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Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (also known as the Stockholm Conference) was an international conference convened under United Nations auspices held in Stockholm Sweden, from June 5-16,1972. It was the UN's first major conference on international environmental issues, and marked a turning point in the development of international environmental politics. It is widely recognized as the beginning of modern political and public awareness of global environmental problems. The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution.

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Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment

The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (also known as the Stockholm Conference) was an international conference convened under United Nations auspices held in Stockholm Sweden, from June 5-16,1972.

It was the UN's first major conference on international environmental issues, and marked a turning point in the development of international environmental politics.

It is widely recognized as the beginning of modern political and public awareness of global environmental problems.

The meeting agreed upon a Declaration containing 26 principles concerning the environment and development; an Action Plan with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution.

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Two issue were addresses :

1. The use of CFCs (haloalkanes), which seemed to be responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer.

2. Global warming was mentioned.

1. Apart from increasing awareness of environmental issues among public and governments (for example, many governments subsequently created :

- Ministries for the Environment and/or national agencies for environmental monitoring and regulation)

- the Stockholm Conference laid framework for future environmental cooperation; led to the creation of global and regional environmental monitoring networks and the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The UN Environment Programme (or UNEP) coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and encourages sustainable development through sound environmental practices.

It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

UNEP also has six regional offices and various country offices.

UNEP is the designated authority of the United Nations system in environmental issues at the global and regional level.

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UNEP activities cover a wide range of issues regarding the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by the Earth's gravity.

It contains roughly (by molar content/volume) 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, trace amounts of other gases, and a variable amount (average around 1%) of water vapor. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air.

The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing international environmental conventions, promoting environmental science temperature extremes between day and night.

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Atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than other wavelengths, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space.




Carbon dioxide0.0384%

Water vaporabout 1%


Layer of Atmosphere






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The Global Environmental Problem / Environmental Disaster/ Accident

•Global Warming And Green House Effect•Ozone Layer Depletion•Acid Rain •Climate Change•Environmental Pollution •Nuclear Disaster ( Hiroshima and Nagashaki)•Bhopal Gas Tragedy 1984•Chernobyl Disaster

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Chernobyl disaster

The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union.

It was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only instance so far of level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale,

resulting in a severe release of radioactivity into the environment following a massive power excursion which destroyed the reactor.

Thirty people died in the explosion, but most deaths from the accident were attributed to fallout

On 26 April 1986 at 01:23:44 a.m. (UTC+3) reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, near Pripyat in the Ukrainian SSR, exploded.

Further explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area.

Nearly thirty to forty times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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The plume drifted over extensive parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, and eastern North America.

Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people.

According to official post-Soviet data,[2] about 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus.

The 2005 report prepared by the Chernobyl Forum, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organization (WHO),

attributed 56 direct deaths (47 accident workers, and nine children with thyroid cancer),

and estimated that there may be 4,000 extra cancer cases among the approximately 600,000 most highly exposed and 5,000 among the 6 million living nearby.

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Chernobyl after the disaster. Reactor 4 (image center). Turbine building (image lower left). Reactor 3 (center right)

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The Bhopal disaster

The Bhopal disaster was an industrial disaster that occurred in the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the immediate deaths of more than 3,000 people, according to the Indian Supreme Court.

A more probable figure is that 8,000 died within two weeks, and it is estimated that the same number have since died from gas related diseases.

However, testimonies from doctors who provided medical assistance during the tragedy claim over 15,000 were dead in the first month and approximately 20,000 in total.

The incident took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984, in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

A Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, killing approximately 3,800 people instantly. The Bhopal disaster is frequently cited as the world's worst industrial disaster

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter.

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks at the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman on August 6 and 9, 1945.

After six months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945, followed on August 9 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki.

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The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945, roughly half on the days of the bombings.

Since then, thousands more have died from injuries or illness attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.

In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the dead were civilians.

Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore World War II.

(Germany had signed its Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war in Europe.) The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding that nation from nuclear armament.[4]

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Causes of Global Warming

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Causes of Global Warming

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Defination of Environment

The term environment means which surrounding around us and is considered as composite term for the condition in which organism live.

Environment is the sum total of all social, economical, biological, physical ad chemical factor which constitute the surrounding of the man who is both the creator and moulder of the environment.

As we look around at the area in which we live, we see that our surroundings were originally a natural landscape such as a

•Forest• a river• a mountain• a desert,• or a combination of these elements.

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Most of us live in landscapes that have been heavily modified by human beings, in villages, towns or cities.

But even those of us who live in cities get our food supply from Surrounding villages and these in turn are dependent on natural landscapes such as

•Forests•Grasslands• rivers, seashores,• for resources such as water for agriculture•fuel wood, fodder, and fish.

Thus our daily lives are linked with our surroundings and inevitably affects them.

We use water to drink and for other day-to-day activities.

We breathe airwe use resources which food is made and we depend on the community of living plants and animals which form a web of life, of which we are also a part.

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Everything around us forms our environment and our lives depend on keeping its vital systems as intact as possible.

Our dependence on nature is so great that we cannot continue to live without protecting the earth’s environmental resources.

Thus most traditions refer to our environment as ‘Mother Nature’ and most traditional societies have learned that respecting nature is vital for their livelihoods.

This has led to many cultural practices that helped traditional societies protect and preserve their natural resources.

Respect for nature and all living creatures is not new to India

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All our traditions are based on these values.

Emperor Ashoka’s edict proclaimed that all forms of life are important for our well being in Fourth Century BC.

Over the past 200 years however, modern societies began to believe that easy answers to the question of producing more resources could be provided by means of technological innovations.

For example, though growing more food by using fertilizers and pesticides, developing better strains of domestic animals and crops, irrigating farmland through mega dams and developing industry, led to rapid economic growth, the ill effects of this type of development, led to environmental degradation.

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The industrial development and intensive agriculture that provides the goods for our increasingly consumer oriented society uses up large amounts of natural resources such as water, minerals, petroleum products, wood, etc.

Nonrenewable resources, such as minerals and oil are those which will be exhausted in the future if we continue to extract these without a thought for subsequent generations.

Renewable resources, such as timber and water, are those which can be used but can be regenerated by natural processes such as re-growth or rainfall.

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But these too will be depleted if we continue to use them faster than nature can re-place them.

For example, if the removal of timber and firewood from a forest is faster than the re growth and regeneration of trees, it can-not replenish the supply.

And loss of forest cover not only depletes the forest of its resources, such as timber and other non-wood products, but affect our water resources because an intact natural forest acts like a sponge which holds water and releases it slowly.

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Deforestation leads to floods in the monsoon and dry rivers once the rains are over.

Understanding and making ourselves more aware of our environmental assets and problems is not enough.

We, each one of us, must become increasingly concerned about our envi-ronment and change the way in which we use every resource.

Unsustainable utilization can result from overuse of resources, because ofpopulation increase, and because many of us are using more resources than we really need.

Most of us indulge in wasteful behavior patterns without ever thinking about their environmental impacts.

Thus, for all our actions to be environmentally positive we need to look froma new perspective at how we use resources.

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There have been several Government and Non- government organizations that have led to environmental protection in our country.

They have led to a growing interest in environmental protection and conservation of nature and natural resources.

The traditional conservation practices that were part of ancient India’s culture have however gradually disappeared

Among the large number of institutions that deal with environmental protection and conservation, a few well-known organizations include government organizations such as the BSI and ZSI, and NGOs such as BNHS, WWF-I, etc.

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Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)

Mumbai: the BNHS began as a small society of six members in 1883.

The influence on wildlife policy building, research, popular publications and peoples action have been unique features of the multifaceted society.

Undoubtedly its major contribution has been in the field of wildlife research.

It is India’s oldest conservation research based organization.

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World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi:

The WWF-I was initiated in 1969 in Mumbai after which the headquarters were shifted to Delhi with several branch offices all over India.

The early years focused attention on wildlife education and awareness.

It runs several programs including the Nature Clubs of India program for school children and works as a think tank and lobby force for environment and development issues.

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Center for Science and Environment (CSE),New Delhi:

Activities of this Center include organizing campaigns, holding workshops and conferences, and producing environment related publications.

It published a major document on the ‘State of India’s Environment’, the first of its kind to be produced as a Citizen’s Report on the Environment.

The CSE also publishes a popular magazine, ‘Down to Earth’, which is a Science and Environment fortnightly.

It is involved in the publication of material in the form of books, posters, video films and also conducts workshops and seminars on biodiversity related issues.

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CPR Environmental Education Centre, Madras:

The CPR EEC was set up in 1988. It con-ducts a variety of programs to spread environmental awareness and creates an interest in conservation among the general public.

It focussed attention on NGOs, teachers, women, youth and children to generally promote conservation of nature and natural resources.

Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad:

The Centre for Environment Education, Ahmedabad was initiated in 1989.

It has a wide range of programs on the environment and produces a variety of educational material.

CEE’s Training in Environment Education {TEE}program has trained many environment educators.

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Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN), Almora:

The Organization is a Nodal Agency which supports NGOs in need of funds for their environment related activities.

Its major program is organizing and training school teachers to use its locale specific Environment Education Workbook Pro -gram.

The main targets are linked with sustain- able resource use at the village level through training school children.

Its environment education program covers about 500 schools.

Kalpavriksh, Pune:

This NGO, initially Delhi based, is now working from Pune and is active in several other parts of India.

Kalpavriksh works on a variety of fronts: education and awareness; investigation and research; direct action and lobbying; and litigation with regard to environment and development issues. I

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Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun:

This Institution was established in 1982, as a major training establishment for Forest Officials and Research in Wildlife Management. Its most significant publication has been ‘Planning A Wildlife Protected Area Network for India’ (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). The organization has over the years added an enormous amount of information on India’s biological wealth

Botanical Survey of India (BSI): The Botanical Survey of India (BSI) was established in 1890 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. However it closed down for several years after 1939 and was reopened in 1954.

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI): The ZSI was established in1916. Its mandate was to do a systematic survey of fauna in India.

It has over the years collected ‘type specimens’ on the bases of which our animal life has been studied over the years.

Its origins were collections based at the Indian Museum at Calcutta, which was established in 1875.

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People in Environment

There are several internationally known environmental thinkers. Among those who have made landmarks, the names that are usually mentioned are Charles Darwin, Ralph Emerson, Henry Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopald, RachelCarson and EO Wilson.

Each of these thinkers looked at the environment from a completely different perspective.

Charles Darwin wrote the ‘Origin of Species’, which brought to light the close relationship between habitats and species.

It brought about a new thinking of man’s relationship with other species that was based on evolution.

Alfred Wallace came to the same conclusions during his work.

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Ralph Emerson spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment way back in the 1840s.

Henry Thoreau in the 1860s wrote that the wilder ness should be preserved after he lived in the wild for a year.

He felt that most people did not care for nature and would sell it off for a small sum of money.

John Muir is remembered as having saved the great ancient sequoia trees in California’a forests.

In the 1890s he formed the Sierra club, which is a major conservation NGO in the USA.

Aldo Leopald was a forest official in the US in the 1920s. He designed the early policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife management.

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In the 1960s Rachel Carson published several articles that caused immediate worldwide concern on the effects of pesticides on nature and mankind.

She wrote a well known book called ‘Silent Spring’ which even led to a change in Government policy and public awareness.

EO Wilson is an entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity wasa key to human survival on earth.

He wrote ‘Di-versity of Life’ in 1993, which was awarded a prize for the best book published on environmental issues.

His writings brought home to the world the risks to mankind due to man made disturbances in natural ecosystems that are leading to the rapid extinction of species at the global level.

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There have been a number of individuals who have been instrumental in shaping the environmental history in our country.

Some of the wellknown names in the last century include environmentalists, scientists, administrators, legal experts, educationists and journalists.

Salim Ali’s name is synonymous with ornithology in India and with the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS).

He also wrote several great books including the famous ‘Book of Indian Birds’.

His autobiography, ‘Fall of a Sparrow’ should be read by every nature enthusiast.

He was our country’s leading conservation scientist and influenced environmental policies in our country for over 50 years.

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Indira Gandhi as PM has played a highly significant role in the preservation of India’s wildlife.

It was during her period as PM, that the network of PAs grew from 65 to 298!

The Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during the period when she was PM and the Indian Board for Wildlife was extremely active as she personally chaired all its meetings.

S P Godrej was one of India’s greatest support-ers of wildlife conservation and nature awareness programs.

M S Swaminathan is one of India’s foremost agricultural scientists andhas also been concerned with various aspects of biodiversity conservation both of cultivars and wild biodiversity.

Madhav Gadgil is a well known ecologist in India..

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M C Mehta is undoubtedly India’s most famous environmental lawyer.

His most famous and long drawn battles supported by the Supreme Court include protecting the Taj Mahal, cleaning up the Ganges River banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast,

initiating Government to implement environmental education in schools and colleges, and a variety of other conservation issues.

Anil Agarwal was a journalist who wrote the first report on the ‘State of India’s Environment’ in 1982.

He founded the Center for Science and Environment which is an active NGO that supports various environ-mental issues.

Medha Patkar is known as one of India’s champions who has supported thecause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river.

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Sunderlal Bahugna’s Chipko Movement has become an internationally well-known example of a highly successful conservation action program through the efforts of local people for guarding their forest resources.

His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragile earthquake prone setting is a battle that he continues to wage.

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Environmental studies is the systematic study of human interaction with their environment.

It is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, built environments, social environments, organizational environments, and the sets of relationships between them.

Environmental studies is distinct from ecology and environmental science.

Current environmental problems have evolved into a complex set of interdisciplinary issues involving ecological, political, economic, social, as well as physical and biological considerations.

Modern environmental studies must include the study of the urban environment as well as the natural environment.

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•Albert Einsteinsstatement

“Science without philosophy is just


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Environmental Law Supreme Court of India

The Supreme Court of India has become one of the most progressive courts in the world when it comes to environmental protection.

Closing down companies that continue to pollute the environment as well as making it mandatory for TV and radio stations to run environmental programme.

MC Metta is at the forefront of the development of public interest environmental law globally.

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• M C Mehta is undoubtedly India’s most famous environmental lawyer.

• His most famous and long drawn battles supported by the Supreme Court include protecting the Taj Mahal,

• cleaning up the Ganges River• banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast,

• initiating Government to implement environmental education in schools and colleges, and a variety of other conservation issues.

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Mahesh Chandra Mehta

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• Medha Patkar is known as one of India’s champions who has supported the

• cause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river.

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Sunderlal Bahuguna (born 9 January 1927) is a noted environmentalist,

Chipko movement leader and a follower of Mahatma Gandhi's

philosophy of Non-violence and Satyagraha.

For years he has been fighting for the preservation of forests in the

Himalayas, first as a member of the Chipko movement in 1970s, and

later spearheaded the Anti-Tehri Dam movement starting 1980s, to

early 2004[3]. He was one of the early environmentalists of India and

later he and people associated with the Chipko movement later started

taking up environmental issues, like against large dams, mining and

deforestation, across the country.

He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian

honour, on January 26, 2009[2] and padma award on April 14, 2009.

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• Sunita Narain is an Indian environmentalist and political activist as well as a major proponent of the Green concept of sustainable development. Narain has been with the India-based Centre for Science and Environment since 1982. She is currently the director of the Centre and the director of the Society for Environmental Communications and publisher of the fortnightly magazine, Down To Earth.

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• Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (born August 20, 1940) has served as the chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) since 2002. He is also been director general of TERI, a research and policy organization in India, and chancellor of TERI University. He has also been the chairman of the governing council of the National Agro Foundation (NAF), as well as the chairman of the board of Columbia University's International Research Institute for Climate and Society. Pachauri has been outspoken about climate change. He is now serving as the head of Yale's Climate and Energy Institute (YCEI).

• At the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony when the award was shared between Al Gore and the IPCC on December 10, 2007, Pachauri represented the IPCC.[2][3]

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