowAsh falls to ground; building collapse under Ash falls to ground; building collapse under

weight, bury crops, damage engines, and weight, bury crops, damage engines, and cause breathing difficultiescause breathing difficulties

Global Effect of EruptionGlobal Effect of Eruption

Climate changes for several yearsClimate changes for several yearsVolcanic ash and sulfur-rich gases spread Volcanic ash and sulfur-rich gases spread

across planet in atmosphere across planet in atmosphere Block Block some sun some sun lower temperature lower temperature

ErosionErosionRemoval and transport of surface materialsRemoval and transport of surface materials

Water ErosionWater Erosion

Rivers- create deep gouges through Rivers- create deep gouges through mountains mountains

Oceans- water continually beat surfaceOceans- water continually beat surface

Wind ErosionWind ErosionPlants root soil, no plant=loose soilPlants root soil, no plant=loose soilSoft rock (sand stone) is easily erodedSoft rock (sand stone) is easily eroded