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  • 7/23/18


    Dyslexia Screening for Teachers and Special Education Professionals

    Madeline ArmstrongConsultant Psychologist

    July, 2018 1Presentation Title Arial Bold 7 pt

    What is Dyslexia?

    What does Dyslexia look like in the classroom?

    Confusing sounds

    Difficulty rhyming

    Difficulty chunking syllables

    Spelling sounds as they sound (e.g. torl

    for tall

    Mixing up sequence of letters (e.g. hlep

    for help)

    Reversing sequence of letters

    Letter and digit reversals3Presentation Title Arial Bold 7 pt

    Missing out a letter

    Adding an extra letter

    Lots of ideas but difficulty putting them in

    writing - takes much longer

    Immediately forgetting whats just been


    Slow and effortful reading

    Missing out words or skipping lines as they


    What does Dyslexia look like in the classroom? (cont)

    4Presentation Title Arial Bold 7 pt

    Avoidance of tasks

    Difficulties concentrating

    Short attention spans

    Distracting others

    Anger / frustration

    Low self-esteem


    Dumb Stupid

    Isolation from peers


    What is Dyslexia?

    A pattern of learning difficulties characterised by problems with

    accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling



    Developmental difficulty in learning to read

    Life-long Other terms - learning

    disability or specific learning difficulty/disorder

    Estimated 4% of Australian students have a learning disorder

    How is Dyslexia Diagnosed?

  • 7/23/18


    DSM-V Specific Learning Disorder

    A neurodevelopmental disorder with a biological origin.

    Essential Features: 1. Persistent difficulties learning keystone academic skills, with onset during the

    years of formal schooling.2. The individuals performance of the affected academic skills is well below

    average for age. 3. The learning difficulties are readily apparent in the early school years in

    most individuals. 4. The learning difficulties are considered specific, for four reasons:

    1. Not attributable to intellectual disabilities 2. Cannot be attributed to more general external factors, such as economic or

    environmental disadvantage, chronic absenteeism, or lack of education as typically provided in the individuals community

    3. Cannot be attributed to a neurological or motor disorders, or to vision or hearing disorders

    4. May be restricted to one academic skills or domain (e.g. reading single words, retrieving or calculating numbers facts)


    DSM-V Criteria (cont)A. Difficulties learning and using academic skills, as indicated by the presence of at least

    one of the following symptoms that have persisted for at least 6 months, despite the provision of interventions that target those difficulties:

    i. Inaccurate or slow and effortful word reading ii. Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is readiii. Difficulties with spelling iv. Difficulties with written expressionv. Difficulties mastering number sense, number facts, or calculation vi. Difficulties with mathematical reasoning

    B. The affected skills are substantially and quantifiably below those expected for the individuals chronological age, and cause significant interference with academic or occupational performance or with activities of daily living, as confirmed by individually administered standardised achievement measures and comprehensive clinical assessment.


    DSM-V Criteria (cont)

    C. The learning difficulties begin during school-age years but may not become fully manifest until the demands for those affected academic skills exceed the individuals limited capacities

    D. The learning difficulties are not better accounted for by intellectual disabilities, uncorrected visual or auditory acuity, other mental or neurological disorders, psychosocial adversity, lack of proficiency in the language of academic instruction, or inadequate educational instruction.

    Comprehensive assessment and diagnosis can only be made by a Psychologist


    Functional Outcomes / Impact of SLD


    SLD can have negative functional consequences across the lifespan.

    Lower academic attainment

    Higher rates of high school dropout

    Lower rates of post-secondary education

    High levels of psychological distress

    Poorer overall mental health

    Higher rates of unemployment

    Lower incomes

    People with Dyslexia can do GREAT things! Response To Intervention (intervention)Criteria: A. .despite the provision of interventions that target those difficulties

    Targeted towards the individuals specific difficulties Evidence-based Multiple times per week For a duration of at least 6 months

    Until there is evidence to show this has been completed, a formal diagnosis cannot be given.


  • 7/23/18


    Response To Intervention (assessment)


    Tier 1 Tests Screening for Dyslexia

    Tier 1 - DST FamilyDyslexia Screening Tests (DST)

    Dyslexia Screening Test - Junior (DST-J) Age: 6;6 - 11;5 Admin time: 30mins Format: 1:1 administration

    Subtests: Rapid Naming, One Minute Reading, Phonemic Segmentation, Two Minute Spelling, Backwards Digit Span, Nonsense Passage Reading, One Minute Writing, Verbal Fluency, Rhyme, Vocabulary


    Dyslexia Screening Test - Secondary (DST-S) Age: 11;6 - 16;5 Admin time: 30mins Format: 1:1 administration

    Subtests: Rapid Naming, One Minute Reading, Phonemic Segmentation, Two Minute Spelling, Backwards Digit Span, Nonsense Passage Reading, One Minute Writing, Verbal Fluency, Rhyme, Vocabulary

    Tier 1 - Shaywitz DyslexiaScreen

    Age: Prep - Grade 3Admin time:

  • 7/23/18


    Tier - 2 Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT-III)

    Age: 4;6 - 79;11Admin Time: 15 - 45mins (flexible battery)Format: 1:1 administration, paper/pencilUser Level BAlternate Forms: A & B

    Composites: Readiness

    Basic Skills

    Reading Comprehension



    Subtests:Letter Identification

    Phonological Awareness

    Rapid Automatic Naming

    Word Identification

    Word Attack

    Word Comprehension

    Passage Comprehension

    Listening Comprehension

    Oral Reading Fluency

    WRMT-III (cont)Scoring - digital (Q-Global) or hand-scoring available


    WRMT-III (Cont)


    Tier - 2 Test of Written Language (TOWL-4)

    Age: 9 - 17;11Admin time: 60 - 90 minutesFormat: individual or group, paper/pencilUser Level B

    Subtests:VocabularySpellingPunctuation Logical Sentences Sentence Combining Contextual Conventions Story Composition


    Composites: Overall Writing Contrived Writing Spontaneous Writing

    Tier - 2 Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP-2)Age: 4 - 24;11 yearsAdmin Time: 40minsFormat: Individual, paper/pencilUser Level B

    Subtests:ElisionBlending Words Phoneme Isolation Memory for Digits Nonword Repetition Rapid Digit NamingRapid Letter Naming Blending Nonwords Segmenting Nonwords


    Composites:Phonological AwarenessPhonological MemoryRapid Symbolic Naming Alt. Phonological Awareness

    Tier - 2 Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-5)Age: 5 - 85+Admin time: 15-25mins for 5-7 years; 35-45mins 8years+Format: individual; digital (Qi or QG for scoring) or paper/pencil User Level BAlternate Forms - Blue and Green

    Subtests: Word Reading Sentence Comprehension Spelling Maths Computation

    Reading Composite also available when administering Word Reading and Sentence Comprehension.


  • 7/23/18


    WRAT-5 (Cont)


    Tier - 2 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III)Age: 4 - 50;11 yearsAdmin time: variable; flexible batteryFormat: individual; digital (Qi or QG for scoring); paper/pencilUser Level B


    WIAT-III (cont)


    WIAT-III (cont)


    WIAT-III (cont)


    Tier - 2 Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-3)

    Age: 4 - 25;11 yearsAdmin time: 15 - 80 mins (flexible battery)Format: individual; digital (Qi or QG for scoring); paper/pencilUser Level B

    Also a Brief version available.


  • 7/23/18


    KTEA-3 (Cont)


    KTEA-3 (cont)


    InterventionsLearning Difficulties Australia (LDA) Position Statement Examples of programs that follow an explicit structured approach to the teaching of reading include, but are not limited to programs such as

    Jolly Phonics Read Write Inc. Sounds-Write Get Reading Right The Multi-Lit suite of programs


    LDA is an association of teachers and other

    professionals dedicated to assisting students with

    learning difficulties through effective teaching practices

    based on scientific research



    Pearson Clinical Short Course (Statistics) -to upgrade to ULB

    User Level T - Teacher, Social Worker, Nurse, and Early Childhood Professional

    User Level B - Allied Health or Special Education Professional ** This applies to but is not limited to Undergraduate and Masters degrees in speech pathology, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and may include special education, medical and behavioural science.

    Core requirements: some tertiary level study completed covering basic psychometrics / standardised assessment and measurement / research methods

    If youre interested, please email madeline.armstrong@pearson.com to be included on the expressions of interest list.


    Useful Website / ResourcesLearning Difficulties Austr