early people of the aegean crete early civilization later influenced greeks

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Chapter 4 Ancient Greece

Early People of the AegeanCreteEarly civilizationLater influenced Greeks

Section 1: Early People of the AegeanMinoans Trade & Prosper Minoans Lived on CreteTrade not conquest

KnossosFrescoesMinoan civilization peaked 1600bc-1500bcMinoans

Frescoes: watercolor paintings done on wet plaster;

Covered walls of Knossos1400 bc, Minoan civilization vanishedSea was very importantSection 1: Early People of the Aegean ContinuedMycenaeansFirst Greek-speaking people (written record)Invaders of Minoans

Dominated Aegean world 1400bc-1200 bcSea Traders

The Trojan War

Started as rivalry between Mycenaean & TroyMost widely known for the Greek legend of Paris, Helen, and the Trojan horse After 10 years of battle, the Greeks finally seized Troy and burned it to the ground

Around 1250 bcNot long after Trojan war, Mycenaens were attacked from sea raiders & Dorians (from the North)People abandoned citiesTrade declinedGreek civilization stepped backwardsGreeces Dark ages1100bc-900bcHomer and the Great Legends of Greece

Homer was a blind poet that wandered singing great epics750 bcMuch of what we know of Trojan War & life during these times

The IliadTrojan WarChief source of infoFull of gods & goddessesAchilles, withdrew from battle because he was insulted by his commanderThe OdysseyStruggles of Greek hero Odysseus on his return home to his wife Penelope after fall of TroyEncounters sea monster, one-eyed giants, & a beautiful sorceressEpics reveal values of ancient GreeksHeroes display honor, courage, & eloquenceSection 2: The Rise of Greek City-States

Balkan PeninsulaExtends into the Mediterranean SeaComprised of hundreds of rocky islands Greeks developed polis or city-states

Ancient Greeks didnt have a large empireA collection of city-states(Fiercely defended independence, frequent wars)Geography Shapes Greece

Mountains separated city-states but seas linked them to outside worldSkilled sailorsThey traded olive oil, wine, and marble for grains and metals.The Greeks adapted ideas from other civilizationsAlphabet from the Phoenicians Governing City-States

750 bc, rapid population growth & Greeks expandedOn top of the city was the acropolis, or high city. Temples dedicated to the gods and goddesses were located here.Beneath the acropolis was the marketplace and homesGoverning City-States

Citizens shared a sense of responsibilityFree men spent much time in marketplace debatingWhole community joined festivals honoring gods/goddessesMale landowners held all political power

Types of Government

Governing City-States

Types of Government

Monarchy- A hereditary ruler with central powers.

Aristocracy- Rule by hereditary landowning elite.

Oligarchy- Power is in the hands of a small wealthy elite.

Warfare

650bc, iron weapons replaced bronzeCheaperOrdinary citizens could afford weapons, shields, helmets, etc. PhalanxTactical military formation with armed foot soldiers

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