Dyslexia Assessment: Looking at all the Angles Region 2 Education Service Center November 1, 2005 Brenda Taylor State Dyslexia Consultant

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  • Slide 1
  • Dyslexia Assessment: Looking at all the Angles Region 2 Education Service Center November 1, 2005 Brenda Taylor State Dyslexia Consultant
  • Slide 2
  • 2 Why Evaluate for Dyslexia?
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  • 3 Dyslexia Handbook Procedures: Students enrolling in public schools in Texas shall be assessed for dyslexia and related disorders at appropriate times (TEC 38.003(a)).
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  • 4 Dyslexia Handbook Procedures: Appropriate time depends upon multiple factors including: Students reading performance Reading difficulties Poor response to additional reading instruction (if placed in additional reading instruction) Teachers input Parents input Appropriate time is early The earlier the better
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  • 5 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 Proposed 300.304(c)(6): In evaluating each child with a disability under 300.304 300.306 (Evaluation Procedures), the evaluation is sufficiently comprehensive to identify all of the childs special education and related services needs, whether or not commonly linked to the disability category in which the child has been classified.
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  • 6 Comment section: Thus, proposed 300.304(c)(6) would emphasize the direct link between the evaluation and the IEP processes and should ensure that the evaluation is sufficiently comprehensive to inform the development of the childs IEP.
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  • 7 Diagnosis of Dyslexia by Regina Cicci, IDA Journal PERSPECTIVES, Fall, 1989, Vol. 15 No. 4 A good diagnosis is essential for a child with dyslexia or any other kind of learning disability. a diagnosis leads to a treatment plan or an evaluation leads to recommendations for teaching intervention.
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  • 8 Defining Dyslexia: Texas Education Code 38.003: A disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. (pg. 1, 44)
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  • 9 2003 Definition of Dyslexia Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
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  • 10 Dyslexia is a specific learning disability In contrast to the more general term learning disabilities More defined in terms of cognitive characteristics Reading disabilities affect at least 80% of the LD population most prevalent type of learning disability
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  • 11 ..that is neurological in origin. Converging evidence using functional brain imaging in adult dyslexic readers show a failure of left hemisphere posterior brain systems to function properly during reading
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  • 12 Brain Systems for Reading Occipito-temporal (word form) Parieto-temporal (word analysis) Brocas area Inferior frontal gyrus (articulation/word analysis) Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia, 2003
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  • 13 Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia, 2003 A neural signature for dyslexia: Underactivation of neural systems in the back of the brain
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  • 14 Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia, 2003 Dyslexic readers use compensatory systems to read
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  • 15 Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia, 2003 Effective reading interventions result in brain repair
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  • 16 These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language..... In order to read, a child has to: develop the insight that spoken words can be pulled apart into phonemes and that the letters in a written word represent these sounds.
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  • 17 Phonology refers to the sounds and sound sequences that we process and/or produce Semantics knowledge of specific words and their meanings Syntax methodology of joining words to form meaningful sentences, incorporating the rules of grammar Discourse language that goes beyond the sentence level (i.e., passages and paragraphs) Language Ladder
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  • 18 READING Decoding Word Identification Comprehension Meaning DYSLEXIA Language SystemReading Discourse Syntax Semantics PhonologyDecoding Comprehension ]
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  • 19....that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.
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  • 20 Characteristics It is characterized by: Difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition Poor spelling Poor decoding abilities
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  • 21 Outcomes Secondary consequences may include: Problems in reading comprehension Reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
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  • 22 Research: The Connecticut Longitudinal Study Drs. Bennett and Sally Shaywitz 24 randomly chosen Connecticut public schools during 1983-1984 school year 445 children enrolled in study who have been regularly monitored
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  • 23 Findings: There is an unbroken continuum of reading ability and reading disability referred to as a dimensional model. Reading difficulties affect approximately one child in five. No significant difference in prevalence of reading disabilities for boys and girls
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  • 24 Dyslexia is not only common, but it is persistent it does not represent a temporary lag in reading development. If a child is dyslexic early in school, that child will continue to experience reading problems unless he is provided with a scientifically based, proven intervention. Phonemic awareness is the best predictor of the ability to read words accurately and quickly.
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  • 25 Assessment: Understanding the Process Districts must establish written procedures Procedures begin when students continue to struggle with one or more components or reading
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  • 26 Data Gathering Must collect additional information about the student Information used to: Evaluate the students academic progress Determine actions needed for students improved academic performance
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  • 27 Data Gathering Vision/hearing Teacher reports Basal series reading assessments Accommodations/ Modifications (classroom teacher) Academic progress reports Samples of school work Parent conferences Testing for LEP Speech/language (referral process) K-2 reading instrument State assessment results
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  • 28 Data Gathering Information: About the student From students cumulative folder Teachers observations/accommodations Parent
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  • 29 Data Gathering Example: Alice/5 th grade student Attended a transitional program between kindergarten and first grade First grade: parent conference documentation indicating difficulties with phonics and reading; TPRI - SD in 3 out of 4 phonemic awareness skills Second grade: TPRI indicates SD in the majority of areas assessed
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  • 30 Data Gathering: Example Teacher information: Difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension Listening comprehension stronger than reading comprehension Difficulty with spelling
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  • 31 Data Gathering: Example Parent information: Family history for reading difficulties Student has received private tutoring during the summers
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  • 32 Data Gathering District may recommend for assessment for dyslexia IF: Poor performance in reading UNEXPECTED for students age/grade Characteristics of dyslexia
  • Slide 33
  • 33 Procedures for Assessment Notify parents or guardians of proposal to assess student for dyslexia (504) Inform parents or guardians of their rights under 504 Obtain parent permission to assess the student for dyslexia; and Administer measures only by individuals /professionals who are trained in assessment to evaluate students for dyslexia and related disorders (19 TAC 74.28)
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  • 34 Dyslexia Handbook: Characteristics Difficulty reading single words in isolation; Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense or unfamiliar words; Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (lack of reading fluency); and/or Difficulty with learning to spell
  • Slide 35
  • 35 Difficulties are the result of: Difficulty with the development of phonological awareness Difficulty learning the names of letters and their associated sounds Difficulty with phonological memory Difficulty with rapid naming
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  • 36 Phonological Awareness Rhyming/alliteration Words in a sentence Syllable Onset-Rime Phonemes Isolation Blending Segmentation Deletion Addition Substitution
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  • 37 Rapid Naming Effective retrieval of phonological information from memory Has been found as another core deficit in development dyslexia Predictive of readi