Early History and Beliefs of Judaism and Christianity

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<ul><li><p>Early History and Beliefs of Judaism and Christianity</p></li><li><p>Pre ClassExplain the significance of Jerusalem to:JewsChristiansMuslims</p></li><li><p>Founders of JudaismAbrahamAbrahamic covenant; God promised:to make of Abraham a great nation The Promised Land to make Abraham a father of many nations Unconditional (required nothing of Abraham)</p></li><li><p>Founders of JudaismMosesGreatest prophet/teacherLed the Exodus (escape of Hebrews from slavery in Egypt)Mosaic covenant:10 Commandments establish Hebrews relationship with Yahweh, moral laws (self-restraint, family and human life)Return to Canaan (Promised Land)</p></li><li><p>Founding of Israel12 desert tribes unified by Ark of the CovenantJudges ruled, prophets warned peopleHebrews overcame Canaanites after 200 years; pushed Philistines to coast</p></li><li><p>Kings of IsraelSaul unified 12 tribes during fightingDavidEstablished capital/religious center at JerusalemCovenant between king and people/GodSolomonWealth/power for Israel (trade with Arabia)Built relationships with other powers in the regionTempleThe Kingdom of David and Solomon - 1077 - 997 BCE</p></li><li><p>Israel DividedStruggles for power weakened Israel after Solomons deathNorthern Kingdom (Israel Samaria)Conquered by Assyrians captured, enslaved HebrewsSouthern Kingdom (Judah Jerusalem)Conquered by Chaldeans -destroyed Jerusalem, templePersians allowed Hebrews to return</p></li><li><p>Diaspora - the scattering of Jews from the land of Israelrevolt against Roman rule (66-70 CE)Destruction of Jerusalem, TempleJudea destroyed; Jews dispersed from Palestineto Europe (faced restrictions of Roman Empire), Middle EastFormed regional groupsPreserved traditions, beliefs; faced similar expulsions, persecutions</p></li><li><p>Where did the name Palestine come from??Palestine a name given to the Jewish province of Judea by the Romans (Palaestina), during Hadrians rule, to wipe away the identity of the state of Judea</p></li><li><p>The Western WallRemains of Second TemplePlace of prayer (mourning for destruction of temple)Disputed between Jews/Muslims</p></li><li><p>Judaism = teachings of the Hebrews ethical monotheism Torah first 5 books of Old TestamentHistoryMosaic Law (10 Comm) eye for an eye, higher value on human life, kinder towards poor, slaves Ethics from prophets messages</p></li><li><p>[</p></li><li><p>Beliefs/PracticesYahweh (God)Fear early HebrewsFreedom to choose between good and evilSpiritual force, divineWorshipsynagogue</p><p>Every synagogue contains an Ark, which is a cupboard where the Torah Scrolls, which contain the text of the Hebrew Bible, are kept, and a desk from which to read the Torah. (BBC)</p></li><li><p>The CalendarThe Jewish calendar is a combined moon and sun calendar, unlike the conventional Western (or Gregorian) calendar.The result is that Jewish festivals move about the Western calendar from year to year. The Jewish calendar also starts each day in the evening.This is because when God was creating the world he started each day in the evening. (BBC)</p></li><li><p>Holy DaysDays of Repentance (Days of Awe)During the 10 days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur everyone gets a chance to repent. Rosh HashanahRosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year festival and commemorates the creation of the world.Yom Kippur - The Day of AtonementYom Kippur, the most sacred and solemn day of the Jewish year, brings the Days of Repentance to a close.</p></li><li><p>Christianity Began in Palestine (1st Century)grew out of Judaisms traditionsJesus founder; Gospels stories of Jesus life Preacher taught goodness, mercy; Parables stories about morality; miracles attributed to himDisciplesSentenced to die by Romans enemy of the state; crucifiedAccording to Christians resurrected**, ascended into heaven</p></li><li><p>After Jesus Death:Christians believe Jesus is the Messiah (one anointed by God)Jews do NOT believe this; still awaiting the MessiahWhen/why did the split happen?</p></li><li><p>Teachings of Christianity (rooted in Judaism)Grounded in Jewish traditions(Trinitarian) Monotheistic10 Commandmentseternal life - reward for the humble, merciful, and unselfish.Sermon on the Mount (Golden Rule, Beatitudes)</p></li><li><p>What do you remember about life in the Roman Empire at its height?</p><p>Why do you think Christianity appealed to many Romans? </p></li><li><p>Spread of ChristianityChristians followers of JesusDisciples spread message through Jewish communities in Palestine and beyond (Pauls letters)spread quickly (Roman Empire)Hope of eternal lifeControl over destinyEquality in the eyes of God</p></li><li><p>PersecutionRomans persecuted ChristiansWouldnt worship Emperor as a godWouldnt worship Roman godsPACIFISTS wouldnt fight to defend the Empire Martyrs-people who suffer or die for their beliefs.# of Christians INCREASED why??</p></li><li><p>Development of the ChurchEmpire forced to accept religion 312- Constantine supported Christianity 391 - official religion of the Roman empireFormal ChurchPope patriarch of RomeGreat Schism 1054 Roman Catholic (Rome)Eastern Orthodox (Constantinople) </p><p>*************</p></li></ul>

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