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  • August13,2014 [EARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENTLITERATUREREVIEW)]

    1 HumanEarlyLearningPartnershipcontact:MicheleWiens(michele.wiens@ubc.ca)

    MAINDOCUMENT

    EarlyChildhoodDevelopment(ECD)LiteratureReview(Factorsthatinfluenceearlychildhooddevelopment,homevisitationandcommunitybased

    collaborativeprograms,aswellasthefeaturesofthoseprogramsorinterventionsthatpromotehealthequity)

    August13,2014

    PreparedfortheTrailAreaHealthandEnvironmentCommittee(THEC)

    ByMicheleWiensHumanEarlyLearningPartnership

    SchoolofPopulationandPublicHealth,FacultyofMedicineUniversityofBritishColumbia2206EastMall,Vancouver,BC

    V6T1Z3

  • August13,2014 [EARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENTLITERATUREREVIEW)]

    2 HumanEarlyLearningPartnershipcontact:MicheleWiens(michele.wiens@ubc.ca)

    EarlyChildhoodDevelopment(ECD)LiteratureReviewMAINDOCUMENT

    TableofContents

    OVERVIEW page4SECTIONI: INTRODUCTION page6SECTIONII: METHODOLOGY page7(1) ElementsoftheScopingReview page7(2) LimitationsoftheScopingReview page12SECTIONIII: RESULTS page13(1) Factorsthatinfluencechildrenshealthydevelopment(excludingbloodlead/heavy metalsandchemicalagents) page13

    1.A. HealthandSafety page15a. AbuseandNeglect page15b. Breastfeeding page16c. DentalHealth,OralCare page17d. EarlyEnvironment(stress,supportiveparenting,etc.) page17e. InjuryPrevention page19f. Nutrition page19g. PhysicalHealth(activity/inactivity,obesity,sleep) page21h. RespiratoryHealth(asthma) page26

    1.B. Education page26a. EarlyCareandEducation page26b. LanguageandLiteracy page27

    1.C. MaterialWellBeing,Equity page28a. LowIncome page28b. EnvironmentalInjustice,Housing page30

    1.D. FamilyandPeerRelationships page31a. ParentEducation,SupportiveParenting page31

    1.E. Participation page32a. AfterSchoolPrograms,Arts page32

    1.F. SubjectiveWellbeing page33a. MentalHealth,WellBeing,Anxiety page33

    1.G. BehavioursandRisks page33a. InternalizingorExternalizingBehaviour,Aggression,Bullying,Crime page33b. Smoking,SubstanceAbuse page34

    1.H. Environment page34a. AirQuality page36b. BuiltEnvironment page37c. Gardens,Greenspace,etc. page38d. Neighbourhoods,Place,SocioeconomicStatus page39

    (2) Familyinhomevisitsaimedatimprovingearlychildhooddevelopmentandchildrens

    healthoutcomes page40

  • August13,2014 [EARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENTLITERATUREREVIEW)]

    3 HumanEarlyLearningPartnershipcontact:MicheleWiens(michele.wiens@ubc.ca)

    2.A. General(e.g.,multicomponentprograms;targetpopulations,delivery,etc.) page402.B. ChildDevelopmentandSchoolReadiness page452.C. ChildHealth page462.D. MaternalHealth page472.E. PositiveParentingPractices page482.F. ReductioninChildMaltreatment page482.G. ReductioninJuvenileDelinquency,FamilyViolence,andCrime page502.H. LowIncome,DisadvantagedMothers,Families page502.I. TeenMoms,AtRiskMoms page52

    (3) Communitybasedcollaborativeinterventionsaimedatimprovingearlychildhooddevelopmentandchildrenshealthoutcomesatapopulationlevel page54

    (4) Featuresofinterventionsin(1),(2)or(3)abovethatmaypromotehealthequityorprotectagainstincreasedinequities(includedin(1).Cabove) page56

    SECTIONIV: DISCUSSION page58SECTIONV: REFERENCES page61SECTIONVI: APPENDICES(seeseparatedocument) AppendixI: KeySearchStatements

    AppendixII.1.A: HealthandSafetyPrograms AppendixII.1.B: EducationPrograms AppendixII.1.C: MaterialWellBeingPrograms(equity/inequity,lowincome, sociallydisadvantaged,rural) AppendixII.1.D: FamilyandPeerRelationshipsPrograms AppendixII.1.E: ParticipationPrograms AppendixII.1.F: SubjectiveWellBeingPrograms AppendixII.1.G: BehavioursandRisksPrograms AppendixII.1.H: EnvironmentPrograms

    AppendixII.2.A: HomeVisitingPrograms AppendixII.3.A: CommunityBasedCollaborativePrograms

    AppendixIII.1.A: HealthandSafetyResearch AppendixIII.1.B: EducationResearch AppendixIII.1.C: MaterialWellBeingResearch(equity/inequity,lowincome, sociallydisadvantaged,rural) AppendixIII.1.D: FamilyandPeerRelationshipsLiterature AppendixIII.1.E: ParticipationResearch AppendixIII.1.F: SubjectiveWellBeingResearch AppendixIII.1.G: BehavioursandRisksResearch AppendixIII.1.H: EnvironmentResearch

    AppendixIII.2.A: HomeVisitingResearch AppendixIII.3.A: CommunityBasedCollaborativeResearch

    ListingofTables:II.a. Databasesusedtosearchforscientificliterature page8II.b. Portals,annotatedlists,compendiums,andotherresourcesusedtosearch

    greyliterature page9

  • August13,2014 [EARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENTLITERATUREREVIEW)]

    4 HumanEarlyLearningPartnershipcontact:MicheleWiens(michele.wiens@ubc.ca)

    PREFACEThisliteraturereviewexploredtheresearchonrequestedearlychilddevelopment(ECD)topics,specificallythefactorsaffectinghealthyearlychilddevelopment,thebenefitsandeffectivenessofinhomevisitingandcommunitybasedcollaborativeinitiatives,andthefeaturesofECDinterventionsthatpromoteequityofoutcomes.aAsperthetermsofreference,thisreviewdoesnotattempttospeakto,describe,orevaluateprogramswithinTrailorothercommunities.Someevaluativecommentsemergeinthisreview;itshouldbenotedthatanysuchstatementscomefromtheliteratureitselfandnotfromanassessmentcarriedoutbytheauthorsofthisreview.Anyevaluativecommentsshouldbeconsideredwithinthecontextofthesectionwithinwhichtheyappearandattributedtotheresearcher(s)ofthatwork.OVERVIEWTheTrailAreaHealthandEnvironmentCommittee(THEC)hasagoal,approvedthroughcommunityconsultationin2010,toreducetheaveragebloodleadlevelsforchildren6to36monthsinTrailto4g/dLby2015.1THECseekstoascertainwhethermorecanbedoneatafamilyorcommunityleveltohelpimproveearlychildhooddevelopment(ECD)andchildrenshealthoutcomesinthepopulationandtherebycreateresilienceorprotection,oroffsetinsomewaythepotentialnegativeimpactsfromchildrensexposuretolowlevelsoflead.Forthisreason,ascopingreviewoftheliteraturewasundertakentomapevidencebasedinformationpertainingtoECDfactors,inhomevisitation,andinterventionsaimedatfosteringhealthyECDthroughinhomevisitsandcommunitybasedcollaborativeprograms.Featuresofcommunityandhomevisitingprogramsorinterventionsthatmaypromotehealthequityarealsoofinterest.Lead,otherheavymetals,andchemicalagentsarenotthefocusofthisreview.WithrespecttofactorsthatinfluenceECD,evidenceisgroupedbysevencategories:healthandsafety;education;materialwellbeing,equity;familyandpeerrelationships;participation;subjectivewellbeing;behavioursandrisks;andenvironment.Ineachcategory,theassembledevidencespeakstotheglobalpoolofknowledgeandanumberofconclusionsstandout.Forexample,inrelationtohealthandsafety,responsivenessandappropriatematernalinfantinteractionarevitalparentingtoolswithwiderangingbenefitsforthechild,frombettercognitiveandpsychosocialdevelopmenttoprotectionfromdiseaseandmortality.Interventionsareeffectiveinenhancingmaternalresponsiveness,resultinginbetterchildhealthanddevelopment,especiallyfortheneediestpopulations.WithrespecttohomevisitationprogramsandtheirroleinECD,evidenceisreportedbyeightdomainsinwhichprogramsaimtoimproveoutcomes:general;childdevelopmentandschoolreadiness;childhealth;maternalhealth;positiveparentingpractices;reductionsinchildmaltreatment;reductionsinjuveniledelinquency,familyviolence,andcrime;lowincome,disadvantagedmothers,families;andteen

    aTechnically,thisliteraturereviewcouldbedescribedasascopingormappingreview.Thistypeofreviewprovidesanassessmentoftheliteraturewheretheaimsaretoidentifythenatureandextentoftheresearchevidenceandprovideanoverviewofthetype,extent,andquantityofresearchavailableonagiventopic.Bymappingorcategorizingexistingresearch,thistypeofliteraturereviewcanidentifythemesandtrendsrelatedtoatopicaswellaspotentialresearchgapsandfutureresearchneeds.Itdoesnotincludeaformalassessmentofthequalityoftheliterature.

  • August13,2014 [EARLYCHILDHOODDEVELOPMENTLITERATUREREVIEW)]

    5 HumanEarlyLearningPartnershipcontact:MicheleWiens(michele.wiens@ubc.ca)

    moms,atriskmoms.Keyfindingsweresummarizedforeachdomain.Forexample,inthedomainentitledlowincome,disadvantagedmothers,severalsystematicreviewsconcludethathomevisitingisconsideredtobeapromisinginterventionforsociallydisadvantagedfamilieswithyoungchildren.Variousprogramsareeffectiveinmitigatingvariousadverseearlychildexperiences,andfactorssuchasparentalengagement,agencypartnership,etc.,playaroleinsuccessfulprogramoutcomes.Initiativesinvolvinghubs,networks,andcoalitionsarewideranging,andevidencesuggeststhatprogramsinvolvingcollaboration,agoodmixofpartners,strongleadership,andefficientstructuresresultinbetteroutcomes.Examplesofhubs,networks,andcollaborativepracticefromseveralcountriesandregionsareincluded.Incontemplatingfeaturesofhomevisitinginterventionsthatmaypromoteequity,researchhashighlightedaspectssuchasfacilitators(e.g.,accessibilityofcourses)andbarriers(e.g.,parentsresources,stigmaaroundattendinggroups,andaccessibilityofvenues).ThisreviewsummarizesawealthofinformationregardinghealthyECD,buttobeclear,thisreviewisnotintendedtobecomprehensiveinitsscopeoffactorsrelatedtohealthyECD,therelatedevidencebaseorprograms;itisintendedtoprovideanoverviewoftheevidencebasedliteratureandaselectionofcommunitybasedcollaborativeprogramsdesignedtoimprovematernalnutrition,breastfeeding,attachment,etc.Inthisreview,evidenceisassembledratherthanassessedasawaytoidentifythediversevarietyoffactors,activities,andprogramsthatcontributetohealthyECD..Inadditiontopresentingaselectionofprogramstailoredtoaddresssocial,biological,andenvironmentaldeterminantsofchildrenshealth,thisreviewincludesevidencebasedprogramsandpromisingpracticesrelatedtomaterialwellbeing,withafocusonlowincome,sociallydisadvantagedgroupsorfamiliesatrisk.Programsrangefromhomeimprovementloanprograms(Norway),topartneringwithbakeriestoprovidebreakfastinschoolsinlowincomeareas(US),toinhomenutritioninterventionsonchildrensdietaryoutcomesbyrelativesocialdisadvantage(US),totoddlerfairsforchildrensdentalandhearingscreeningforhardtoreachfamilies(Canada).Ideally,bestpracticeprogramsdesignedforsmallcommunitiesthatcanbeimplem

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