dyslexia 101

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Dyslexia 101. Presented by Kara Bratton Lutheran Special Education Ministries. Dyslexia: Simulation. When you see: Pronounce as: q d or t zm p b b p y s er a, as in bate , as in pet e, as in peta , as in bat - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Academic presentation for college course (textbook design)

Dyslexia 101Presented by Kara BrattonLutheran Special Education Ministries

1Dyslexia: SimulationWhen you see:Pronounce as:qd or tzmpbbpysera, as in bate, as in pete, as in peta, as in bat

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/experiences/readexp1a.html

Im going to start by giving you a glimpse of what a person with dyslexia may experience when trying to read. This may help you start to understand dyslexia before we dive into educational jargon and definitions. This simulation is taken from the pbs website listed at the bottom of the screen. So, first, take a look at the letters on the left and see how that sound is pronounced in our simulation as referenced on the right. Youll need all these sounds as you read so make sure you get them all down!2Dyslexia: SimulationPassage:We pegin our qrib eq a faziliar blace, a poqy like yours enq zine.Iq conqains a hunqraq qrillion calls qheq work qogaqhys py qasign.Enq wiqhin each one of qhese zany calls, each one qheq hes QNA,Qhe QNA coqe is axecqly qhe saze, a zess-broquceq rasuze.So qhe coqe in each call is iqanqical, a razarkaple puq veliq claiz.Qhis zeans qheq qhe calls are nearly alike, puq noq axecqly qhe saze.Qake, for insqence, qhe calls of qhe inqasqines; qheq qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain.Now qhink apouq qhe way you woulq qhink if qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/experiences/readexp1a.html

Now that you know all the sounds needed, take a minute and read this passage to yourself. We just went over all those sounds, so you shouldnt have any trouble.3Dyslexia: SimulationHere is the translation:We begin our trip at a familiar place, a body like yours and mine.It contains a hundred trillion cells that work together by design.And within each one of these many cells, each one that has DNA,The DNA code is exactly the same, a mass-produced resume.So the code in each cell is identical, a remarkable but valid claim.This means that the cells are nearly alike, but not exactly the same.Take, for instance, the cells of the intestines; that they're vital is certainly plain.Now think about the way you would think if those cells were the cells in your brain.

(Excerpt from "Journey into DNA" on the "Cracking the Code" Web site, NOVA Online.)

So how did you do? Assuming you found the exercise difficult (that was our intention), consider that we disguised only eight of the forty-four known phonemes in the English language. And imagine if this weren't a game.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/experiences/readexp1a.html

Now that youve tried to read the passage yourself with different levels of success depending on each of you individually, read what the passage actually would have said if you remembered all the letter-sound correspondences. How did each of you do? Was it frustrating? Time consuming? Would you have been able to answer questions about that passage based on your initial reading? As we spend some time going through facts and information about dyslexia this evening, refer back to the experience you just had and realize that this is what students in your classroom with dyslexia go through every time they have to read.4Dyslexia: Definition Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.(International Dyslexia Association, www.interdys.org)I wont spend too much time on the long definition of dyslexia, but it is good to know or have an idea of the full definition from the International Dyslexia Association, focusing on the few highlighted area that well talk about in more detail as we go on this hour.5Dyslexia: Just the FactsDyslexia IS:An unexpected difficulty with reading, spelling, writingA language-based learning disability affecting 15-20% of the populationA difficulty with phonological processingA lifelong difficulty Hereditary

Dyslexia is NOT:A visual difficulty (seeing letters backwards/differently)Low intelligenceLazinessCaused by parents not reading to their childSomething to be cured or outgrown

Go through list addressing some of the common thoughts and misconceptions about what dyslexia is and isnt. First bullet: unexpected difficulty refers to many individuals with dyslexia having average to above average intelligence so one wouldnt expect reading to be such as issue given that profile. Second Bullet: When I say 15-20% of the population, understand that this covers a large spectrum, including those who havent been formally identified, but have struggled to some degree with reading, spelling and/or writing. First bullet point on what dyslexia is not: dyslexia is a difficulty with phonological processing and has a neurological base, not a visual base so even though it may appear that students are seeing things incorrectly or backward, that is just a result of the difficulties their brain has in processing written letters, words and sounds, not visually seeing the word. Second bullet point: most dyslexia individual have average to above average intelligence so dyslexia is not due to a lack of intelligence or a lack of being read to at home or being lazy and if they just try harder they would get it. Last bullet point: Despite what you may hear Tom Cruise say, dyslexia can not be cured. Remediation can be done to lessen the effects of dyslexia and help students become better at these skills, but effects of dyslexia will be lifelong, whether that means things will always take individuals longer or spelling will always be somewhat of an issue, etc.6Dyslexia: Sea of Strengths

The Sea of Strengths Model of Dyslexia was coined by Sally Shaywitz, leading dyslexia researcher at the Yale Center for dyslexia and creativity. Even though individuals with dyslexia typically have a weakness in word decoding, there are many strengths and gifts exhibited by people with dyslexia, such as art, design, drama, electronics, music and sports just to name a few. Talk about example of Christian, dyslexic boy I have tutored who made World Speed Skating Team even though severely dyslexic and still has trouble reading. Ask participants to think of children they know who struggle to read and think of other strengths they have in these areas and areas of art, sports, music. Lots of research done in this area to show that in many individuals with dyslexia, right side of brain is more highly activated than in non-dyslexic individuals, accounting for many strengths that individuals with dyslexia have. See Successful Dyslexics page in resource section to get an idea of people with dyslexia who show other strengths that the world easily recognizes.7Dyslexia: Signs Difficulty with phonological and phonemic awarenessDifficulty learning letters and their soundsDifficulty recognizing and remembering common sight words and words previously seen in writingDifficulty blending and/or segmenting sounds and wordsDifficulty spellingDifficulty organizing written and spoken languageDifficulty with fluent, accurate reading and oral readingImportant to note that not all students with any or all of these difficulties have dyslexia and that not all students with dyslexia exhibit all of these signs. Individuals with dyslexia are all unique and may show different signs to varying degrees and at different times. Some young children show signs very early on while others seem to learn how to read initially and hit a wall later on, or just continue to read at a slower rate or show more difficulty with written work and spelling. The impact dyslexia has on an individual will be different for each individual depending on the severity of the dyslexia and also depending on what remediation was done and when in the individuals education remediation began. The earlier intervention begins, the better it will be for the individual. If students begin showing signs in preschool or kindergarten, DO NOT WAIT to begin remediation or working on skills that are difficult. Do not think the child will outgrow it or that you need to wait until the child is in 3rd grade for the reading disability to be identified. It is possible with school screenings and assessments to identify potential reading difficulties in young children before the difficulties turn into reading failure and before dyslexia may be formally identified also. Screenings such as DIBELS, AIMSWeb can help identify areas a child is struggling with and remediation can be planned based on that information before a formal evaluation is done.8Dyslexia: Signs Difficulty memorizing number facts and other rote memory itemsPronunciation difficulties and difficulty with word retrievalDifficulty remembering spoken directions or names of people and placesDifficulty with sense of directionDifficulty with sequencesInconsistent with reading and/or spelling

9Dyslexia: DiagnosisEvaluation necessary by professional (educational psychologist, neuropsychologist, etc.)Evaluation typically includes intellectual and academic tests, focusing on language skills and also a dyslexia screener is often usedListening skills, expressive language skills, phonological skills, rapid naming skills, reading words in isolation and in context, etc.Evaluation is important to understand the unique strengths and weaknesses of a student to develop a plan, not to create a label

If you as a teacher or a parent suspects